(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (May 1978) Volume 04 Number 03"

• 



• 



• 



May-June 1978 
vol 4, no 3 





I 



the #1 magazine of computer applications and software 



Special Section on 
Computer Art & Animation 



Business Computing: Payroll 



Austria Sch 43 00 

Belgium BF 94.00 

Canada $2.50 

Denmark Kr 15.00 

Finland Mk 9 00 

France F 12 00 

Germany DM 6 00 

Great Britain £ 1.30 

Greece Dr 87 00 

Holland Df 17 00 

Italy L 2000 

Norway Kr 13 00 

Portugal Esc 73 00 

Spain Ptas 160 00 

Sweden Kr 1 1 00 

Switzerland SF 6 00 

USA $2.00 




Computer Games: 

• Oregon Trail 

• Art Auction 

• Black Box » 



Computer Chess 



The Perfect Puzzle? 



-s. 



Budget in BASIC 



The Mechanical Mouse 



Modelling the Cat Falling 



Beginner's View of SAM76 



Is Binary Search "Natural"? 



READY lor BUSINESS 

We've got it all together—the cost effectiveness and reliability of our 6800 computer system 
with a high capacity 1.2 megabyte floppy disk system. . . PLUS— an outstanding new DOS 
and file management system. 





1 MEGABYTE DISK SYSTEM type contro „ er and double sided disks give the 

DMAF1 introduces a new level of capability to system speed of data transfer unobtainable with 

small computer systems. This disk system fea- smaller drives, 
tures two standard size floppy disk drives using 

the new double sided disk and two heads per OPERATING SYSTEM 

drive. Usable storage space of over 600 kilobytes To c o m P'i™ent this outstanding hardware we 

per drive, giving a total of over 1.0 megabyte of are su PP'y in g equally superior software. The 

storage on line at all times. Ideal for small busi- disk operating system and file management sys- 

ness applications, or for personal "super" sys- tem is ca,led FLE ><- ! * «s one of the most flex- 

tems. ' ble and complete DOS's available for small sys- 
tems, but just as important; it is easy to use. 
No one can match the variety of compatible 

DMA CONTROLLER peripherals offered by Southwest Technical 
The controller occupies one main memory slot Products for the SS-50 bus and the 6800 corn- 
in an SS-50 bus and uses the Motorola MC-6844 pu ter system. Now more than ever there is no 
DMA controller. The combination of a DMA reason to settle for less. 

DMAF1 Disk System (assembled) $2,095.00 

DMAF1 Disk System (kit) $2,000.00 

68/2 Computer with 40K of memory (assembled) $1,195.00 




SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

219 W. RHAPSODY 

SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78216 



CIRCLE 101 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



00 
<7> 



- 

o 
r> 

a> 

c 

r. 
u 

>. 
o 

c 
o 

I 



c 
u 

<X> 



a 
a 

« 



re 

JL 
% 

c 

re 

£ 

a 

E 
o 
u 

a 

a> 



a> 

E 
o 

c 

a 



D 



3 

o 

>s 

o 

E 
</> 



3 

a 

E 
o 
u 

0) 

E 
o 



8 * 



o 



» 2 



re 



^™ re 



a 

I < 



re 

c 
o 

i 



O ^ 

— a> 

o c 

c o 

C -* 

re $ 

a> o 

0. ** 



CD 



Si, 

>. tj • 

«" C S> 

re re >« 
* E £ 

£ «fl 3 

>> £*> 

c • 9 
2 ® c 

5 «5 

o .c a. 

ana 

W C\J CO 



c 

3 

a 

E 
o 
o 

> 
re 

O 

o 

>» 
a 
o 
o 

</> 



I 



re 
a 

® 
a 

£ c 

1° 

u 



0) 

o 
E 

a 

£ 

a 

CO 



o 

a 

eg 

a> 

c 
o 

a 



0) 

c 
o 



30-39 
60 and 


e 

«> 

c 


DD 


o 


CO U3 


c 
o 



eg uo 



o eg 
& §3 



^ >» 



re » 

o w £ 

</» x: 

«/» £ re 



c 

E 

c 



>•« r o » 

— O <* 3 > 

DO. IUJ(D 



0> 

x: 



eg uo 
eg uo 

DD 2 



DDDDDD 



D 

■ 
c 

* o>.c 

■ 

o 
a 

E 

« 



U0 O Q 

eg co o 

6 uo O 

eg evi co 

-DDD 

£ ^ UO uo 

o 



3 

o 

>. 

4) 



re 



a> 

ill 

- ® 2 



■ 
D 

c c 

re o 

c z. 

iT" re 

^t r 

°» 2 

c a 

5 * 



5 °° 1 



c 2 £ '« c c 
2 a O cc cd *- 

aaaaaa 




c/> 

3 
O) 

3 

< 

05 

a 
x 

LU 

00 

CJ) 

a) 

c 

3 



■ 

a. 
re 

• MM 

i. 

o 



a 



(0 



0) 



I 1 1 1 2- 5 

u> co t; u — ^ 
O Z »- < O CO 



c 
o 

re 
E 
o 

"c 

c 



3 

o 

>. 

c 
o 

£ 



E 

3 
C 

.C 

u 
re 
a> 



<A 

re 



OU0 Q UOQ 

OOOOCndO 

r- »-»-»- eg 


UO O UO o uo 

o »- »- eg eg 
eg eg eg eg eg 


o uo o uo o 
eo eo ^- ^r uo 
eg eg eg eg eg 


O ^ CD t* O) 

r^ co oo CD <D 


^T CD ^r CD tj 

OO'-'-CM 

eg eg eg eg eu 


CD ^ CD ^ CD 

eg eo eo rr ^r 
eg eg eg eg eg 


CO co 00 eo oo 
f^ CO CO CD CD 


co oo eo oo eo 

OO'-'-W 
eg eg eu eg eg 


00 CO CO CO CO 

eg eo co ^ ^t 
eg eg eg eg eg 


r>- eg f^- eg r- 
f>«- 00 00 CD CD 


eg f^ eg r^ eg 

OO'-'-W 

eg eg eg eg eg 


r* eg t^ eg r*. 
eg eo eo ^r ^r 
eg eg eu eg eg 


(O »- t£> »- <p 
r~ 00 CO CD CD 


»-(D'-(D'- 
OO'-'-CM 

eg eg eg eg eg 


to »- <o »- <D 
eg eo eo t ^ 
eg eg eg eg eg 


uO O UO O UO 

O »- »- eg eg 


ouoo uoo 
eo co ^ ^ uo 


uo o uo o uo 

uo to <o r*» f»- 


■^ CD ^r CD ^ 

OOr-^W 


CD 'T CD ^ CD 

eg eo eo ^ n 


uo uo to <o r^ 


eo oo co oo co 


ao eo co co oo 
euco co ^r , ^' 


eo oo co co co 
uo uo to <0 t^- 


eg t-^ eg r~ eg 

oO'-'-cg 


f^ eg r«- egr«- 
eg co co ^t ^ 


eg r- eg r^- eg 
uo uo to to r^ 


»- <P «- <D »- 
OO'-i-CVJ 


«3 y- to *- <£> 
eg co co ^ ^ , 


»- <o «- <o »- 
uo uo to to r^ 



0) 

a> 




2"S o 
'i S r 

© m ° 

£ "° 
2 § I 1 

3 «" IB 

<?j5 o 

3 e : 

C 3 0) 

re c o 
E » E 

W O ♦* 

5 > ° 
2 a*- 

re El 

E '«> o 

o.E^ 

= ^2 



t w» a> 

§ =£ 

>5x 

_ *< •* 

■= re « 

u. x: ^ 

•- 

•; w 3 

3 a) O 

O K >■ 

■° O „ 

re xi 3 

C 0) o 

° -c -2 

~ •» re 



m 

i 



n 2 • 



E "5 

z id 

O £ 
I 

(A 

•: w> 

E « 

re »- 

* -a 

3 «■ 

a, « 

.2 oj 

2 I 

a- re 

5» c 



c 
o 

*^ 

h 

o E 

>*- 

C -D 

— C 

— re 
2 a 

£ E 

a) re 

a> 
E"2 

O re 




o 

- O 



fO o> 

CO 



CO 

s. 



o 
S 



S3 

SO. 



X 




■o 


1 


Q> 


Dp 




3 

T3 


O 

m 



Now we can announce it 
the mult i- disk drive 



9OX10096 

BLO 

DAT* DOMAIN 

406 i 

FORT WA>M 
DATA DOMAIN 
280S E. STATE BLVD. 



:+-3607 




(219)484-7611 



WKESVIUE, MO 

MODULAR SYSTEMS, INC. 

4005 SEVEN Mi 301)414-6323 

♦ 
KOCKVILLE.MD 
COMPUTER WORKSHOP 
1776 EAST JEFFERSON (301)468046 1 

TOWSON, MD 

COMPUTERS, ETC. 

13 A ALLEGHENY AVENUE (901)296-0520 

• 
BURLINGTON, MA 
THE COMPUTER STORE 
120 CAMBRIDGE STREET (617) 27*8770 

• 
EDINA, MN 

COMPUTER DEPOT 
3515 W 70TH STREET (612) 927-5601 

• 
ISELI^ 

COMPUTER MART OF NEW JERSEY 
501 ROUTE #27 (201) 283-0600 

• 
EGGERTSVILLE, NY 

CORSON COMPUTER CORPORATION 
3834 MAIN STREET (716)832-0662 

MOLLIS, NY 

SYNCHRO SOUND ENTERPRISES 

193-25 JAMAICA AVENUE (212) 468-7067 

• 
CINCINNATI, OH 
DATA DOMAIN 
7694 CAMARGO ROAD (513) 561-6733 

• 
DAYTON, OH 
DATA DOMAIN 
1932 BROWN STREET (513)223-2348 

• 
COLUMBIA, SC 

BYTE SHOP OF COLUMBIA 
2018 GREEN STREET (803) 771 7824 

• 
NASHVILLE, TN 
SURYA CORPORATION 
5755 NOLENSVILLE ROAD (615) 834-5638 

• 
CORPUS CHRIST I. TX 
MICRO SYSTEMS SERVICES, INC. 
5301EVERHART.SPACLH (512)855 4516 

• 
OALLAS, TX 
COMPUSHOP 
211 KEYSTONE PK, 13922 NORTH CENTRAL (214) 234-3412 

• 
HOUSTON, TX 

COMPUTERLAND OF S. W. HOUSTON 
6439 WESTHEIMER (713) 9770909 

HOUSTON, TX 

ELECTROTEX 

2300 RICHMOND AVENUE (713) 5264934 

• $ 

HOUSTON, TX 
THE MOS 
1853 RICHMOND AVENUE (713) 527-8008 

• 
APPLETON.WI 
SOUND WORLD 
3015 W. WISCONSIN AVE. (414) 733-8539 

• 
RACINE, Wl 
COLORTRON TV 
2111 LATHROP AVENUE (414)6372003 

• 
HUNTINGDON, CAMBS. ENGLAND 
COMART LIMITED 
39 GORDON ROAD, LITTLE PAXTON 

• 
MUNSTER, 4400 HILTRUP, WEST GERMANY 
BASIS MICROCOMPUTER VERTRIEB 
VON-FLOTOWSTRABE 5 

• 
Wl DEI 2000 (HOLSTEIN), WEST GERMANY 
DIGITRONIC COMPUTERSYSTEME 
BE1 DER DOPPELEICHE 3 $ 

• 
MEXICO 18, OF MEXICO 
INTELEX, S. A. 
P A, DE LOS SANTOS 70 

• 

STOCKHOLM 29, SWEDEN 
DATORISERING KONSULT AB 
FACK 2, 10052 

• 

ZURICH, 8003 SWITZERLAND 
COMICRO AG 
BADENERSTRASSE 281 



A fast Z80 microcomputer with up to 512 kilobytes of RAM 

4 disk drives and 1 megabyte of disk storage— with CRT 

terminal and fast printer. Even an optional PROM program 

mer. Strong software support, too, like FORTRAN IV, 

Extended BASIC, and Macro Assembler. 



PROFESSIONAL GRADE— 
FOR PROFESSIONALS 

Chances are you've already heard 
that there is a Cromemco System 
Three Computer. We've proudly pre- 
viewed it at WESCON on the West 
Coast and NYPC on the East Coast. 

It's a complete system — processor, 
CRT terminal, line printer. 

First it's fast — 1 microsecond nom- 
inal execution time and 250 nano- 
second cycle time. 

Its equally fast RAM memory is 
large and enormously expandable — 
32 kilobytes expandable to 512 kilo- 
bytes. No danger of obsolescence 
from inadequate RAM capacity. 

THE ONLY MICROCOMPUTER 
OFFERING 4 DISK DRIVES 

Further, the System Three comes 
with two disk drives to give you 512 
kilobytes of disk storage. Soft- 
sectored IBM format. Optionally, you 
can have four drives with 1 mega- 
byte of storage. 

There's disk protection, too, since 
in the LOCK position disks can't be 
ejected while they are running. 

21 -SLOT MOTHERBOARD 

This new CS-3 is a computer that 
won't be outdated soon. It has a 21- 



card-slot slide-out motherboard and 
an S-100 bus so that you can plug in 
all sorts of support circuitry. The 
heavy-duty 30-amp power supply can 
easily handle all this. 

BROAD S-100 SUPPORT 

The S-100 is the bus that Cro- 
memco so strongly supports with 
over a dozen plug-in circuits ranging 
from analog I/O to high-speed RAM 
memory with our bank-select feature. 

TRULY POWERFUL SOFTWARE 

You have to have software. And 
Cromemco is far in front there, too. 
Our FORTRAN IV, for example, is 
equal to the FORTRAN compilers 
on large mainframes. Further, it (and 
our other software) is low-priced. 

Our 16K Z80 BASIC is one of the 
fastest and most capable. Full 14- 
digit precision. 

There's also our Z80 Macro As- 
sembler and Linking Loader. Uses 
Z80 mnemonics. Allows referencing 
FORTRAN common blocks. 

SEE AT YOUR DEALER 

You have to see the CS-3 to fully 
appreciate it and its low prices start- 
ing at $5990 in the rack mount ver- 
sion. 
Better contact your dealer now. 



n 



Cromemco 



CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^^^^J Specialists in computers and peripherals 



2400 CHARLESTON RD., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94043 • (415) 964-7400 



^^^^^M 



I is the world's 
st selling personal computer. 





W 





hich personal computer will be 
most enjoyable and rewarding for you? 
Since we delivered our first Apple® II 
in April, 1977, more people have chosen 
our computer than all other personal 
computers combined. Here are the 
reasons Apple has become such an 
overwhelming favorite. 

Apple is a fully tested and assembled 
mainframe computer. You won't need 
to spend weeks and months in assembly. 
Just take an Apple home, plug it in, 
hook up your color TV* and any cassette 
tape deck — and the fun begins. 

To ensure that the fun never stops, 
and to keep Apple working hard, weVe 
spent the last year expanding the Apple 
system. There are new peripherals, 
new software, and a 16-chapter Owner's 
Manual on "How to Program in BASIC." 
There's even a free Apple magazine 
to keep owners on top of what's new. 

Apple is so powerful and easy to use 
that you'll find dozens of applications. 



There are Apples in major universities, 
helping teach computer skills. There 
are Apples in the office, where they're 
being programmed to control inven- 
tories, chart stocks and balance the 
books. And there are Apples at home, 
where they can help manage the family 
budget, control your home's environ- 
ment, teach arithmetic and foreign 
languages and, of course, enable you 
to create hundreds of sound and 
action video games. 

When you buy an Apple II you're 
investing in the leading edge of 
technology. Apple was the first com- 
puter to come with BASIC in ROM, 
for example. And the first computer 
with up to 48K bytes RAM on one 
board, using advanced, high density 
16K devices. We're working to keep 
Apple the most up-to-date personal 
computer money can buy. Apple II 
delivers the features you need to 



enjoy the real satisfaction a personal 
computer can bring, today and 
in the future. 

15 colors & hi-resolution 
graphics, too. 

Don't settle for a black and white 
, display! Connect your Apple to 

a color TV and BASIC 
gives you instant 
command of 
three display 
modes: Text, 
40h x 48v Color- 
graphics in 15 colors, 
and a 280h x 192v High 
Resolution array that lets 
you plot graphs and com- 
se 3-D images. Apple gives 
the added capability of 
ombining text and graphics, too. 

Back to basics, and 
assembly language too. 

Apple speaks three languages: fast 
integer BASIC, floating point BASIC 
for scientific and financial applications, 
and 6502 assembly language. That's 
maximum programming flexibility. And, 
to preserve user's space, both integer 
BASIC and monitor are permanently 
stored in 8K bytes of ROM, so you 
have an easy to use, universal language 
instantly available. BASIC gives you 
graphic commands: COLOR =, VLIN, 
HLIN, PLOT and SCRN. And direct 
memory access, with PEEK, POKE 
and CALL commands. 

Software: 
Ours and yours. 

There's a growing selection of pre- 
programmed software from the Apple 
Software Bank — Basic 
Finance, Checkbook, High 
Resolution Graphics and ^^^^^m 
more. Now there's a User ^^N 
Section in our bank, to make 
it easy for you to obtain 
programs developed 






by other Apple owners. Our Software 
Bank is your link to Apple owners all 
over the world. 

Alive with 
the sound 
of music. 

Apple's ex- 
clusive built-in 
speaker delivers 

the added dimension of sound to your 
programs. Sound to compose electronic 
music. Sound to liven up games and 
educational programs. Sound, so that 
any program can "talk" back to you. 
That's an example of Apple's "people 
compatible" design. Another is its light, 
durable injection molded case, so you 
can take Apple with you. And the 
professional quality, typewriter-style 
keyboard has n-key rollover, for fast, 
error-free operator interaction. 

pie is the 
proven computer. 

Apple is a state-of-the-art single 
board computer, with advanced LSI 
design to keep component count to a 
minimum. That makes it more reliable. 
If glitches do occur, the fully socketed 
board and built-in diagnostics sim- y 
plify troubleshooting. In fact, on our 
assembly line, we use Apples to *■■*■ 
test new Apples. 



Apple peripherals 
are smart peripherals. 

Watch the far right column of 
this ad each month for the latest in our 
growing family of peripherals. We call 
them "intelligent interfaces" They're 
smart peripherals, so you can plug 
them in and run them from BASIC 
without having to develop custom soft- 
ware. No other personal computer 
comes close to Apple's expandability. 
In addition to the built-in video inter- 
face, cassette I/O, two A/D game pad- 
dles, and two more A/D inputs, Apple 
has eight peripheral slots, three TTL 
inputs and four TTL outputs. Plus a 
powerful, state-of-the-art switching 
power supply that can drive all your 
Apple peripherals, including two disks. 

Available now. 

Apple is in stock and ready for 
delivery at a store near you. Call us for 
the dealer nearest you. Or, for more 
details and a copy of our "Consumer 
Guide to Personal Computers," call 

800/538-9696 
or write Apple 
Computer, Inc., 
10260 Bandley 
Drive, Cupertino, 
CA 95014. 




New from A 





t»(*f >lc.i H 





apple computer 



® 



CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Programming is a snap! 
I'm halfway through Apple's BASIC 
manual and already I've programmed 
my own Star Wars game. 



Those math programs I wrote 
last week -I just rewrote them using 
Apple's mini-assembler and got them 

to run a hundred times faster. 



Introducing the Apple 
Communication Interface 

Apples of the world unite! Now 
you can, with our new intelligent com- 
munication interface card. Just plug 
it in and it turns your Apple into an 
intelligent terminal that can go on line 

with other terminals, 
time-sharing 
computers and, 
especially, with 
other Apples. 
You can even 
play Tele-Pong! 
Everything you 
need is on one 
small card. 
With a modem, 
it enables your 
Apple to communi- 
cate by phone at 110/300 baud RS232 
full duplex I/O. The card is fully as- 
sembled and tested and has all re- 
quired software in on board ROM. 
It's controlled by simple BASIC com- 
mands. And it's available from stock. 

Peripherals in stock 

Hobby Board , Parallel Printer Inter- 
face , Communication Interface . 

Coming soon 

High speed serial printer interface, 
General purpose serial interface, 
Printer II , Printer IIA , Disk II , 
Monitor II . 

|* Apple II plugs into any standard TV using 
an inexpensive modulator (not included). 



Apple's smart peripherals make 

expansion easy. Just plug 'em in and 

they're ready to run. I've already 

added two disks, a printer and the 

communications card. 




' 



WIRE CUTTING AND 

STRIPPING DISPENSEF 








*'+!& 



3 Rolls of wire in one convenient dispenser 

3 Colors, Blue/White/Red, 50 ft. (15m) of each color 

AWG 30 (0,25mm) KYNAR® insulated wire 

Built-in cutting plunger cuts wire to desired length 

Built-in stripper strips 1 " of insulation 

Easily refutable 

For wire-wrapping and other applications. 




WD-30-TRI 



$5.95 



R-30-TRI TRICOLOR REPLACEMENT SPOOLS $3.95 



Kynar " Pennwalt 



ilNIMUM BILLING $25.00/ ADD SHIPPING CHARGE $1.00 / NEW YORK STATE RESIDENT ADD APPLICABLE TAX 




E & TOOL CORPORATION 3455 CONNER ST. BRONX, N.Y. 10475 (212) 994-6600n*elex 12 



CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



in this issue . 

articles 



SPECIAL SECTION: 
COMPUTER ART & ANIMATION 

82 SynthaVision Elin 

3D computer graphics. 

84 Creating Computer Art Walter 

Different methods, with examples. 

88 Computer Animation Bellaire 

Out of the lab, onto tv. 

90 Sky Lighting Treib 

The Goodyear blimp's night-signs. 

92 Color Graphics Critchfield & Dwyer 

With a light-pen. 

96 The Digital Brush Hutchison 

Star Wars animation. 

100 Idols of Computer Art Mueller 

Six types of machine-generated art. 

107 Computer Art: Stargate Jacobson 

Program for a Tektronix 4051. 



30 

58 

60 
62 

64 

74 

108 



Beginner's View of SAM76 Kagan 

Introduction to a new language. 

Computer Chess Ahl 

Can a computer win? 

The Music Cassette Ahl 

If it's Right You Know It Schultz 

Careers in computers. 

What the Computer Taught Me Pasquino 

Is binary search "natural"? 

Tracking Right-Angle Searches Davidson 

A technique for mazes and games. 

BASIC Financial Behaviorism McGuire 

First steps toward a real budget. 



BUSINESS COMPUTING: PAYROLL 

1 9 Overview: 

Micros "Meet the Payroll" Murrow 

121 Osborne & 

Associates Borchers & Poole 

124 Radio Shack Gray 

126 MITS 

128 Scientific Research Inst. 



fiction & foolishness 

26 Computer Myths Explained (#3)... Wolverton 

34 Modelling the Cat Falling Petroski 

40 Marsport (Part 6) Sonntag 

54 Edu-Man Meets the Avon Lady Ahl 

115 What's a Programmer? Turner 

things to do - games 




46 

66 
68 

70 
131 
132 
140 
142 



The Mechanical 

Mouse Maniotes & Quasney 

Can you flowchart his maze path? 

Puzzles and Problems 

The Perfect Puzzle Yarbrough 

For computer mathematics? 

Computer Conversations 

Short Programs 

OREGON TRAIL Computer Game 

ART AUCTION ComputerGame Engel 

BLACK BOX Computer Game Kenton 

Winner of our contest. 



reviews & resources 

1 2 Compleat Computer Catalogue 

22 Radio Shack TRS-80 Gray 

User's manual, application programs. 

36 Ai 1000 Speech Synthesizer North 

Featuring our talking tennis game. 

42 OSI Challenger IIP Shapiro 

Plug it in, hook it up, and go! 

44 M.S.I. Floppy Disk North 

Profile of the FD-8. 

47 Electronic Battleship Gray 

A smart electronic game. 

52 Umtech VideoBrain Ahl 

Profile of a new computer. 

56 Encounter! North 

Profile of an 8080 combat game. 



departments 



6 Notices 

8 Editorial 

10 Input/Output 

To Reviews 



May- June 1978 Volume 4, Number 3 Consecutive Issue No. 21 

Creative Computing magazine is published bi-monthly by Creative Computing P.O. 
Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. (Editorial office: 51 Dumont Place, Morristown. NJ 
07960. Phone: (201) 540-0445.) 



Domestic Subscriptions: Institutional 1-year $15, 3-year $40; individual 1-year $8, 2- 
year $15, 3-year $21. Subscription orders, change of address, P.O. Form 3579 to 
Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. Call 800-631-8112 toll- 
free to order a subscription (to be charged only to a bank card). 



Copyright© 1978 by Creative Computing. All rights reserved. Reproduction prohibited. 
Printed in USA. 



Foreign Subscriptions. 

Great Britain: Institutional 1-year £9.40, 2-year £11.90. 3-year £25.00; Individual 1- 
year £6.25, 3-year £16.90. Orders to Vincent Coen, 313 Kingston Road. Ilford, Essex. 
IGI-IPJ, England. 

Europe: 1-year subscription. Austria Sch 180, Belgium BF 4000, Denmark Kr65, 
Finland Mr40, France Fr50, Germany DM25. Greece Dr360. Holland Dfl27, Italy L8500. 
Norway Kr55. Portugal Esc320, Spain Ptas 700. Sweden Kr45. Switzerland SF25 Orders 
to Pan Atlantic Computer Systems GmbH, Frankfurter Strasse 78, D61 Darmstadt, 
German Fed Rep. 

Australia: R. J. Hoess, Electronic Concepts Pty. Ltd , 52-58 Clarence St , Sydney NSW 
2000, Australia. 

Other Countries: 1-year $12, 2-year $23, 3-year $33 (surface postage, US dollars) 
Orders to Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960 

Second class postage paid at Morristown, New Jersey and at additional mailing offices. 



— 




Publisher 
David H. Ahl 

Editor-in-Chief 
Stephen B. Gray 

Managing Editor 
Burchenal Green 

Associate Editor 
Steve North 

Higher Education Editors 
Merl Miller 
A. Kent Morton 

Technology Editor 
Alan Salisbury 

Careers Editor 
Eleanor Corr 

Humor Editor 
Jack Ludwig 

Art Director 
Elyae J. Fox 

Marketing Manager 
Linda Harriton 

Bookkeeper 
Jeanne Tick 

Retail Marketing 
Linda Eckerstrom 

Customer Service 
Ethel Fisher 

Subscriptions 
Nancy Hammond 
Carol Cassata 

Book Service 
Barbara Shupe 
Katharine McKenzie 

Order Processing 
Thomas Bass 



Advertising Sales 

Western States, Texas 
Jules E. Thompson 
Hearst Building, Suite llll 
5 Third Street 
San Francisco, CA 94103 
(415) 362-8547 

Southern California 

Bert Charlton 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 

(213) 378-8361 



Mid- Atlantic, Northeast 
Charles Lynch 
36 Sohier Street 
Cohasset, MA 02025 
(617) 383-6136 



Elsewhere 
Burchenal Green 

(201 ) 540-0445 



MEMBER 





COMMITTII Of SMALL MACAIINI 
IDITOAS AND PUILISHIftS 



... notices... 



Inventory Systems 
and Computers 

The fourth annual lecture series spon- 
sored by The Department of Mathematical 
Sciences of The Johns Hopkins University 
and The Johns Hopkins Press, will be held 
in Baltimore June 12-16, 1978. The subject 
will be the analysis of inventory systems on 
computers. Included will be lectures, on- 
line computer demonstrations, and com- 
puter workshops. 

The principal speaker will be Professor 
Eliezer Naddor, who will present 10 Inven- 
tory Computer Modules covering such 
topics as Price-breaks, Probabilistic 
Demands and Leadtimes, Simulation, Op- 
timal and Heuristic Decisions, and Informa- 
tion Storage and Retrieval in Multi-Item 
Systems. His lectures will be accompanied 
by on-line demonstrations of all modules. 
Participants will be able to use the modules 
during the daily workshops. 

The registration fee is $300. It includes 10 
documented and illustrated computer 
programs, use of the university, five 
luncheons, and two dinners. 

Persons interested in presenting papers 
at the conference and/or giving on-line 
demonstrations on inventory systems and 
computers are invited to write to: 

1978 Lecture Series Committee Depart- 
ment of Mathematical Sciences, The Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. 



Our Face is Red 

In the article, "Structured Software for 
Personal Computing" in the March-April 
1978 issue (p 58), a line is missing at the top 
of the center column on page 60: 
"manageable set of relatively simple;" and 
Figures 9 and 10 on page 63 somehow got 

interchanged. 

* * * 

Also, in the Jan-Feb 1978 Catalogue, the 
price of the Integral Data Systems impact 
printer is given (p 16) as $475. We should 
have said $745; the latest price is $799. 



Camp Retupmoc 

Six one-week programs in computer 
science will be offered this summer on the 
campus of Rose-Hulman Institute of 
Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana. 

The program, called Camp Retupmoc, is 
an intensive investigation into the world of 
computers with the people who make them 
do useful things. Featured are lectures on 
BASIC programming along with talks from 
computer leaders in business and industry. 
Sessions on microprocessors and careers 
in computing are included. 

Full cost, including tuition, room, and 
board, is $135. Starting dates are from June 
11 to July 23. For applications and more 
information contact Dr. John Kinney, Direc- 
tor, Camp Retupmoc, Rose-Hulman In- 
stitute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana, 
47803. 



Conference on 

Computers in 

Undergraduate Curricula 

The Ninth Conference on Computers in 
Undergraduate Curricula, CCUC/9, is 
scheduled for June 12-14, 1978, at the 
University of Denver in Colorado. The 
primary purpose of CCUC/9 is to "promote 
effective use of computers in un- 
dergraduate education," and papers have 
been solicited from "all institutions of 
higher education with concern for un- 
dergraduate instruction. All disciplines are 
eligible for inclusion in the conference." 

In contrast to the other conferences in the 
CCUC series, papers dealing with computer 
uses in computer science courses, with user 
service aspects of computer centers, and 
with the use of programmable calculators in 
undergraduate education "will be con- 
sidered." 

Chairman: William S. Dorn, Dept. of 
Mathematics, University of Denver, Denver, 
CO 80208. 



The Cover 

If you don't recognize our cover photo, then you're one 
of the few computer addicts who hasn't seen the 
immensely popular "Star Wars" movie. For information on 
how computers were used to create some of the 
spectacular scenes, see the article "The Digital Brush," an 
interview with animator Larry Cuba, in this issue. And get 
ready for the second of what may become a series: Star 
Wars II. 



6 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



E PLETE SATISFACTION IS OUR GUARANTEE YOUR COMPLETE SATISFACTION IS OUR GUARANTEE YOUR COMPLETE SATISFACTION 



^U 




Huge Discounts! 



Ml 1 = 1: 



I 



i 



Savings up to 70% on major brand IC parts and computer 
kits. For complete IC listings write for our catalog. 



KITS 



WAMECO 



Boards 



S-100PC 
8K RAM 
8080 CPU 
12-Slot Mother 
Board 



28.00 
28.00 



33.00 



Boards 



ITHACA AUDIO S-100P.C 
8K RAM 
Z-80 CPU 
ISOLID STATE MUSIC S-100 Kits & 

Bare Boards 
MB-3 2K/4K EPROM 

Uses 1702A EPROMS 



28.00 
28.00 




Kit w/o EPROMS 

MB-4 4K STATIC RAM Kit 
Bare Board 
MB6A8K Kit 
STATIC RAM Bare Board 

MB7 16K STATIC RAM 
Kit 435.00 

Bare Board 25.95 

MB8 8K/16K EPROM 
Uses 2708's 
Kit Less EPROMs 75.95 



59.95 

95.00 

25.95 

129.95 

25.95 






'c 



KITS 

SOLID STATE MUSIC 

MB9 STATIC PROM/RAM 

Kit Less Memory 
VB1A VIDEO INTERFACE 

Kit 

Bare Board 
102 PARRELL I/O 

And Kludge 

Kit 

Bare Board 

104 2 + 2 I/O Kit 

SYNTHESIZER SB-1 MUSIC 
Kit with 

Software 
MT-1 



72.00 

129.95 
25.95 



74L$00 TTL 





74LS00 


.21 


74LS138 


70 




74LS02 


21 


74LS139 


70 




74LS04 


24 


74LS151 


65 




74LS08 


21 


74LS153 


66 




74LS10 


21 


74LS154 


1.00 




74LS14 


85 


74LJ157 


62 




74LS20 


.23 


74LS160 


82 




74LS21 


.23 


74LS161 


82 




74LS22 


.23 


74LS162 


82 




74LS30 


23 


74LS163 


.82 




74LS32 


.30 


74LS164 


98 




74LS37 


31 


74LS174 


75 




74LS38 


31 


74LS175 


79 




74LS42 


60 


74LS190 


90 




74LS47 


.75 


74LS191 


.90 




74LS48 


72 


74LJ192 


90 




74LS73 


35 


74LS196 


.80 




74LS74 


35 


74LS197 


80 




74LS75 


.53 


74LS221 


1.06 




74LS76 


.37 


74LS257 


71 




74LS86 


36 


74LS258 


70 




74LS90 


52 


74LS266 


26 




74LS92 


52 


74LS283 


.72 




74LS93 


52 


74LS365 


55 




74LS109 


36 


74LS366 


.55 




74LS112 


36 


74LS367 


55 




74LS113 


36 


74LS368 


55 




74LS114 


36 


74LS386 


39 




74LS125 


.46 


81LS95 


.77 




74LS126 


46 


81LS96 


77 




74L$132 


.75 


81LS97 


.77 








81LS98 


.77 



BOOKS 

The BASIC Workbook 
Programming Proverbs 
Discovering BASIC 
COBOL with Style 
Advanced BASIC 
Basic BASIC 
Standard Dictionary of 

Computers & Information 

Processing 
Game Playing with Computers 
Game Playing with BASIC 
Introduction to BASIC 
Home Computers: 210Questions 
and Answers Volume 2: Software 
Minicomputers 
Microcomputer Dictionary 

and Guide 
M i c rop roces so rs 
Microprocessor Basics 
Modern Data Communications 
Home Computers: 210 Questions 
and Answers Volume 1: Hardware 
Understanding Integrated Circuits 



BOOKS 



$5.50 
6.95 
6.85 
6.95 
7.95 
8.95 



16.95 

16.95 

6.95 

8.95 

6.95 
13.95 

19.95 

10.95 

10.95 

8.95 

7.95 
4.95 



Semiconductor Circuit 

Elements 
Digital Experiments 
Digital Signal Analysis 
Digital Troubleshooting 
110 CMOS Digital IC Projects 
Fundamentals and Applications 

of Digital Logic Circuits 
400 Ideas for Design, Volume 2 
Analysis and Design of 

Digital Circuits and 

Computer Systems 
Finite State Fantasies 
Telephone Accessories 

You Can Build 
Basic Electronic Switching 

for Telephone Systems 
Basic Carrier Telephony 
How to Get the Most Out of 

Your Low-Cost Electronic 

Calculator 
Calculator Users Guide 

and Dictionary 



6.95 

8.95 

19.95 

9.95 

5.95 

7.95 
13.75 



22.50 
1.25 

4.95 

6.95 
6.85 



4.95 
12.95 



49.95 

25.95 

139.95 

145.00 

15-Slot Mother 

Board 39.95 

XB-1 EXTENDER BOARD 

Bare Board 8.99 

SSM 8080 MONITOR VI 



ON 2-2708 
ON8-1702A 



47.00 
47.00 



74XX 



SUPPORT DEVICES 



6820 
6850 
8212 
8214 
8216 
8224 
8228 
8226 
8238 



8.00 
8.00 
3.45 
8.00 
3.75 
3.50 
6.25 
3.85 
7.95 



&$&& 
«&>*> «§>' 



<c 





MEMORY 

1702A 3.75 

2708 12.50 

2716 22.50 

21L02 450ns 1.25 
21L02 250ns 1.60 
1101 .50 

2114 8.50 

MICROPROCESSOR 
8080A 11.50 

Z-80 24.95 

Z-80A 34.95 

6800 16.50 




7400 


1 1 


7482 


SO 


7401 


13 


7483 


62 


7402 


13 


7485 


75 


7403 


13 


7486 


26 


7404 


15 


7489 


1 75 


7405 


13 


7490 


40 


7406 


16 


7491 


51 


7407 


23 


7492 


40 


7408 


17 


7493 


40 


7409 


17 


7494 


60 


7410 


13 


7495 


60 


7411 


18 


7496 


60 


7412 


13 






7413 


25 


74107 


28 


7414 


61 


74iuy 


22 


7416 


24 


74121 


29 


7417 


22 


74122 


38 


7420 


13 


74123 


48 


7423 


25 


74132 


65 


7425 


25 


74141 


70 


7426 


22 


74145 


65 


7427 


17 


74150 


88 


7430 


13 


74151 


61 


7432 


23 


74153 


61 


7437 


21 


74154 


95 


7438 


21 


74157 


55 


7439 


25 


74161 


55 


7440 


13 


74163 


55 


7441 


70 


74164 


85 


7442 


37 


74165 


90 


7443 


59 


74170 


1 69 


7444 


59 


74173 


1 10 


7445 


65 


74174 


85 


7446 


62 


74175 


75 


744 7 


59 


74176 


69 


7448 


60 


74177 


70 


7450 


13 


74180 


65 


7451 


13 


74181 


1 75 


7453 


13 


74190 


95 


7454 


13 


74191 


95 


7460 


14 


74192 


79 


7470 


26 


74193 


80 


7472 


21 


74195 


49 


7473 


21 


74221 


86 


7474 


27 


74251 


1 00 


7475 


45 


74365 


62 


7476 


28 


74366 


62 


7480 


31 


74367 


62 


7481 


95 


74368 


62 



Bank Amc u 



VISA 



Cash 
COD 

Charge My 

D M.C. 

D BAC(VISA) 

Sig 



5716 W. Manchester Ave. 

Suite tf 5 

Los Angeles, CA 90045 

TELEPHONE ORDERS: 
Call (213) 641-4200 

Exp. Data: 



□ Send your complete catalog, 

quickly. 

D Please send me the following 

items I have listed below: 

Qty. Stock No. Price 



Name. 



Postage/Handling 



$1.50 



Address. 



City. 



Satisfaction 100% Guaranteed 

California Residents Add 6% 

Sales Tax 

Note: Minimum Order $10.00, 5% Discount over $100.00 on I.C'.s only. 



State- 



Zip. 




NEW 
1978 

IC MASTER 



Over 40,000 
IC's listed. 
Over 2,000 
pages. 

Updated every 
90 days. 

Retail Value 

$55.00 

Your Price 

$46.00 




IS OUR GUARANTEE YOUR COMPLETE SATISFACTION IS OUR GUARANTEE YOUR COMPLETE SATISFACTION IS OUR GUARANTEE 

CIRCLE 109 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



si... editorial... editor 



Things to Come 



Over the next five years I expect dramatic changes in 
every aspect of the small computer field. Those of us now 
in the field will be overwhelmed, at least in numbers, by 
people today who have never heard of a personal 
computer. This is somewhat akin to the situation in 1920 
when radio amateurs, who had for years been a growing 
but close-knit group, all of a sudden, with the advent of 
commercial AM radio, found themselves in a minority of 
radio users. Companies that had been catering to hams 
switched over to production of commercial radios as a 
new consumer industry leaped into life. Oh sure, some 
manufacturers stuck with the hams and over the years 
there were new entrants, but the real growth was in 
commercial radio. 

Today, the TRS-80, PET, VideoBrain, and Atari Video 
Computer System are the first of what promises to be a 
broad, expanding line of commercial personal computers. 
More and more, the video game systems will have 
keyboard and memory options, and new computers will be 
announced at the Toy Fair or Consumer Electronics Show 
rather than at computer industry shows. How often have 
you seen Atari or Coleco at a personal computing show or 
the NCC? Yet it is from companies like these that I expect 
major future developments. (This is one reason that at 
Creative Computing we cover these "other" shows and 
product profiles of video games and the like). 

A parallel development to the completely assembled, 
neatly packaged commercial computer system will be 
systems dedicated to a single function or group of 
functions. For example, no longer will you buy one 
general-purpose computer, but you will buy one for text 
editing, one for library cataloging, one for games, one for 
music synthesis, one for CAI, and so on. As prices come 
down to $300 and lower it just won't make sense to buy the 
peripherals to do all these functions on one system, when 
several dedicated, individual systems can be bought for 
the same or less cost. 

The user, of course, will not have to learn to program in 
Basic or other computer language since all the systems 
and applications software will be built in. Computer clubs, 



I 



r 



K( 






. . t» ••_ ii M r 

r D ' 



i 



u 









v 



therefore will lose one of their primary functions — 
software interchange. Indeed, the typical buyer of a 
commercial personal computer, like buyers of AM radios 
in the 1920's, will have little interest in a computer club 
anyway. After all, they're buying their computer for one or 
more specific purposes, not for the fun of building it, or 
writing software, or any of the other reasons that most 
people have bought their own computers for the past three 
years. 

Another parallel development that will profoundly 
influence the use of small computers will be the establish- 
ment of one or more low-cost digital communication 
networks. The recently-announced Bell Data Network 
(ACS) may be overkill for home users but no matter what 
the form, home and small-business users will have access 
to high-speed data communications. Not only will users 
have access to data bases containing all types of 
encyclopedic data, stock-market data, and the like, but 
also the small business will be able to receive orders from 
field sales representatives, acknowledge orders, quote 
prices, and perform all the other data-communication 
functions now available only to larger businesses with 
their own data nets. 

In forecasting all this, I don't mean to imply that the 
current cult of personal computer users will die out. Quite 
the contrary, they will continue to exist just as radio 
amateurs did. Some will gravitate toward packaged 
commercial systems while others will continue in com- 
puting as a hobby. There will be side-by-side development 
between hobbyists and packaged systems users, some 
overlap and much synergy. All in all, the future of small 
computing will continue to be intellectually challenging 
and exhilarating, it will expand at an increasing pace, and 
in ten years most people will regard a personal computer 
as commonplace as a transistor radio or pocket calculator 
today. 

We at Creative Computing intend to be there too, 
growing and changing with the field. We hope you'll be 
with us. 

David H. Ahl 

D 







Lillian Schwartz. Olympiad, 1971. 
Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J. 



Stills from computer-animated film. Courtesy Bell 



8 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




YOU CAN HAVE BOTH . . 




"Natural Sounding 
Speech" 




nzaniT TO SAT J 




S-IOO BUS 



CTEDIT 

PARAMETER EDITOR 
SOFTWARE 

(STD. WITH CT-1) 





CSR1 
SYNTHESIS-BY-RULE 

SOFTWARE 
(OPTIONAL) 



a 



AE2NIYTHIHNX YUW 
WAANT TUW SEY. 



a 



phonetic spelling 



CT-1 parameter dots 



ONLY COMPUTALKER 
GIVES YOU THE CHOICE 



No other speech synthesizer available offers you the flexibility of the Computalker Model CT-1 . The parameter 
editor program, CTEDIT, allows direct manipulation of all 9 control parameters. CTEDIT and parameter data 
tapes are furnished with the CT-1 synthesizer board. 

The optional CSR1 software package translates ASCII phonetic text strings to speech output. CSR1 is simple 
to use and is the easiest way to create new speech. CSR1 can also be called as a subroutine from user's code 
for applications involving program controlled voice output. 

The CSR1 phonetic rule system generates control parameters in the same form as used by CTEDIT. Thus, it is 
possible to further edit the output of the rule system, to achieve natural sounding speech output with minimum 
effort. 



CT-1 assembled £r calibrated 
CSR1 phonetic rules software 



Calif, residents add 6% 



395.00 

35.00 

sales tax 



Software is available on CPM 8", 
North Star 5 Y* ". CUTS, TARBELL, 
MITS ACR, Paper Tape. 



COMPUTALKER CONSULTANTS 

1730 21 st Street, Suite AE, Santa Monica, CA 90404 (213) 392-5230/828-6546 

CIRCLE 119 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




pot . . . input/output ... in 




Inventor of the Computer 
(Round Two) 

Dear Editor: 

This is in response to Michael Ham's letter to Creative 
Computing, Nov-Dec 1977 (page 12), wherein he says John 
Atanasoff is the real inventor of the electronic digital computer. 
He bases his claim solely on Judge Earl Larson's decision in the 
1971 court case of Honeywell vs Univac on the matter of royalty 
payments by the former to the latter. 

Actually, Judge Larson vacated the Eckert-Mauchly claim of 
royalties due their patent assignee, Univac, on the technicality of 
an excess interval of time between first public disclosure of their 
patentable product and the date of formal application for their 
landmark patent. Having thus overridden the 25-year standing 
of the Eckert-Mauchly patent, and having ignored four prior 
court tests (including IBM's) of this same patent in which the 
Univac claim had been legally upheld and royalties awarded to 
Univac, Judge Larson then usurped powers vested in the Bureau 
of Patents and unilaterally bestowed fatherhood of the 
computer on Prof. Atanasoff. 

During that trial in Minneapolis in the Spring and Summer of 
1 97 1 , H oney well introduced over 25,000 documents in evidence, 
and Univac added almost 8,000 other trial exhibits. Besides the 
letter Mr. Ham mentioned concerning Mauchly's visit to 
Atanasoff to see the latter's "computer," other letters produced 
in court showed clearly that Atanasoff was unable (on the 
occasion of Mauchly's visit) to demonstrate the "Device" to 
Mauchly after trying for several days. Hence that device can in 
no way be called a computer (a device which computes). 
Another exhibit presented during the trial was a letter from 
Atanasoff to Mauchly congratulating the latter for having 
succeeded where he (Atanasoff) had failed. 

Judge Larson also neglected to account in his monumental 
decision for John Atanasoff s failure, during the 28 years since 
the original Eckert-Mauchly computer's successful operation at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1943, to make any public 
claim of prior invention of the computer until the issue was 
raised by Honeywell during this trial in Minneapolis. Since 
Atanasoff was not entitled to any royalties because he had not 
patented this idea, his only benefit from Judge Larson's 
unprecendented decision was a big ego trip, undeserved as it is. 

Ernest J. Tursich 

818 Forest Ave. 

Northfield, MN 55057 



Disturbing Thoughts 

Dear Editor: 

As an owner & programmer of computers, I take exception to 
the fifth portion of your article on page 34 of the Jan-Feb, 1978, 
issue. This article is entitled "Five Who Most Disturbed The 
Thought of Man." 

The "Computer" DID NOT deprive man of his unique 
position as an intelligent manipulator of his environment and 
creative solver of complex problems. 

There are two reasons for this fact: 

(1) Man "created" the computer for the very reason to 
manipulate his environment and to solve complex problems. 

(2) Computers can do only what they were "creatively" 
programmed to do by men. Even learning & self-initiating 
computers can only do so to the extent allowed by the 
programmers. . 

Therefore MAN continues to reign in his unique position in 
full control of his creations. His creations can no more usurp his 
position than can man usurp the position of God. 

Laymen are often confused about this fact because of their 
lack of knowledge. I'm surprised that a computer related 
organization would seek to perpetrate this fallacy. 

Robert B. Kircher, P.E. 

Dan Row lev & Associates 

1300 S.W. Fifth Ave. 

Portland, OR 97201 

Pub. note: We obtained that bibliography from one of the 
leading graduate schools of business administration and 
computer science where it is used in the course "Ideas and the 
Changing Environment." As a result we did not want to 
editorialize on its contents but rather present* it without 
comment and let readers reach their own conclusions. Thank 
you for your thoughtful observations. — DMA 



The Last Bug 



Dear Editor: 

The poem "The Last Bug" published in the Nov-Dec 1977 
Creative Computing, p 131, appears to be an mh generation 
modification of the original poem written by Lou Ellen Davis, 
wife of HP-65 Users Club member Perry Davis. The poem is 
"the Perfect Program" and first appeared in Computers and 
Automation, Aug 1967, p 43. Somehow it has acquired the 
"Author Unknown" label causing people to feel free to modify 
it, resulting in the one you published. 

A. John Martellaro, Jr. 

HP-65 Users Club 

2929 Los Amigos Ct., Apt B 

Las Cruces, NM 8800 1 



What's Your Favorite? 

Dear Editor: 

Concerning future projects for my company, what ANSI- 
level programming languages and/ or operating system software 
would you and your readers like to see available in the $40-$50 
per copy price range over the next two years? If you would print 
this letter, perhaps your readers would send their ideas to me. 

Michael Clark, President 

Cvbermate 
R.D. #3 Box 1 92 A 
Nazareth, PA 18064 



10 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Small Businessman's System 



MSI now has a low-cost business 
computer system which is designed to help 
small business the same way big 
computers help big business... by saving 
time and money. 

Regardless of the size or type of your 
business. . .service . . .manufacturing. . . 
professional... or sales... the MSI 6800 
Business System will significantly and prof- 
itably improve the speed, accuracy, 
and efficiency of your business operations. 

A System For Every Application 

The system starts with the MSI 
6800 computer, a 64K processor which is 
fast, simple, reliable, and will hold up to 
56K of RAM. Next, interface the 
computer with t^£ popular MSI FD-8 
Floppy Disk Memory System, or the soon 
to be released MSI Quad Density 
Double Sided Floppy Disk Memory 
System. Or for those really big small busi- 
ness jobs, MSI will soon have a 



fixed/removable hard disk drive which 
will give you 76 megabytes of memory 
storage. 

Add a video terminal and a hard 
copy printer and you will have at your com 
mand the worlds finest microcomputer 
business system. 

Small Computers for Big Jobs 

MSI has a lot more information about 
computer systems for small business. 
Send for our free Microcomputer 
Products Catalog and get all the details 
about our many fine products. 




^K^UC^teHt^ 



220 W. Cedar 

Olathe, Kansas 66061 

(913) 764-3273 

TWX 910 749 6403 (MSI OLAT) 

TELEX 42525 (MSI A OLAT) 

CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 













i " 






sWlC t mi 




*1 






. « -r h , ', 4 *^^ 




**+*ff 


1 








- 








t 








fi 




CDMPLEflT 
CDKIPUTER 
CflTflLDGUE 




We welcome entries from readers for the 
"Compleat Computer Catalogue" on any 
item related, even distantly, to computers. 
Please include the name of the item, a brief 
evaluative description, price, and complete 
source data. If it is an item you obtained 
over one year ago, please check with the 
source to make sure it is still available at the 
quoted price. 

Send contributions to "The Compleat 
Computer Catalogue," Creative Com- 
puting, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown. NJ 
07960. 



BOOKS AND 
BOOKLETS 



ACADEMIC COMPUTING 
DIRECTORY 

A new directory published by the 
Human Resources Research Organization 
will make it easier for this nation's schools 
and colleges to use computers for teaching 
and learning by introducing them to other 
schools and colleges that are using com- 
puters successfully. The Academic Com- 
puting Directory provides information on 
how computers are being used for instruc- 
tional purposes by 367 educational in- 
stitutions ranging in level from elementary 
schools to major universities. The Direc- 
tory identifies the "exemplary" institutions 
and provides information on the brands of 
computers they have, the purposes for 
which these computers are used, and the 
major reason(s) the institutions were 
selected as "exemplars" of academic 
computing. $3.95. 

HumRRO, 300 N. Washington St., 
Alexandria. VA 22314. 

CIRCLE 180 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VENDOR 
LITERATURE 

TDL CATALOG 

The latest catalog from lechnieal 
Design Labs covers a do/en hardware 



items from boards such as the ZPU card, 
the Zl6 memory module and the Video 
Display Board, to complete systems such 
as the five computers in the Xitan Alpha 
series; and software that includes 8K 
BASIC, Super-BASIC, the Zapple 
monitor, text editor, macro-assembler, 
text output processor, Fortran IV. and a 
data-base management system. All are 
described in detail in this 1 6-page catalog. 

Technical Design Labs, Inc., Research 
Park, Bldg. H, HOI State Road, 
Princeton, NJ 08540. (609) 921-0321. 

CIRCLE 181 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NORTH STAR CATALOG 

North Star Computers, manufacturer of 
the HORIZON computer and S-100-bus 
peripheral products, has just produced a 
new 1 6-page color product catalog. The 
catalog provides detailed information on 
all products and software available from 
North Star. The catalog is offered to 
computer hobbyists, business users, 
dealers and computer clubs free of charge. 
It is available through computer stores or 
directly from: 

North Star Computers, Inc. 2547 Ninth 
Street, Berkeley, CA 947 10. (4 1 5) 549- 
0858. 

CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



COMPUTERS 




modules of the MSI system may be used to 
upgrade an existing SWTP 6800 system if 
desired. The motherboard contains 1 6 
positions for full-sized system boards. 
Front-panel push-buttons for power, reset, 
IRQ, and NMI are provided. The MSI 
CPU Board contains sockets for 4K of 
EPROM memory, 128 bytes of RAM, in 
addition to a restart vector PROM. A 
1 44 1 1 baud rate generator as well as a 6875 
clock generator are included on the CPU 
Board. This permits the system clock to be 
run at 2 MHz, separate from the baud rate 
generator if desired. $595 kit, $895 wired. 
Midwest Scientific Instruments, 220 W. 
Cedar, Olathe, KS 6606 1. 913 764-3273. 

CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




NEW MSI 6800 COMPUTER 

The MSI 6800 computer system, suitable 
for use in business, industrial, or educa- 
tional environments, employs the popular 
SS-50 bus architecture, and individual 



VECTOR GRAPHIC 

WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

A low-cost, video-based text-editing 
system has been introduced by Vector 
Graphic. Called Memorite, the three-piece 
system comprises the firm's Vector l + 
microcomputer with floppy-disk drive, a 
high-resolution Hitachi 1 2-inch monitor, 
and a Diablo HyTerm printer. The printer 
offers a speed of 540 words per minute and 
interchangeable printwheels. Memorite 
permits full editing with capabilities for 
revision, addition or deletion, insertions, 
margin adjustment, text block transfer and 
finished text display in the CRT prior to 
printing. Additional features include 
variable line and page length; character, 
line and page spacing; and right justifica- 
tion. The disk basic system included with 
Memorite will accommodate software for 
other applications such as legal billing, 
accounting and inventory control. $7,950. 

Vector Graphic Inc., 790 Hampshire 
Road, A+B, Westlake Village, CA 9136I. 
(805) 497-6853. 

CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



?w« 







either 18K or 
support up to 
Designed with 
Bytemaster is 



BYTEMASTER COMPUTER 

The Digital Group's first completely 
integrated computer package, the 
Bytemaster will be available for shipment 
May 1, 1978. The Bytemaster features 

32K memory, but will 
64K memory if desired, 
expansion in mind, the 
fully wired to support 
various external peripherals. You may add 
a printer, monitor, and additional digital 
cassette, mini-disk, or standard disk drives 
by simply plugging into any of the four 
available input output ports. Dressed in a 
professional metal cabinet mounted on a 
heavy duty metal yoke, the top-of-the-line 
Master 4 model (mini-disk, 32K, 
assembled) is $3,245. 

W. V. Honeyman, The Digital Group, 
Inc., P.O. Box 6528, Denver, CO 80206. 
(303) 777-7133. 

CIRCLE 185 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




VIDEOBRAIN COMPUTER 

Said to be the first home computer with a 
preprogrammed library of educational, 
home management and entertainment 
programs, the VideoBrain will be sold 
through department stores and specialty 
electronic stores. The computer comes with 
everything necessary to hook it up to a TV 
and start running programs. The AC 
adapter, TV hookup cord, antenna switch 
box, two joy sticks, and three introductory 
cartridge programs are included. The 
VideoBrain console has 36 input keys and 
weighs 10 pounds. Input to the computer is 
made either by using the keyboard as yod 
would use a typewriter (there are 71 
distinguishable input symbols) up to four 
X Y joysticks, and preprogrammed car- 
tridges with a wide range of useful and fun 
programs. 

The VideoBrain has expandability built 
in. The present model has jacks for 
expansion to tape cassettes, printer and 
telephone. Built into the VideoBrain is the 
basic text and timekeeping programs. The 
text program allows the user to type and 
edit a message of 7 lines and 16 characters 



per line. He can change the color of the 
screen or the size of the letters and he can 
store the message for retrieval later on. 
ROM cartridges are available for such 
programs as Finance, Cash Management, 
Real Estate Analysis, Stock Valuation, 
Music Teacher, Math Tutor, and a variety 
of games, from blackjack to pinball. 
VideoBrain has a suggested retail price of 
$500. 

Umtech, 150 South Wolfe Rd.. Sun- 
nyvale, CA 94086. (408) 737-2680. 

CIRCLE 186 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




LYS-16 COMPUTER 

This I6-bit microcomputer was 
developed by members of Lysator Com- 
puter Club at the University of Linkoping, 
Sweden. The CPU is National Semicon- 
ductor's I MP- 1 6, with 61 machine instruc- 
tions. There are also four general registers 
on a 16-word hardware LIFO-stack. To all 
this has been added an advanced interrupt 
system which makes it possible to connect 
up to 64 peripheral units on four different 
levels. The computer is connected to a 
standard TV set through the TTY- 
compatible terminal, TERMILVS. This 
terminal has 64 ASCII characters and will 
display 25 rows of 64 characters on the TV. 
It has interesting features such as a 
graphical mode and word highlighting. 
Secondary storage is an audio cassette 
recorder, but a floppy-disk unit will soon 
be released. Software consists of a conver- 
sational assembler and editor, a BASIC 
with the rather unique range of±1.4E-9864 
to ±8.8E9862, and since LYS-16, to a large 
extent, is compatible with the IMP-16 
system, one can use most of the software 
developed by National. Prices are not 
definite for foreign customers yet, but 
further information can be obtained 
through: 

AB ATEW, P.O. Box 125, S-692 00 
Flen, Sweden. 

CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




XYCON III COMPUTER 

Computer Systems Unlimited's Xycon 
III is an all-in-one system consisting of a 
24 x 80 high-resolution CRT and controller 



with character intensification, blinking, 
underscoring, and reverse video- in any 
combination, all on a character-by- 
character basis. Using a 63-key keyboard 
with 16-key numeric and 8-key alternate- 
action pad, the system supports high- 
resolution graphics (256x256) or special 
(APL) and scientific or foreign alphabets. 
The 32K RAM memory board is expan- 
dable in 16K increments to 65K bytes, and 
usable as 8-bit or 1 6-bit word memory. 
Dual floppy disks are built in, with an 
intelligent controller that uses its own 
firmware to do formatting, etc. The CPU 
board uses an 8085 A MPU. The Xycon 111 
can support 1 6 users in time-sharing mode, 
by adding multi-user software and memory 
to total 48K to 64K. The Standard Xycon 
III is $9,220. 

Computer Svstems Unlimited, P.O. Box 
870, Milpitas, CA 95035. (408) 262-6271. 

CIRCLE 188 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







RCA COSMAC 
MICROTUTOR II 

Intended especially for engineers, 
students, and hobbyists who wish to 
understand and use microprocessors, RCA 
Solid State's COSMAC Microtutor II, 
CDP18S012, is a complete basic 
microcomputer system available for quick 
and easy hands-on operating and program- 
ming experience. The new RCA COSMAC 
Microtutor II, preassembled and con- 
taining its own regulated power supply, is 
based on the RCA CDP1802 CMOS 8-bit 
microprocessor and supersedes the original 
Microtutor CDP18S0H. The new 
CDP18S012 provides input via eight 
binary toggle switches and output on two 
seven-segment LED hexadecimal digit 
displays plus a Q LED output. Additional 
toggle switches are provided for all the 
required controls to examine and alter 
memory locations and to initiate program 
execution. Microtutor II is provided with 
256 bytes of CMOS RAM on a memory 
card which attaches to the base through a 
standard 44-pin connector. Microtutor II 
has a crystal clock for stabilized timing 
applications and a memory protect switch 
which inhibits the memory write operation 
to prevent an improperly running program 
from writing into itself. $195. 

For further information and copies of 
the Product Description PD9: RCA Solid 
State Division, Box 3200, Somerville, NJ 
08876, or from RCA Solid State dis- 
tributors. 

CIRCLE 189 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



13 




It's no great surprise! Most 
computer companies got their 
start in the digital logic end of 
the business. They were great 
at building calculators and 
later computers but when it 
came right down to it, most 
just didn't have the experi- 
ence necessary to build the 
peripherals to support their 
computer products. And that 
left a vacuum! 

At Heath we had the advan- 
tage. Our years of experience 
in electronic kit design gave 
us plenty of background with 
not only digital logic but 
mechanical and video design 
as well. And our assembly 
manuals and documentation 
are world-famous for easy to 
understand instructions. 

We built the worlds first digi- 
tal color television, a unique 
fully synthesized FM tuner, 
digital frequency counters, 
clocks - even a digital bath- 
room scale. 

So when we entered the per- 
sonal computing market we 
had the "know -how" to build 
not only our outstanding H8 
and Hll, 8 and 16-bit comput- 
ers, but, in addition, a com- 
plete line of supporting 
peripheral kits! 

Select the H9 Video Terminal, 
the H10 Papertape Reader/ 
Punch, and very soon our 
own, complete. Floppy Disk 
system. Each was designed 
with the systems approach in 
mind. Each was conceived to 
integrally mesh with not only 
our own computers, but 



through our set of sophisti- 
cated interfaces, most others 
as well. And in that Way we're 
making every effort to fill the 
vacuum the others left! 

So when you're ready to 
communicate with your com- 
puter turn to Heath. We've got 
the peripheral kits you'll need 
and at prices you can afford. 

Maybe the company who sold 
you your computer didn't 
think about peripherals - but 
we sure did! And come to 
think about it maybe that's 
why you should come to 
Heath., .in the first place. 

_ Heathkit 
Compuf 




Heathkit Catalog 




Read about nearly 

400 money-saving, 

fun-to -build 

electronic kits. 

Use coupon to send for 

your mail order catalog 

or bring coupon to a 

Heathkit Electronic 

Center lor your catalog. 



r 



HEATH 



Schlumberger 



Heath Company, Dept. 355-410 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022 



1 



Please send me my FREE Catalog. I am not on your mailing list. 



Name. 



Address. 



City. 



.State. 



CP-146 



Zip. 




AVAILABLE LOCALLY AT 
HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTERS 

(Units of Schlumberger Products 
Corporation) Retail prices on some 
products may be slightly higher. 

ARIZONA: Phoenix, 85017, 2727 W. Indian School 
Rd., Phone: 602-279-6247; CALIFORNIA: Anaheim, 
92805, 330 E. Ball Rd., Phone: 714-776-9420; El 
Cerrito, 94530, 6000 Potrero Ave., Phone: 415-236- 
8870; Los Angeles, 90007, 2309 S. Flower St., 
Phone: 213-749-0261; Pomona, 91767, 1555 Orange 
Grove Ave. N M Phone: 714-623-3543; Redwood 
City, 94063, 2001 Middlefield Rd., Phone: 415-365- 
8155; Sacramento, 95825, 1860 Fulton Ave., Phone: 
916-466-1575; San Diego (La Mesa, 92041), 8363 
Center Dr., Phone: 714-461-0110; San Jose (Camp- 
bell, 95008), 2350 S. Bascom Ave., Phone: 408- 
377-8920; Woodland Hills, 91364, 22504 Ventura 
Blvd., Phone: 213-883-0531; COLORADO: Owwt, 
80212, 5940 W. 38th Ave., Phone: 303-422-34C8; 
CONNECTICUT: Hartford (Avon, 06001), 395 W. 
Main St. (Rte. 44), Phone: 203-678-0323; FLORIDA: 
Miami (Hialeah, 33012), 4705 W. 16th Ave., Phone: 
305-823-2280; Tampa, 33614, 4019 West Hills- 
borough Ave., Phone: 813-886-2541; GEORGIA: 
Atlanta, 30342, 5285 Roswell Rd., Phone: 404-252- 
4341; ILLINOIS: Chicago, 60645, 3462-66 W. De- 
von Ave., Phone: 312-583-3920; Chicago (Downers 
Grove. 60515), 224 Ogden Ave., Phone: 312-852- 
1304; INDIANA: Indianapolis, 46220, 2112 E. 62nd 
St., Phone: 317-257-4321; KANSAS: Kansas City 
(Mission, 66202), 5960 Lamar Ave., Phone: 913- 
362-4486; KENTUCKY: Louisville, 40243, 12401 
Shelbyvllle Rd., Phone: 502-245-7811; LOUISIANA: 
New Orleans (Kenner, 70062), 1900 Veterans 
Memorial Hwy., Phone: 504-722-6321; MARYLAND: 
Baltimore, 21234, 1713 E. Joppa Rd., Phone: 301- 
661-4446; Rockville, 20852, 5542 Nicholson Lane, 
Phone: 301-881-5420; MASSACHUSETTS: Boston 
(Peabody, 01960), 242 Andover St., Phone: 617- 
531-9330; Boston (Weliesley, 02181), 165 Wor- 
cester Ave. (Rt. 9 Just west of Rt. 128), Phone: 
617-237-1510; MICHIGAN: Detroit, 48219, 18645 
W. Eight Mile Rd., Phone: 313-535-6480; E. De- 
troit, 48021, 18149 E. Eight Mile Rd., Phone: 313- 
772-0416; MINNESOTA: Minneapolis (Hopkins, 
55343), 101 Shady 5ak Rd., Phone: 612-938-6371; 
MISSOURI: St Louis (Bridgeton), 63044, 3794 
McKelvey Rd., Phone: 314-291-1850; NEBRASKA: 
Omaha, 68134, 9207 Maple St., Phone: 402-391- 
2071; NEW JERSEY: Fair Lawn, 07410, 35-07 
Broadway (Rte. 4), Phone: 201-791-6935; Ocean, 
07712, 1013 State Hwy. 35, Phone: 201-775-1231; 
NEW YORK: Buffalo (Amherst, 14226), 3476 Sheri- 
dan Dr., Phone: 716-835-3090; Jericho, Long Is- 
land, 11753, 15 Jericho Turnpike, Phone: 516-334- 
8181; Rochester, 14623, 937 Jefferson Rd., Phone: 
716-244-5470; White Plains (North White Plains, 
10603), 7 Reservoir Rd., Phone: 914-761-7690; 
OHIO: Cincinnati (Woodlawn, 45215), 10133 
Springfield Pike, Phone: 513-771-8850; Cleveland, 
44129, 5444 Pearl Rd., Phone: 216-886-2590; Col- 
umbus, 43229, 2500 Morse Rd., Phone: 614-475- 
7200; Toledo, 43615, 48 S. Byrne Rd., Phone: 419- 
537-1887; PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, 19149, 
6318 Roosevelt Blvd., Phone: 215-288-0180; Frazer 
(Chester Co.), 19355, 630 Lancaster Pike (Rt. 30), 
Phone: 215-647-5555; Pittsburgh, 15235, 3482 Wm. 
Penn Hwy., Phone: 412-824-3564; RHODE ISLAND: 
Providence (Warwick, 02886), 558 Greenwich 
Ave., Phone: 401-738-5150; TEXAS: Dallas, 75201, 
2715 Ross Ave., Phone: 214-826-4053; Houston, 
77027, 3705 Westheimer, Phone: 713-623-2090; 
VIRGINIA: Alexandria, 22303, 6201 Richmond 
Hwy., Phone: 703-765-5515; Norfolk (Virginia 
Beach, 23455), 1055 Independence Blvd., Phone: 
804-460-0997; WASHINGTON: Seattle, 96121, 2221 
Third Ave., Phone: 206-682-2172; WISCONSIN: 
Milwaukee, 53216, 5215 W. Fond du Lac, Phone: 
414-873-8250. 



CIRCLE 105 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




TEI COMPUTER/TERMINAL 

TEI, Inc., has another model in their new 
processor terminal series, the MCS- 
PT1 12/32, a complete and self-contained 
computer system with display, disk 
storage, a full keyboard and a 12-slot 
motherboard. It may be used either as a 
standalone processor or as a processor 
terminal in a larger system. The MCS- 
PT112/32 includes a 15-inch high- 
resolution monitor with a face plate of 
smokey plexiglass to reduce glare and 
enhance type visibility, a full upper- and 
lower-case ASCII keyboard with eight 
user-designated special function keys and a 
16-key numeric cluster pad. One Shugart 
SA-400 mini-floppy disk drive is standard. 
The 12-slot mainframe contains a CPU 
board with an 8080 processor. 32K static 
RAM memory is provided with additional 
RAM as an optional item. A disk con- 
troller which will handle three mini-drives. 
The minidrive media is soft-sectored and 
has a capacity of 90 KB unformatted (80.6 
formatted). The video controller board 
uses a 24 X 80 format with many special 
features. Software provided with the 
system includes CP/ M operating system 
and SuperBASIC, a 20K interpreter. $4,- 
795. 

CMC Marketing Corp., 5601 Bintliff, 
Suite 515, Houston, TX 77036. (713) 783- 
8880. 

CIRCLE 190 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




MICROCOMPUTER WITH 
DOUBLE-DENSITY FLOPPIES 

Digital Systems has introduced a micro- 
computer system with dual-drive, double- 
density floppy disks for less than $5,000. 
Designated the Micro-2, this compact 



system is housed in a single cabinet with 
two Shugart floppy-disk drives. The single 
computer board features a Z-80 CPU. 32K 
or 64K RAM, four RS232 serial interfaces, 
and a real-time clock. The disk controller 
can use either IBM 3740 format or a 
double-density format of 57 IK bytes per 
diskette (77 tracks of 58 sectors with 128 
bytes per sector). With optional double- 
sided drives, the system can store up to 2.3 
Megabytes. The Micro-2 comes complete 
with both the comprehensive CP/ M disk 
operating system and complete hardware 
diagnostics. Extensive accounting software 
is available. Other software, including 
CBASIC, BASIC-E and FORTRAN, is 
also available. Complete system with two 
single-sided drives: 32K, $4,995; 64K, 
$6,090. With two double-sided drives: 32K, 
$5,695; 64K, $6,795. With four single-sided 
drives: 32K, $7,040; 64K, $8,135. 

Digital Systems, 6017 Margarido Drive, 
Oakland, CA 94618. (415) 428-0950. 

CIRCLE 191 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERIPHERALS 




MINIFLOPPY FOR S-50 BUS 

PerCom Data's LFD-400 is a minifloppy 
disk memory system for the S-50 bus. A 
complete one-drive LFD-400 system in- 
cludes a controller PC board, PROMware 
disk operating system, disk drive and drive 
power supply, interconnecting cable, two 
minidiskettes, an operator's manual, and a 
compact enclosure to house the drive and 
drive power supply. 

The controller board, which is installed 
in an S-50 bus slot of the host computer, 
includes special low-voltage-drop 
regulators, a proprietary "bit shifting" 
compensation circuit, an inactivity time- 
out circuit to increase drive motor life, and 
provision for 3K bytes of PROM. The 
LFD-400 PROMware DOS, miniDOS, 
allows S-50 bus owners to use their existing 
software with simple patches. 

The miniDOS program includes load 
and save routines, and permits "crash- 
proof' data storage and retrieval since the 
disk may be protected. MiniDOS is 
contained in a 2708 EPROM, and is ready 
on power-up. The LFD-400 uses the 
Shugart SA-400 drive.The LFD-400 with 
one drive is $599.95; with two drives, 
$999.95; with three, $1399.95. 

PerCom Data Company, Inc., 318 
Barnes, Garland, TX 75042. (214) 276- 
1968. 

CIRCLE 192 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




FOUR-HEADED 
VOICE-COIL FLOPPY 

The industry's first "four-headed" flexi- 
ble disk drive, which will store up to 3.2 
megabytes of data in the space required by 
a standard-size floppy drive, is the new 
PerSci Model 299 Diskette Drive, inter- 
facing to 8080, 6800 and Z-80 based 
systems as well as minicomputers. The 
Model 299 is a dual-headed, dual-diskette 
drive reading and writing both sides of two 
8-inch diskettes. Data can be encoded in 
single or double density in IBM- 
compatible soft-sectored formats or ex- 
panded hard- and soft-sectored formats on 
IBM Diskette I, II, IID or equivalent 
media. The drive will store up to l 
megabyte of data in IBM type format, 1.6 
megabytes unformatted single density and 
up to 3.2 megabytes in unformatted double 
density encoding. $1,595. 

PerSci, Inc., 12210 Nebraska Ave., West 
Los Angeles, CA 90025. (213) 820-3764. 

CIRCLE 193 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




BIT PAD 

Summagraphics Corporation an- 
nounces "an innovative first in computer 
input devices," the Bit Pad, "more than a 
digitizer, a flexible input peripheral," and 
designed specifically for small system 
users. Bit Pad is a full-capability, digitizer 
permitting ease of entry of positional 
information. The Bit Pad is designed for 
fast, low-cost data collection of X, Y 
values. The small size (ll" x ll") a^id 
compact design make the Bit Pad com- 
pletely portable and adaptable to a 
wide variety of applications. Bit Pad is 
easily interfaced to any microcomputer 
currently on the market as it is equipped 
with a byte-oriented 8-bit parallel output. 
Applications exist in medical treatment, 
opinion sampling, education, real estate, 
design, games, research, computer anima- 
tion and a limitless variety of additional 
uses. $555. 

Summagraphics Corp., 35 Brentwood 
Ave., Fairfield, CT 06430. (203) 384-1344. 

CIRCLE 194 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



15 




DISK SYSTEM UPGRADES 
HEATHKIT H8 TO Z80 

INFO 2000 Corporation has a disk 
system for Heathkit H8 computers. Now 
Heathkit H8 users may add the INFO 2000 
Disk System and simultaneously upgrade 
their 8080 computer to a Z80 system by 
replacing the Heathkit 8080 CPU board 
with the INFO 2000 Z80/Disk Adapter 
Board. The complete disk system includes 
PerSci dual diskette drives, power supply, 
case, intelligent controller, adapter, cables 
and disk monitor in EPROM. The adapter 
board contains the Z80 microprocessor 
and all support chips, 7K of EPROM, 1 K 
of scratchpad RAM for the disk monitor, 
and all necessary logic for interfacing the 
disk system to the Heathkit H8. 

The H8 can now operate in either of two 
switch-selectable modes. One mode 
enables continued use of the H8 EPROM 
monitor with the existing Benton Harbor 
software. No modification is required, and 
the H8 will now perform at Z80 CPU speed 
and use the extended Z80 instruction set. 
The second mode supports the INFO 2000 
disk monitor, and other software adapted 
by INFO 2000 for use with all their disk 
systems, including the TDL software 
library and CP/M. $2,750. 

INFO 2000 Corp., 20630 S. Leapwood 
Avenue, Carson, CA 90746. (213) 532- 
1702. 

CIRCLE 195 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




IBM SELECTRIC PRINTER 
FOR MICRO OUTPUT 

The Micro Computer Devices 
SELECTERM is a fully converted IBM 
Selectric II Typewriter whose conversion 
to a printer enables immediate use with any 
microcomputer. The SELECTERM may 
be connected directly to either a parallel or 
serial port, with all inputs at standard TTL 
level. No additional software is required, 
since all logic is in an internal PROM. The 
SELECTERM includes a special typing 
element that produces all ASCII and full 
upper and lower case alphanumeric 



characters. Also included are table com- 
mand, backspace, vertical tab and bell. All 
necessary electronics and cable sets are 
provided along with documentation for 
unpacking, connection, testing, theory of 
operation, and schematics. Special features 
may be ordered including dual pitch, 
correcting feature, pin-feed platen in a 
choice of 13 sizes, and a noise-reduction 
feature. The SELECTERM can be used as 
a typewriter since none of the typing 
capabilities have been affected by the 
conversion to a printer. The 
SELECTERM may be purchased only 
through dealers. $1,650. 

Contact your computer store, or write 
Micro Computer Devices, 960 E. 
Orangethorpe, Bldg. F, Anaheim, CA 
92801. (714)992-2270. 

CIRCLE 196 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MISC. 
HARDWARE 




TAPE-DRIVE SYSTEM 

General Micro-Systems' new SYS I 
tape-drive subsystem, is a high-capacity 
mass storage for micro-computers. The 
SYS I records bi-phase Manchester code at 
1600 bits per inch on ANSI-specified data 
cassettes with a transfer rate of 2000 
characters per second at 10 IPS. The tape 
record (block) is variable length, which 
gives the highest efficiency of storage space 
on tape, "unlike the 128 or 256 byte fixed 
length records, where all bytes must be 
recorded whether used or not.)) A 10-byte 
record may be followed by a 32-Kbyte 
record. The user program may dynamically 
load the next record, operating as a batch 
data processing system, with an unlimited 
amount of data. Over 700-Kbytes may be 
recorded on one side of a cassette using 
large records. Rewind time is less than 30 
seconds at over 1 20 I PS. One to four drives 
may be connected to the computer through 
the interface board. Single drive, $595; 
dual drive, $969; S-100 interface board, 
$168. 

Bob Smith, General Micro-Systems, 
12369 West Alabama Place, Lakewood, 
CO 80228. 

CIRCLE 197 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





EPROM PROGRAMMER 

Smoke Signal Broadcasting has a new 
low-cost 2708 EPROM programmer. The 
POP-l interfaces to the conpany's P-38-l 
and P-38-FF EPROM boards, which are 
SS-50 bus-compatible products. Complete 
software is provided on audio cassette. An 
adaptive programming technique allows 
most 2708's to be programmed in 15 
seconds instead of the usual one and a half 
minutes. A separate self-contained power 
supply is used for the programming 
voltage, insuring sufficient current 
capability to program EPROM\s from any 
manufacturer. $149. 

Smoke Signal Broadcasting, P.O. Box 
2017, Hollywood, CA 90028. (213) 462- 
5652. 

CIRCLE 198 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




S-100 16-BIT MICRO 

The AM-100, an S-lOO-bus-compatible 
1 6-bit microprocessor board set, replacing 
8-bit processors, offers multi-tasking, 
multi-user timesharing in an advanced disk 
operating system environment. Utilizing 
Western Digital's WD- 1 6 microprocessor, 
the AM- 1 00 provides 1 6-bit flexibility and 
speed with ll-digit floating-point arith- 
metic and an on-board realtime clock. 
Many S-100-bus peripherals are supported 
including static memory, memory paging 
and I/O facilities. The AM-100 provides a 
multi-pass Macro-Assembler, ALPHA- 
BASIC compiler, ALPHAUSP. SORT, 
ISAM and various other utilities. 

John French, Alpha Microsystems, 
1 7875 Skv Park North, Suite N, Irvine, CA 
92714. (714) 957-I404. 

CIRCLE 199 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



16 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




TOUCH-TONE INTERFACE 

For those interested in bringing the 
microcomputer into the home, MK Enter- 
prises has a Dual Tone Multi-Frequency 
(DTMF) transceiver board that interfaces 
your S-100 micro computer to the Touch- 
Tone telephone. The MK-II board con- 
verts Bell System's DTM F into binary, and 
binary into DTMF, thereby making a fully 
operational Touch-Tone transceiver. On 
incoming calls, vectored interrupts allow 
for ring detection as well as detecting the 
presence of DTM F signaling. This capabil- 
ity permits one to execute programs by cal- 
ling up his computer and punching buttons 
on his Touch-Tone telephone. A 4-bit 
input port allows additional data to be 
transferred coincident with decoded 
DTM F. On outgoing calls, digits dialed are 
loaded into a FIFO buffer at processor 
speed and unloaded into a DTMF 
generator at a rate compatible with Bell 
System's CO. equipment. A 4-bit output 
port makes possible the supervision of 
trunk interface equipment (DA A devices). 
Single tones may be generated instead of 
dual tones under software control. 
Applications of the MK-II include 
monitoring and tabulating of outgoing 
phone calls, home security "dialers," and 
PABX systems. Remote operation of A.C. 
appliances is also possible by 60-cycle 
modulation with DTMF signaling. $425. 

MK Enterprises, 8911 Norwick Rd., 
Richmond, VA 23229. (804) 285-2292. 

CIRCLE 200 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




BUS TERMINATOR 

The Exterminator (VTE 100) is a S-100 
compatible card that terminates the entire 
S-100 bus using industrial bridge ter- 
minating networks to eliminate crosstalk 
between busses, overshoots, ringing, and 
scrambling of data due to interference 
caused by extraneous noise. As the 
frequency of any system is increased (2-4 
Mhz), "these bus problems become more 
serious and thus, without termination, the 
overall system performance can actually 
decrease." Secondly, the board serves as a 
card extender for any of your memory 
and/ or I/O cards which may require 
analysis or maintenance. The Exter- 

MAY JUNE 1978 



minator fuses all extended power busses to 
protect both the extended card and the 
power supply from any accidental damage. 
$51.95. 

VAMP Inc., P.O. Box 29315, Los 
Angeles, CA 90029. 

CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




DATA CASSETTE FOR 
HOME COMPUTING 

PerCom Data Company has introduced 
what is said to be the first data cassette 
developed exclusively for the home com- 
puting user. The PerCom data cassette, 
designated the Pilon-30, incorporates 
features "normally found only in high- 
priced digital cassettes." Principal among 



the design features of the Pilon-30 is an 
extra large pilon-coated pressure pad that 
replaces the fiber pad of ordinary audio 
cassettes. The Pilon-30 pad provides more 
uniform tape-to-head contact, eliminates 
the lint-producing fiber pad that is a source 
of "drop-out" data error in ordinary 
cassettes, and assures smooth movement of 
the tape because of the low-friction pilon 
coating. Erratic movement of tape across a 
tape pressure pad sometimes causes data- 
garbling high-frequency flutter. Another 
cause of flutter has been circumvented by 
replacing the pad leaf spring used in 
ordinary audio cassettes with an energy- 
absorbing foam spring. The 1 50 feet of tape 
of the Pilon-30 cassette was chosen as 
having an optimum capacity for home 
computing applications. Data storage is 
50,000 bytes of 30-byte-per-second data or 
200,000 bytes of 120-byte-per-second data. 
PerCom Pilon-30 cassettes may be 
purchased from local home computer 
dealers or ordered directly from the 
factory. The minimum direct mail order is 
$l2r45 (five units) plus shipping. 

(PerCom Data Companv, Inc., 3I8 
Barnes, Garland, TX 75042. (2 14) 276- 
1968. 

CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Soon to be a 
major motion picture 



HOBBYISTS! ENGINEERS! TECHNICIANS! STUDENTS! 



Write and run machine language programs at home, display video graphics 
on your TV set and design microprocessor circuits — the very first night 
— even if you've never used a computer before! 

RCA COSMAC microprocessor/mini- 
computer 



SPECIFICATIONS 

ELF II features an RCA COSMAC 
COS/MOS 8-bit microprocessor ad- 
dressable to 64k bytes with DMA, in- 
terrupt, 16 registers, ALU, 256 byte 
RAM, full hex keyboard, two digit hex 
output display, S slot plug-in expansion 
bus, stable crystal clock for timing pur- 
poses and a double-sided plated-through 
PC board plus RCA 1861 video IC to 
display any segment of memory on a 
video monitor or TV screen. 

Use ELF II to ... PLAY GAMES usina 
your TV for a video display ... CREATE 
GRAPHICS pictures, alphanumer- 
ic^, animated effects ... learn how to 
DESIGN CIRCUITS using a 
microprocessor ... the possibilities 
are infinite! 



NOW AVAILABLE 



ELF II explodes into a giant when you 
plug the GIANT BOARD 1 " into ELFs 
expansion bus. This powerful board in- 
cludes cassette I/O, RS 232-C/TTY, 8- 
bit P I/O and system monitor/ 
editor... meaning your ELF II is now the 
heart of a full-size system with unlimited 
computing power! $39.95 kit. $2 p&h. 

• 4k Static RAM addressable to any 4k 
page to 64k. S89.9S kit. $3 p&h. 

• Prototype (Kluge) Board accepts up to 
32 I.C.'s of various sizes. $17.00 kit. $1 
p&h. 

• Expansion Power Supply. $34.95 kit. 
$2pih. 

• Gold plated 86-pin connector. $5.70 
postpaid. 

Coming Soon! w^^^^^»^ 

Tiny Basic 

ASCII KEYBOARD • CONTROLLER 
BOARD • D-A, A-D CONVERTER * 
CABINET 



T i I i i ' M JP 




A THOUGHTFUL GIFT 

FOR ANYONE WHO MUST 

STAY UP TO DATE IN 

COMPUTERS AND 

ELECTRONICS' 



ELF 



ii 



$0095 



— — — — — — SEND TODAY — 

NETRONICS R&D LTD., Dept CC3 

333 Litchfield Road, New Milford. CT 06776 



99 



Phone (203) 354-9375 



Yes! / want to run programs at 
home and have enclosed : 
D $99.95 plus $3 p&h for RCA 
COSMAC ELF II kit. Featured 
in POPULAR ELECTRONICS. 
Includes all components plus 
everything you need to write 
and run machine language pro- 
grams plus the new Pixie chip 
that lets you display video 
graphics on your TV screen. De- 
signed to give engineers practice 
in computer programming and 
microprocessor circuit design. 
ELF II is also perfect for college 
and college-bound students (who 
must understand computers for 
any engineering, scientific or 
business career). Easy instruc- 
tions get you started right away, 
even if you've never used a com- 
puter before! 

As your need for computing 
power grows, five card expan- 
sion bus (less connectors) allows 
memory expansion, program de- 
bugger/monitor, cassette I/O, A 
to D and D to A converters. 
PROM, ASCII keyboard inputs. 



controllers, etc. (soon to be 
available as kits). Manual in- 
cludes instructions for assembly, 
testing, programming, video 
graphics and games plus how 
you can get ELF II User's Club 
bulletins. Kit can be assembled 
in a single evening and you'll 
still have time to run programs, 
including games, video graphics, 
controllers, etc., before going to 
bed! □ $4.95 for 1.5 amp 6.3 
VAC power supply, required for 
ELF II kit. □ $5.00 for RCA 
1802 User's Manual. 

D I want mine wired and tested 
with the power transformer and 
RCA 1802 User's Manual for 
$149.95 plus $3 p&h. 

Conn. res. add sales tax. 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

CITY 



STATE 



.ZIP. 



D Send info on other kits! 
ru i3*_ ira s, Dealer Inquiries Invited 



17 



CIRCLE 142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




16K STATIC RAM WITH 
PAGING 

Digital Micro Systems has a I6K static 
RAM for the S-lOO bus that uses the 
industry standard 2 1 14 memory chip and 
has many extras. The board is completely 
static, "having none of the timing incom- 
patibility problems associated with 
dynamic or clocked chip select 'static' 
RAMs." This means that the DMS board 
will run with any S-IOO system including 
DMA systems like the 16-bit Alpha 
Microsystems AM-100. It also runs on Z- 
80 systems at the full 4-Mh7 clock rate. The 
board features individually addressable 4K 
blocks, software write protection in 4K 
blocks, and a paging or block select 
feature. This allows memory expansion 
beyond 64K and permits the implementa- 
tion of low software overhead timesharing 
systems. $525 for the 16K kit, $295 for the 
8K kit, $595 assembled. The board is also 
available with all but the 21 14s for $85 or as 
a blank board with the manual for $35. 

Digital MicroSystems, Box 1212, Orem, 
UT 84057. (801) 224-2102. 

CIRCLE 203 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




TERMINAL BOARD 

RHS Marketing has an Economical 
Stand-Alone Terminal Board. The ESAT- 
100 comes either as a kit or assembled and 
tested. Both versions include on-board 
regulated power supplies. All that is needed 
to make it operational are a a 5-V keyboard 
and a video monitor. Data I O is serial 
asynchronous, 1 1-unit code, TTL compati- 
ble. Baud rates are adjustable 300, 600. 
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600. Display is 32 
characters per line, 16 lines, 2 pages. Also 
available is an optional piggy back conver- 
sion board that will expand the ESAT-100 
to 64 characters per line by 16 lines. 
Features of the ESAT100 include full 
cursor control, functions of backspace, 
forward space, line feed, reverse line feed, 
home, return to end of line. $185 kit, $239 
built and tested. 

RHS Marketing. 2233 El Camino Real, 
Palo Alto. CA 94306. (415) 321-6639. 

CIRCLE 204 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



GRAPHICS BOARD FOR SOL 

KEA Micro Design of Toronto has 
announced the GraphicAdd, a piggyback 
board kit for use in SOL computers and 
VDM-1 Video Display Modules. 
GraphicAdd gives graphics capability to 
these units (128 H by 48 V) and includes a 
SOL ready-to-load software package. The 
GraphicAdd board mounts directly on the 
VDM and SOL main boards. It works by 
replacing half of the inverse video 
character set by bit-mapped graphic cells. 
Thus alphanumerics and graphics can be 
mixed on the same line. Mode-control 
options include fixed graphics, switch- 
selectable graphics, or programmable 
graphics mode. The software package 
contains a graphics driver, BASIC Links, 
LIFE, and demonstration programs $50. 

Available from SOL dealers or from 
Micro- Ware Limited, 27 Firstbrooke Rd., 
Toronto, Ont., Canada, M4E2L2. 

CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




STATIC RAM WITH 
BATTERY BACKUP 

Two static RAM boards capable of 
battery backup are compatible with Intel's 
SBC 80/05, SBC 80/ 10 and SBC 80/20. 
The RAM-4L contains 4K bytes of RAM, 
the RAM-8L contains 8K bytes. The 
RAM-8L uses a single 5V power supply 
and draws 1 .2 amp typical, 1 .7 max. under 
operation. During battery backup at 1.7V, 
the battery current is .5 amp typical, .8 
max. That means that three D-cell alkaline 
flashlight batteries could back up 8K bytes 
of RAM for 11 hours. RAM-4L, $312; 
RAM-8L, $428. 

Richard E. Van Antwerp, Electronic 
Solutions, Inc., 7969 Engineer Rd., San 
Diego, CA 921 1 1. (714) 292-0242. 

CIRCLE 207 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



RACK-MOUNTABLE 
KEYBOARD/DISPLAY 

Computerwise offers a rack-mountable 
keyboard/ display unit for use in computer 
controlled machines, automatic testers and 
similar applications. The unit can be 
attached to any computer or 
microprocessor using an asynchronous 
RS-232 or 20-mA current loop I/O port. 
Switches allow the user to select the 
operating mode including; 1 10-9600 baud 
rate, full or half duplex, even/ odd/ no 
parity, 5 to 8 data bits and one or two stop 
bits. The unit mounts in a standard 19- 
inch-wide equipment rack and requires 
I0'/> inches of panel height. The display 
provides a single line of up to 32 
alphanumeric characters. $750. 

Computerwise, Inc., 4006 East 1 37th 
Terrace, Grandview, MO 64030. (8 16) 765- 
3330. 

CIRCLE 208 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TERMINALS 




VIDEO TERMINAL KIT 

CYBERNEX LIMITED announces the 
new LTL-I K video terminal kit, featuringa 
24-line, 80-character display on a highly 
legible 9-inch CRT. The LTL-1K con- 
troller card includes the power supply 
components, RS232 interface and 
keyboard interconnection. The terminal 
operates at 8 selectable baud rates from 1 10 
to 19,200 baud. Sockets are used for all 
ICY Cybernex's fully controllable block 
see-through cursor features cursor up. 



18 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



down, forward, backspace, home, home 
and clear, return to start of line and clear to 
end of line controls. Kit with keyboard, 
$695; without keyboard, $525. Assembled 
and tested form with keyboard, $895. 

Cybernex Limited, 3221 Council Ring 
Road, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L 
IL5. 

CIRCLE 209 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



libraries. The diskette containing the 
macro assembler (machine code only) is 
$70 (diskette order must be accompanied 
by the purchaser's CP M serial number). 
The documentation is available separately 
for $15 (no serial number required), with 
the option of later diskette purchase at $60. 

Digital Research, Box 578, Pacific 
Grove, CA 93950. (408) 373-3403. 

CIRCLE 210 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE 



CP/M MACRO ASSEMBLER 

A new macro assembler called MAC is 
offered by Digital Research. MAC 
operates with the Digital Research stan- 
dard CP/M Diskette Operating System 
and implements the recently redefined Intel 
standard macro facility, while retaining 
upward compatibility from previous stan- 
dard assemblers. Specific features of the 
new macroprocessor include conditional 
assembly (IF, ELSE, ENDIF) with 
assembly-time expressions (+, -, *, /, 
MOD, SHL, SHR, AND, OR, XOR, 
HIGH, LOW, LT, LE, EQ, NE, GE, GT, 
and NUL). Repetition of source statements 
is provided with indefinite repeat on 
character (I RPC), indefinite repeat on text 
(IRP), and numeric repeats (REPT). 
Parameterized macros are stored using the 
MACRO statement which can appear in 
the mainline source program or be called 
out from previously defined macro 




MITS BASIC (3. 1). Two versions of the 
program on one 60-minute cassette play a 
challenging game that conforms to Inter- 
national Rules. The first version requires a 
total of I6K of memory, inclusive of 8K 
BASIC. The second version is more 
graphic and requires an additional 4K. The 
checkerboard is pictorially displayed on 
the CRT. As the player and computer each 
take turns, the checkers blink and move to 
indicate their passage. Kinged pieces are 
identified on the display and messages 
appear at the right of the board relating to 
each move. In accordance with Inter- 
national Rules of the game, the program 
will not accept illegal moves and warns of 
their entry. $I0. 

Compu-Quote, 69 1 4 Berquist Ave., 
Canoga Park, CA 91 307. (213) 348-3662. 

CIRCLE 211 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VIDEO CHECKERS 

Compu-Quote has developed several 
games on cassettes, recorded in the Tarbell 
format and programmed in MITS BASIC. 
Contained on one cassette is VIDEO 
CHECKERS, which produces checker- 
board graphics on the CRT when used with 
the Polymorphic Video Interface and 64- 
character option. The game plays under 



SOFTWARE LIBRARY 

• 

SOFTWARE Ltd. announces the 
availability of a BASIC language library of 
programs ready to run on North Star disc 
media. These programs are "bug-free" and 
ready to run. Over 45 programs, including 
business, finance, family budget and games 
are immediately available. Most programs 
are priced from $2 to $5 each. The library 
includes; STARTREK, STARLANES, 
CHECKBOOK, FAMILY FINANCE 
Etc. 

SOFTWARE Ltd., Box AF, Wood- 
bridge, CT 06525 

CIRCLE 212 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



trolabs 



Educational Grade VIDEOTAPE Special: 1 //x2400 / 20 boxes/$125.00 

The "Pro" fully encoded ASCII Keyboard by Cherry. Auto RE- 
PEAT feature, 5 special function keys. 300mA/5V. (Shown as 
mounted in 'The Case' , Below) $119.00, 3/99.00,10+789.00 



USED SYLVAN I A 
12" MONITORS 
You Fix: $24.95 
Working: $69.95 
Cold Chassis, 25lbs. 



The Dumb Terminal for Smart People 

80X24 with full 128 char. ASCII UC+LC 
font with all control characters displayed. 
300-19,200 baud RS232. 2nd font addressable 
from keyboard in you-program-it 2708 for 
APL, Graphics sets, etc. Plug in monitor 
I/O connector, 110VAC and you are ready. 
INCLUDES: 'The Case', Cherry Kbd. A used 
monitor, ESAT 200A, all options except 
vector addressable cursor and modem. 
Bulletproof design and construction. 
Normally $675.00 What you always 
wanted your ADM3 to be: 

SYSTEM"A" $649.00 10/S599.00 



f>Q Box 6721 




THE FANTASTIC! 

MEMOREX FIVE-FIFTY 



Stanford 
Ol. 94305 

415-321-5601 



* Hard and Soft Sectoring 

* Single and Dual Density 

* Double side configuration 
as a retrofit at any time. 
*110l220V,50/60Hz 

*Pin for pin compa table with 
Shugart 800,801,850,851 
(50 pin edge connector) 

$536,2/499, 5/475,10/449 
25/425, 100/405 

Double Sided Retrofit $200 





MINIDISKETTES (5.25') 1-9 10-24 25+ 

10, 16 or Soft Sector $4.79 4.65 4.45 

STANDARD (8') DISKETTES 
Hard or Soft Sector $5.99 5.33 4.79 



"The Case" Beautiful and sturdy 
anodized aluminum case in deep black designed to contain the 
ESAT 200A, and with a bezel cut out for the Cherry 'Pro' keyboard, 
(installed as shown above) Choose deep brown, light yellow, or crim- 
son to accent or color code your installation. The only choice for 
hard-use institutional and educational applications. $69.00, 10/ 59.00 



CASSETTES 
R-300 Certified Phillips Type $5.25 4.99 
1-150 Certified for audio decks $4.60 4.30 
('Kansas City' & SWTP formats) 



4.35 
3.90 



SURPLUS Muffin type fans $7.95, Lambda Power Supplies 

5 V/70A-$ 145.00, 35A-$89.00, 16A-49.00, 1 2V/7.3A-$69.00 



OUR CATALOGUE 



Contains IC's, T.I. Sockets (Icent/pin) 
Advice and much more. It is free. 



Shipping and Handling: Surface: $o.40/ib. 
Cal. Tax: 6.5% Insurance: $0.50 per $100 



00 



Air: $0;75/lb., 1.00 minimum 



CIRCLE 123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MAY/JUNE 1 978 



19 



MACRO-ASSEMBLER 

CHROMOD Associates has developed 
SMAL 80, a compiled, structured, macro- 
assembly language for 8080 and 8085 
microprocessors that requires only 7K of 
memory. SMAl. 80 statements are written 
in a symbolic notation resembling 
PASCAL and PI. M that simplifies 
considerably the writing of assembly 
language programs. SMAL 80 also incor- 
porates the basic structured-programming 
constructs, the DO-END. I F-TH EN- 
ELSE, and LOOP-REPEAT, which may 
be combined with and or nested within 
each other without limit to form highly 
complex statements. The code produced by 
the compiler is as efficient as that written in 
a traditional assembly language bv a skilled 
programmer. The SMAL 80 ' package 
includes a 2K macro preprocessor written 
in SMAL 80 that greatly extends the 
usefulness of the language. The macro 
preprocessor permits conditional expan- 
sion of statements, unlimited nesting of 
macros, and has a natural notation that is 
conducive to efficient, error-free program- 
ming. This extensible microprocessor 
language "combines the operating speed 
and efficiency of a traditional assembly 
language with the convenience, logical 
power, and versatility of a high-level 
language." Programmers can now write 
complex 8080 and 8085 programs "with the 
same ease and assurance with which they 
now write high-level programs, and 
without having to pay any penalty in 
superfluous code or reduced speed of 
execution." $75. 

Chromod Associates. P.O. Box 3169, 
Grand Central Station, New York, NY 
10017. 

CIRCLE 213 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VOMNMTIIt 




COMPUTER PROGRAMS 
IN BOOK FORM 

A new catalog from ENTELEK lists 
over 40 computer books for math, music, 
science, business, education, social studies 
... and just plain fun. Many of the books 
listed contain computer programs in 
BASIC and APL. There is, for example, a 
series of 52 programs in math, a series of 14 
in physics, a series of 8 in genetics, and so 
on. One book contains an APL program to 
generate math tests. The skills tested 
include addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion and division of whole numbers, 
decimals, fractions and mixed numbers, 
and per cent calculations. The math test 
generator, used at Illinois State University, 
saves the teacher many hours. 

ENTELEK, P.O. Box 1303, Ports- 
mouth, NH 03801. 

CIRCLE 215 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



M 



occurring in the basic program without 
aborting the program. Version 3.0 allows 
for the serial input and output of data from 
the Zapple Monitor defined reader and 
punch devices. This product has a dynamic 
load, save specification; Version 3.0 allows 
the program identifier in a "LOAD", 
LOADGO", and "SAVE" command to be 
an arbitrary string expression. Version 3.0 
of Super BASIC is being released under 
CP/ M Version first and later as a serial 
paper tape version. It occupies 12K of core. 
Although primarily designed to run on 
TDLs Z80 microcomputer system, it is 
adaptable to other Z80 based systems. 
Super Basic Version 3.0 is on a diskette and 
is a part of TDL's Software Package A 
which consists of Version 3.0, the Macro 
Assembler 2.2, Z-TEL Text Editing 
Language and the Text Output Processor. 
$249. 

Contact Barbara Greenbaun, Director 
of Public Relations, Technical Design 
Labs, Research Park, Building H, IIOI 
State Road, Princeton, NJ 08540. (609) 
921-032 1. 

CIRCLE 217 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MISCELLANEOUS 



HOLE PUNCH 

This precision steel punch "exactly 
duplicates the punched holes on standard 
computer cards. Create your own, or 
correct mistakes. " Instructions included. 
$5.50. 

Punch, Box 727, Stratford, CT 06497. 




MAILING-LIST PROGRAM 

From Williams Radio and TV, the ML- 
lNS program package for the North Star 
Disk System (SWTPC disk version 
available soon) is a comprehensive mailing 
list program package, a modular program 
set which enables the user to start and 
effectively maintain one or more mailing 
lists. Operations include: Add, Delete. 
Search, Sort, Auto-Sort, and Sequential 
Printout. Features include: user-selectable 
defaults for ease of entry, user-selectable 
number of labels across page for different 
printers and label sheets, and user- 
selectable 3 or 4-line address for each 
independent entry. With complete 
documentation and North Star diskette. 
$25. Documentation package only, $4.50. 

Williams Radio and TV, Inc.. Computer 
Division, 2062 Liberty Street, P.O. Box 
33 14; Jacksonville. Ft 32206. 

CIRCLE 214 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DISASSEMBLER FOR NORTH 
STAR USERS 

DIS resides at 2A00H just as North Star 
BASIC does, and is completely integrated 
with the DOS from North Star for all I/O. 
Commands include both ASCII and 
hexadecimal dumps of memory, cross- 
reference symbol table, listing in format 
and free-format forms, and a "quick-look" 
variation for rapid decision making dis- 
assembly. Unique to this disassembler is 
the ability to leave a file in RAM for the 
assembler portion of XEK to re-assemble. 
This feature is invaluable when relocating a 
program to a different area of memory. 
When disassembling a program, DIS 
builds a symbol table and then cross- 
references it. $48. 

Byte Shop of Westminster, 14300 Beach 
Boulevard, Westminster, CA 92683. (7I4) 
894-9 1 3 1 . 

CIRCLE 216 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SUPER BASIC 

Technical Design Labs .is introducing 
Version 3.0 of Super BASIC, a 12K BASIC 
interpreter, which up-grades and 
supersedes Version 2. 1 with numerous 
speed and error-handling features. Version 
3.0 provides programmable error-handling 
that allows the user to specify special error- 
handling routines processing any error 




TRS-80 MAGAZINE ON 



CLOAD Magazine is something new: it 
is written especially for Radio Shack's 
TRS-80 computer; directly for the com- 
puter, that is. It is "printed" on a standard 
audio cassette and will load directly into 
the TRS-80 computer. Its "articles" are 
really programs ranging from short games 
to involved programs of a practical waWwe. 
Emphasis will be on education, both 
"tutor" style and through games. People 
who have programs can submit them for 
publishing much as the general author 
submits articles to a regular magazine. 
There will be 12 issues a year, each issue 
consisting of an audio cassette with six to 
ten programs (more, if possible), an index, 
and an instruction sheet. Charter subscrip- 
tion rates are $24 for one year (12 issues). 

CLOAD Magazine, Box 1267, Goleta, 
CA 93017. 

CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



20 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Radio Shack's personal computer s ystem? 
This ad just might make you a believer. 



You can't beat 
the 4K system at 

$599 




TRS-80 "Breakthru" 

• TRS-80 microcomputer 

• 12" video display 

• Professional keyboard 

• Power supply 

• Cassette tape recorder 

• 4K RAM, Level-I BASIC 

• 232-page manual 

• 2 game cassettes 



. . or the step-up 
16K system at 

$899 




TRS-80 "Sweet 16" 

• Above, except 
includes 16K RAM 



... or the fast 
4K/printer system at 

$1198 




TRS-80 "Educator" 

• Above, except 
includes 4K RAM and 
screen printer 



..or the Level-I I 

16K/printer/disk 
system at 

$2385 




TRS-80 "Professional" 

• Above, except 
includes 16K RAM, 
disk drive, expansion 
interface, and 
Level-ll BASIC 



So how are you gonna beat the system that 
does this much for this little? No way! 



. . . The amazing new 

32K/Level-ll/2-disk/ 

line printer system at 

$3874 




TRS-80 "Business" 

• Above, except 
includes 32K RAM, 
line printer, 
and two disk drives 



Get details and order now at Radio Shack stores and dealers in the USA, Canada, UK, Australia, Belgium, Holland, France, Japan. 
Write Radio Shack, Division of Tandy Corporation, Dept. C-005, 1400 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, Texas 76102. Ask for Catalog TRS-80. 



Radio /hack 

The biggest name in little computers 



Computing Profile... 



Radio Shack TRS-80 



User's Manual, Applications Programs 



User's Manual 

The "User's Manual for Level I" 
wasn't quite ready at the same time 
Radio Shack's TRS-80 microcomputer 
system was, so the first couple of 
thousand purchasers got a 30-page 
"Preliminary User's Manual." By now, 
all 4,000 or so should have received the 
regular User's Manual. 

The preliminary manual, although 
very well written, didn't have space to 
go into detail, and could only teach the 
basics of BASIC. The User's Manual 
goes into great detail in its 233 pages, 
and does such a fine job of teaching 
BASIC that Radio Shack has decided 
to sell the manual separately, at $9.95. 
The only non-"standard" features of 
Level I BASIC are the graphics 
statements and the "Shorthand 
Dialect" that permits using P. instead of 
PRINT, D. for DATA, N. for NEXT, etc., 
which allows packing more than the 
usual number of statements on a CRT 
line. Apparently no other BASIC uses 
such abbreviations, other than Palo 
Alto Tiny BASIC, around which TRS- 
80 BASIC was designed. 

The User's Manual consists of 
several introductory pages on setting 
up the system, 26 chapters on BASIC 
that range from using PRINT to 
debugging, 24 pages of answers to the 
programming exercises given in the 
chapters, 16 prepared user's programs, 
and appendixes that provide user 
subroutines fortrig and otherfunctions 
not provided in the LEVEL I ROM, in- 
formation on using cassette data files, 
and a program the user can enteron his 
TRS-80 to check out the functions, the 
RAM memory, and the display (with a 
test pattern). 

One of the first things noticed on 
opening the User's Manual is the four- 
inch righthand column that has a few 
illustrations and explanatory notes in 
it, but which is rather sparse. The 
manual, when opened, is over 22 
inches wide; without that column of 
notes, the manual could be only about 
14 inches wide when opened, and the 
notes, when incorporated into the text, 
would make it only about 16 pages 
longer. 

However, there's a good reason for 
the notes column, which was written as 



Stephen B. Gray 

footnotes to the text by Radio Shack's 
chief technical writer. As the manual 
goes into successive editions, the 
notes column will contain more and 
more information, as TRS-80 owners 
write in to ask for clarification of certain 
points, for instance. 

Page 1 consists of a prefatory 
"Personal Note from the Author," Dr. 
David A. Lien, who writes that "This 
book is written specifically for people 
who don't know anything about com- 
puters, and who don't want to be 
dazzled by fancy footwork from 
someone who does. It is written to 
teach you how to use your Radio Shack 
TRS-80 computer and start you on a 
fast track to becoming a competent 
programmer. To that end, every fair 
and unfair, conventional and un- 
conventional, flamboyant and 
ridiculous technique I could think of 
was used. I want you to have fun with 
your computer! I don't want you to be 
afraid of it, because there is nothing to 
fear." He then goes on to say, "The only 
restraints put on this book were good 
taste and a genuine attempt not to 
insult your intelligence. Beyond that, it 
contains no 'snow jobs,' no efforts to 
impress or intimidate you, and no 
attempt to sell you anything except the 
idea that computers are just not all that 
hard to use." Three more sentences are 
worth quoting, "The real enjoyment 
begins when your imagination starts 
the creative juices flowing and the 
computer becomes a tool in your own 
hands. You become its master — not 
the other way around... Enjoy your 
new computer!" 

One of the first things I realized, after 
reading a chapter or two, is that the 
author must have taught BASIC, 
because there is all sorts of information 
in this book that an author learns only 
when interacting with a class. Having 
read over 50 books on BASIC (and 
reviewed 34 of them in a six-part series 
in Creative Computing), I knew this 
was no sterile text written by someone 
who assumed his readers were as 
clever as himself. Just about all the 
bases are covered here, and with the 
added notes in the righthand column, 
very little gets left out. (Dr. Lien, 
incidentally, is dean of Grossmont 
College in San Diego, California, and 



has taught BASIC, for some years.) 

There are some peculiarities, 
however, The closest thing to an index 
is the table of contents on page 3. To 
be sure, the "Summary of LEVEL I 
BASIC" on the last two pages does give 
the chapter in which each command, 
statement, operator or function is 
described, but only by chapter number, 
not by page. So you still have to refer to 
page 3. And the chapter headings 
appear only on page 3; not a single one 
is repeated at the beginning of the 
chapter itself, so if you look at the first 
page of any chapter, there's no indica- 
tion, as there should be, of what the 
chapter contains. This is a small point, 
however, when considering that the 
average user of a TRS-80, once he's 
gone through the manual, may seldom 
refer to it again except to the summary, 
to see how to set up a seldom-used 
statement or function. 

The language of the manual is 
conversational, comfortable, and often 
colloquial. To teach a point about the 
BASIC interpreter, the author 
deliberately leads the reader into 
making an error, and then writes, "Oh 
— sorry about that! It 'bombed,' didn't 
it?" 

The pace is slow and easy; the first 
program is a one-line 10 PRINT 
"HELLO THERE, I AM YOUR NEW 
TRS-80 MICROCOMPUTER!" 

followed by two pages of explanatory 
text about PRINT, NEW, RUN, correc- 
ting errors, and the ENTER and BREAK 
keys. 

The last note in this chapter, in the 
righthand column, is a "Special 
message for people who can't resist the 
urge to play around with the computer 
and skip around in this book. (There 
always are a few!)" and goes on to tell 
how to regain control of the computer if 
lost, by using the BREAK key, or the 
Reset button inside the left rear corner. 

As an indication of the book's 
thoroughness, and the author's com- 
petence, page 13 shows how, after 
using 99 END, you can erase this line 
by typing just 99. Then you're told how 
END can be put on the highest possible 
line number, 32767, and the program 
runs exactly as before. Then you're 
asked to change the END line number 
to 50000, which will result in the error 



22 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



message "HOW?", and which is then 
explained in detail. 

The notes column contains dozens 
of anthropomorphic computer car- 
toons; drawings of a computer "per- 
son," with video monitor as head and 
keyboard as torso. A nice touch. 

By page 21, the reader is asked to 
write programs, four of them: simple 
five-line programs. 

The section for FOR-NEXR provides 
an excellent grounding in its use, 
although not much space is devoted to 
explaining print zones, the use of 
semicolons, order of operations and 
the use of parentheses. Perhaps later 
editions will, if enough readers ask for 
more information. 

The author recommends indenting 
FOR-NEXT loops to make "reading and 
troubleshooting easier." He also uses 
the phrase "fall through," which very, 
very few books on BASIC do, although 
the phrase is common enough in the 
field. 

As a further example of the manual's 
informal style, the explanation of 
multiple-statement lines says, after the 
first example, "Egad, Igor — we've 
created a monster! Will it work? RUN 
and find out." 

The chapter on the INTEGER func- 
tion notes that a rounding error occurs 
when separating the integer and 
decimal portions of 3.14159, and then 
puts in a commercial for the LEVEL II 
BASIC by saying that users who have it 
will not notice this routine rounding 
error. Then it adds, "If we solved all the 
world's problems with the bottom-of- 
the-line machine you might not wantto 
upgrade to the higher power model, 
and one doesn't stay in business long 
that way, does one?" 

Page 74 gives some fine 
troubleshooting advice, such as insert- 
ing "temporary PRINT lines anywhere 
in any program so we follow every step 
in its execution" to "observe the inner 
details of the calculations." And then, 
"It is most helpful of all when inserted 
in FOR-NEXT loops." 

Page 79 offers a "trade secret" I don't 
remember seeing in any other book on 
BASIC: adding .2 to N, making ON N+.2 
a way of taking care of rounding errors, 
since the ON-GOTO statement con- 
tains its own INT function. 

Page 99 notes that RND(O) gives 
random values between and 1 . (In my 
introductory article in the Jan-Feb 
issue, I forgot to include this, and said 
only that RND(10) provides random 
integers between 1 and 10, inclusive.) 

The text about the graphics "light" 
says it is 2 dots wide by 8 dots high. 
Actually, there aren't really any "dots," 
just horizontal raster lines, and the 
ratio is much closer to 3:7. 

The Video Display Worksheet, on 
page 106, is for laying out both 
graphics and interspersed 
alphanumerics, although very little 



information is given on the use of this 
worksheet. The proportions of the 
worksheet don't correspond to the 
video-monitor display; on the 
worksheet, the proportions of the 
"light" are in the ratio 1 :2, which results 
in the worksheet being 8-5/16 inches 
wide, while the display (on my TRS-80, 
at least) being only 7-5/8 inches wide. 
Because the vertical measurements are 
almost the same on the worksheet and 
on the screen, the resulting distortion 
means that whatever you design on the 
worksheet won't look quite that way on 
the screen... 

Several of the graphics programs use 
a RESET line beforea SET line, without 
any explanation of why you're trying to 
reset a light "block" that just doesn't 
seem to be there yet. 

What may be the only major error in 
the book is on page 118. The program 
won't run at all unless the minus sign in 
line 110 is changed to an equal sign, 
making it 110 IF Y-48 THEN 130. 



USER'S MANUAL 



Radio /haefc 




Cover of the Radio Shack TRS-80 User's Manual 
for Level I BASIC. The holes on the left margin are 
for the plastic binding that allows the open book to 
lie flat. 



Page 121 contains the only 
sentences I would argue with: 
"Because the ideas come so fast in the 
area of graphics, we have deliberately 
chosen to show you a lot of examples 
without getting bogged down in 
detailed explanations of how each one 
works. There is no substitute for lots of 
experimenting with graphics, and you 
know the basics. Put in your time, study 
the examples, and soon you can apply 
for membership in the artists' "guild." 
I'd still like to know about RESET 
before SET. 

The chapter on flowcharting is not 
very good; it should have taken some 
programs previously demonstrated 
and flowcharted them, which would be 
much more meaningful than to 
flowchart a new program. 

Chapter 25 on Advanced Sub- 
routines demonstrates the use of the 
trig and exponential subroutines given 
in Appendix A because there was no 
room in the ROM for them. The 
formulas used in the subroutines were 
modified to fit the Radio Shack TRS-80, 
according to the Radio Shack technical 



writers, and can be found in any 
mathematics manual, such as the 
McGraw-Hill Mathematics Manual by 
Frederick Merritt. The trig and inverse 
trig functions are derived from Taylor 
series, the SQR from the Newtonian 
approximation, and the exponentiation 
formulas were found in Interface Age 
(Feb. 1977, p. 103). Some "interesting 
shortcuts" were found in Scientific 
Analysis on the Pocket Calculator, by 
John Smith (Wiley, 1975). 

The last chapter, on debugging, is 
excellent, one of the best in the book, 
and offers some very good advice, 
including the unexpected, "By the 
way... a one-semester course in 
beginning typing can do wonders for 
your programming speed and typing 
accuracy." 

At the end of the text is a fine sendoff , 
"Beware of Creeping Elegance," mean- 
ing that "it's easy to lose sight of the 
purpose of the program." 

The User's Programs include some 
interesting ones, such as a 12-hour 
clock and the Parker Brothers game of 
Sorry, some useful ones such as loan 
amortization and speed reading, and a 
couple of curiosities such as the long 
"Design Program for Cubical Quad 
Antenna." 

All in all, except for not enough 
information in a couple of areas such 
as graphics, this is a manual with much 
valuable advice that would apply 
equally to commercial uses of BASIC 
as well as to hobby uses. Here is a firm 
grounding in the highways and byways 
of BASIC, by an excellent teacher. 

Educational Systems: Math I 

The first of the Radio Shack 
applications programs reviewed is 
Math I, consisting of a three-ring 
binder with 28 pages of Teacher's 
Guide, and three cassettes mounted 
inside the front cover in a simple plastic 
holder. This "3-cassette portfolio" is 
$19.95. 

Math I teaches the four basic math 
operations, with emphasis on repeti- 
tion and review. 

The first 3 1 /2 pages explain the 
system, which presents the material to 
the learner in several variations: 
3 7 4 7 

+4 -4 +3 -3 

7 3 7 4 

This is called a fact set, which is 
"formulated this way to show 
relationships of math functions. The 
learner associates and memorizes 
easier." 

Half a pageexplains, in 10steps, how 
to load the cassette program into the 
TRS-80 computer and run it. The first 
thing on the screen is: 

MATH I — ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 
WHAT WAS THE LAST GROUP COMPLETED? 

This may throw the beginner, until he 
realizes that if he hasn't completed any 



MAY JUNE 1978 



23 



group at all, and the computer insists 
on a response, then the only possible 
response is zero. It works, and YOU 
WILL NOW BEGIN GROUP 1 comes 
up on the screen, soon to be replaced 
by the first fact set. 

The first fact set is already worked 
out, with answers, and when the 
learner has memorized the 
relationships, he presses ENTER, 
which repeats the fact set but without 
the answers. He has only to copy the 
answers from the fact set above; if he 
makes a mistake, the computer urges 
him to TRY AGAIN. When he succeeds, 
VERY GOOD appears on the screen at 
top right, and at bottom right appears a 
rocket, which slowly lifts off, moves 
skyward, and disappears at the top of 
the screen. 

The same four-item fact set is 
presented again, in a slightly different 
order: the second and fourth items are 
switched. Four correct responses 
again causes a lift-off. 

This fact set is repeated, after the 
already-completed set is deleted from 
the top of the screen. Now the learner is 
on his own, with nothing to copy from, 
and if he's learned the lesson, a third 
rocket goes up. 

The computer moves on to a second 
fact set and repeats the same sequence 
as with the first set, complete with three 
rockets, Then both sets are presented 
together, eight items; first a set of eight 
with correct answers, with a set below 
to be filled in. If done correctly, the 
result is: 

YOU HAVE NOW COMPLETED GROUP 1 
VERY WELL DONE!!!! 

IF YOU WANT TO STOP, TYPE 11 

IF YOU WANT TO GO TO THE NEXT GROUP, 
TYPE 99? 

And so on for 23 groups, by the end 
of which the learner has worked his 
way through all the add and subtract 
relationships of the numbers 1 through 
10, plus a few more. All 23 groups are 
shown in the manual, covering 4 pages. 

If a learner goes through all 23 
groups, he sends up a rocket six times 
in each group. Each rocket takes 11 
seconds to go up, for a total of 1518 
seconds, or 25.3 minutes spent 
watching rockets go up. The minimum 
time to go through all 23 groups is 
about 40 minutes, so a really fast 
learner, making no mistakes, would 
spend over 60 percent of his time in 
rocket-watching. But few learners 
could go that fast, so an average 
learner may spend only 10 or 20 
percent of his time watching those 138 
rockets loft skyward, which isn't much 
time if he's really into rockets... 

Multiplication and division, on the 
second cassette, is about the same, 
with the same six rockets per group. 
The same program is repeated on the 
latter part of the tape, as it is on the first 
cassette. What's on the other side of the 
tape? The same thing: you get four 



recordings on each cassette, of the 
same thing. 

All 23 multiplication and division 
groups are given in the manual, on 8 
pages, followed by 2 pages that present 
a detailed "Preparation Before Begin- 
ning Math I Program," repeating much 
of the previous text. 

After each three groups on either 
tape, the learner has the option of 
stopping, going on to the next group, 
or taking an evaluation test, from the 
third tape: 

YOU ARE NOW READY FOR EVALUATION TEST 

NUMBER 1 

TAKE THE TEST 

AND SEE HOW YOU ARE DOING 

With this short tape, the learner 
enters a 1 to be tested on addition and 
subtraction, and a 2 for testing on 
multiplication and division. Either 
number then gives a choice of 8 tests, 
each containing 16 groups. Your score 
is calculated; if you get one wrong, 
YOUR SCORE IS 93.75%. The evalua- 
tion tests give an OK for each correct 
answer, right away, to let you know as 
soon as possible if you got it right. 

If the score is less than 85 percent, 
meaning if more than two answers are 
wrong, the learner is urged to GO 
BACK AND REVIEW THE LAST 
GROUP. 

The last half-page of the manual is a 
Summation, with, among others, these 
sentences: "It is our belief ... that 
Math I as taught on the TRS-80 Com- 
puter, achieves many skills common to 
math instruction in the 'old fashioned' 



manner that is basic instruction as well 
as incorporation of many innovative 
ideas used in the 'new math'." These 
educational programs are, to my very 
subjective thinking, the best of the four 
applications packages obtainable at 
this writing. 

Kitchen 

Three of the first four applications 
packages are in binders; "Kitchen" 
comes in a hang-on-a-pegboard 
package, with one cassette and a 
manual that provides a couple of 
paragraphs of information about the 
two programs on the tape, Recipe 
Conversion and Message Center. 

For the first, the manual says "This 
program converts a recipe for a given 
number of servings to a recipe for any 
other number of servings." Loading 
takes a minute and a half. The program 
repeats the sentence from the manual, 
"This program converts..." and then 
asks you to "Type in the no. of servings 
in the recipe and the no. of servings 
desired." After you type in, for exam- 
ple, 

4,9 
the screen comes up with instructions 
on what to do next, and when you 
understand them and press ENTER, 
the screen changes to show, at the top: 

NEW RECIPE (9 SERVINGS) 

and at the bottom of the screen you're 
asked to provide, in sequence, the 
amount of ingredient, its measure, and 
its name. As soon as the name is 
provided, and ENTER pressed, the 




Students learning how to multiply through using a Math 
microcomputer system. 



program cassette in the Radio Shack TRS-80 



24 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



computer makes a fast calculatn 
puts, for example 

4 1 / 2 CUPS SUGAR 

up under NEW RECIPE. And so on for 
13 ingredients. The manual says that 
when all the ingredients are entered, 
type 99, and the computer is supposed 
to "display the complete new recipe." 
Actually, it's already done this, and 
typing 99 will ask if you have any more 
recipes to enter. 

If your recipe has 12 or less in- 
gredients, you're OK. But if it has 13 or 
more, you've got a problem, because if 
you type in the 13th, it appears briefly 
but then disappears. The following two 
also disappear. Although the 16th 
ingredient does appear on the screen, 
it wipes out the first one. The answer is 
to either write down the first 12 
ingredients or measure them out in the 
kitchen, and enter a 99 and then a 1 so 
as to be allowed to enter another 12 
ingredients. If you type 99 and then a 2, 
you get 

END OF SESSION 

When listed out, the program turns 
out to be, as expected, quite simple. If 
the amount in the new recipe is an 
integer, the program simply prints that 
integer. If otherwise the program 
converts the fractional portion of the 
new amount, rounds it off, and con- 
verts it to eighths. 

Most of this conversion could be 
easily (and more cheaply) done on a 
calculator. All you need is a conversion 
table for converting fractions to 
decimals, and use the new-recipe ratio 
as a constant. However, this computer 
program does convert to integers plus 
eighths, which would take more than 
just a little extra time with a calculator. 

On the flip side of the tape is the 
Message Center program, which when 
entered into the TRS-80 (in 40 
seconds) with CLOAD, advises you to 
type in your message, and at the end of 
each line to press ENTER. "After you 
have typed and entered the last line, 
press Shift/Q." When you press 
Shift/Q, all it does is to wipe out the 
messages. So all this does is provide 
you with an electronic blackboard. 

What neither the program nor the 
manual tells you is that you don't press 
first Shift and then Q, but hold down 
Shift and then press Q. Another sur- 
prise may come if the user tries to list 
the Message Center program. He can't, 
as it's in machine language, since the 
only way to get such long strings is to 
write the program in assembly 
language. 

This cassette, at $4.95, doesn't seem 
destined to be a best-seller at Radio 
Shack. However, if enough people are 
interested in converting a recipe for 4 
into a recipe for 9, I could be very 
wrong. After all, it will even convert to a 
recipe for 9.6, if you want to cook for 9 
adults and one small child. ■ 

MAY/JUNE 1 978 




25 



CIRCLE 162 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




MYTH 

IF HOME COMPUTERS REAUY CAN'T" DO 
PRACTICAL THINGS, LIKE WASHING THE PISHES, VACUUMING 
THE CARPETS, AND DOING THE LAUNDRY, THEN THEY ARE 
A POOR INVEST/WENT FOR THE AVERAGE PERSON, BXCBPT 
FOR AAAYFE" AN OCCASIONAL SAME OF PON 6, 
WHICH WILL OUIOCLV BEOOWE'A BORE- 






•v> 






5£ 



«?£»* 



Ki 
^ 



"CREATIVE COMPUTING 1978 



Cut out this ad and mail it to us 
with your resume. 



Maybe your job 
isn't getting duller. 

Maybe you're 
getting sharper. 



This is one place your job won't dull out on you. As soon as you're too sharp for 
it, we have another place for you. 

We've grown in ten years to $250 million plus in sales. Data General is the 
computer company that changed the expression on the face of the industry, with 
systems like NOVA and ECLIPSE. We're now up to 44,500 in installations worldwide. 

And we want sharp people. Tbll us all about yourself. Check position which 
interests you most. 

Systems Analysts 

You will participate in the development of on-line manufacturing systems, 
therefore at least three years of directly related experience is required, together 
with the ability to prepare system design and detail program specification. A work- 
ing knowledge of Cobol and exposure to assembler is also needed. Knowledge of 
communications systems and data base management is a plus. 

Diagnostic Programmers 

You will design, code and debug assembler language programs for fault isola- 
tion, to the chip level, in digital systems. You will also write functional level system 
exercisers for stand-alone and disc-based real-time operating systems. A technical 
degree or the equivalent experience is needed, together with a thorough understand- 
ing of digital system hardware. Hardware troubleshooting experience and 3 or more 
years' programming experience, preferably in diagnostics is very desirable, espe- 
cially with strong assembly language skills. 

Mail your resume to Tbm Aldrich at Data General Corporation, Route 9, South- 
boro, MA 01772. Data General is an equal opportunity employer, M/F. 

My resume's attached. I want to turn a dull ache into a sharp ambition. 

Signature: 




DataGeneral 



Beginner's 
View 

of the 

SAM76 
Language 




Claude A. Kagan 



For a long time, BASIC and .assembly language have 
been the only programming languages available for 
microcomputers. But already we're seeing the develop- 
ment for microcomputers of more of the traditional 
computer languages— FORTRAN, COBOL, APL, etc. 
However, some languages not widely available on any 
computers before are now being released to the amateur 
computing community. The following article describes a 
new language called SAM76. SAM is a "string processing 
macro language" based on two other macro languages: 
Strachey's GPM and Mcllroy's M6. SAM76 is not a typical 
language utilizing line after line of code to be executed in 
sequence, and different types of variables. Rather, SAM76 
is designed to handle "texts" that may contain procedures 
to be executed, or just data to be manipulated. Thus SAM 
excels at text processing. In fact, subsets of BASIC, 
ALGOL, and APL have been easily implemented in SAM 
(though they suffer in executional speed because you 
have an interpreter interpreted by an interpreter. ... On the 
other hand, SAM's built-in math functions are rather 
crude: only add, subtract, multiply, and divide in integer 
mode only. But since numbers are stored just like other 
texts (a string of digits) it is simple to do interesting things 
like calculate 100-digit factorials. Of course it is simple to 
add your own number-processing functions to SAM. 

As of this writing, distribution plans for SAM76 are not 
definite. The language and documentation will be in the 
public domain, so probably you'll be able to get a copy of 
SAM76 through local computer stores, or computer-club 
software libraries. SAM76 is available for 8080 and Z-80 
microprocessors (the Z-80 version fits in 8K, and the 8080 
version is about 1K larger). For further information on 
SAM76, and some helpful information on loading and 
running it, see the January 1978 issue of Dr. Dobb's 
Journal. Also, we'd be interested in readers' reactions to 
this language. —Steve North 



The SAM76 language deals mostly with the manipulation of 
text. It is designed for use through a reactive machine 
such as a personal computer such as a "home reckoner" set. 



The language design has the structure to allow interaction 
of functions resident in the machine with exoressions, 
scripts or Drocedures written by the user; in this manner 
the language aives the user an unusual amount of 
flexibility and freedom for invention and extension. 

The syntax consists first of a "warning character" followed 
by the expression itself then terminated by a different 
second "syntax marker"; in the following discussion the 
"warning characters used will be one of the following 
three: % - percent sign, & - ampersand or ! - exclamation 
mark; the "syntax marker" will be the / - slant sign for 
example: 



%, 



./ or & / or else ! 



/ 



The foregoing three examples represent respectively the 
three types of expressions used in the SAM76 languaae and 
are known respectively as "active", "neutral" or 
'protected" expressions; the significance of the three 
types will be explained later. 

The expression itself is made up of arguments which are 
separated by commas. The first argument designates the 
action to be taken. If this first argument consists of two 
or three alphabetic characters, the action to be taken ^ay 
well be one defined as a function built in to the languaoe 
or otherwise a language oriTitive function. Each araument 
following contains text or data to be dealt with by the 
action taken within the execution of the expression . 

For instance we wish to add two and four; conseouently we 
type everything in the following example up to and 
including the "= : ' eoual sign which tells the computer to do 
its thing: 



n 

{} %ad,2,4/=6 
{} 



The two letter code "ad" signifies the primitive of 
addition. Upon execution, which was initiated by the eoual 
sign after the slant sign, the value of the second araument 
or 2 was added to the value of the third or 4. Then the 
value computed is outDutted. The system then returns to a 
waiting condition known as the idling DroaraT which 
identifies itself by moving the "cursor" or printer to the 
beginning of the next line. 



The idling program is actually the following expression: 
%os,%is// 



When starting, the innermost expression is located which 
contains an "is" primitive; "is" - or "input strino" 
accepts input from the keyboard up to the reception of the 
current "activator" namely (in our case) the eoual sign. 
The computer replaces the %is/ expression with this typed 
in text. Now the system goes back one level of nesting to 
the expression whose command was "os" or "output string"; 
this expression outputs the contents of the second argument 
which is now the text accepted from the keyboard, thus 
repeating what was typed in. For example: 



Tf - 

{ } %os , % i s//=ABC=ABC 

{} 



In actual fact the expression "%os,%is//=" is executed 
everytime the idling program is loaded; it is not printed 
out and lives in what is known as the working area of the 
memory so actually the printed example should be: 



i) 

i) 



ABC=APC 



28 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



It is important to be able to store text, script or 
procedures in memory. To this end the "dt" which is the 
mnemonic for the "define text" function is used. If we wish 
to define a text to be named "A" containina the words "AN 
APPLE" we type: 



tr 

{} 
{} 



%dt,A,AN APPLF/* 



rtow stored in memory is a "text" named "A" containina the 
words "AN APPLF". To retrieve this information we "fetch" 
the "text" named "*", and in this processs the second 
argument of the idlinq program will contain the words 
stored and the "os" will outout the value returned in the 



fetching of "A" thusly: 



tr 

{} 
{} 



%ft,A/=AN APPLF 



Then we defined the text "A" nothina was returned since 
"dt" does not return any value on execution. 

To Continue - "ot" or "partition text" removes one or more 
characters from a string and in its place sets markers 
which represent the value of the partition. 



tr 

U 
{} 



%pt,A,AN/= 



The second: 

tr ' 

{} %fe,P/=SHACK 
U 

The third: 

tt— " *" 

{} %fe,B/=ON 

{} 



It is very simple to find out where the partitions and the 
divider happen to be at any time by using the "vt" or "view 
text" primitive thus: 



tT 
{} 
{} 



%vt,B/=THE[l] SHACK [1]0N[1] ( I ]TKF[1] HILL. 



In this view of text "P" the partitions, all of value "1" 
are shown as [1] , and the location of the text divider is 
shown by ( | J . 

At the end of the "text" there is nothing left to return: 



TT 

{} %fe,B/= 
{} 



The second argument holds the name of the text to be dealt 
with; the third argument is the string of characters which 
if found in the "text" will be removed and replaced by 
partitions. Now to examine "A": 



tr 
{} 
{} 



%ft,A/= APPLE 



Note that "AN" is missing and nothing shows its presence 

because the expression that fetched "A" above did not 

recuire any partitions to be "plugged" in a manner to be 
shown later. 

We will now define another text to be named "P": 

tr - - 

{} %dt,B,THE SHACK ON THE HILL/* 
U 

We partition that text on space: 

tr - 

{} %pt,E, /= 

n 

We fetch "E" and get: 

tr 

{ } %f t , B/*THESHACKCNTHEHILL 

Notice the spaces are omitted. 

"fe" or "fetch element" returns the contents of the text 
designated by the second arguTent; but on finding a 
partition it stops outout. On the execution of the next 
"fe" on that text the next element of the text between 
partitions are returned: 

The first: 



tr 

{} %fe,B/=THF 
{} 



The gadget which remembers where one left off in the "text" 
is known as the "text divider"; each text has one of its 
own. This divider may be moved around by the execution of a 
a number of different primitives or may be ordered around 
through the use of the "md" - "move divider" function thus: 



tr — 

{} %md,B/= 
{} 



will return the divider to the beginning or left end of the 
"text" named "P". 

Now to explain how to replace the partitions in a text with 
characters; to do this we add arguments to the expression 
that is used to fetch the text. For instance if we wish to 
fetch "B" replacing the partitions with an asterisk: 



tr — ' 

{} %ft,B,*/=THE*SKACK*ON*THE*riLL 
{} 



Now we can redefine "F" as this valve retuned snd in other 

words return it to the oriqinal: 



tr-— - - 

{} %dt,E,%ft,n, //= 
{} 



If we now fetch "B" it would seem that the oriqinal has 
never been changed: 



n 

{} %ft,B/=THE SHACK ON THE HILL 




Since the SAM76 language works from the inside to the 
outside of the expression, it first fetched "B" replacing 
the partitions with spaces; then on doing the next 
expression a "text" named "E" was defined (erasing the 
original and partitioned out version). This usage of 
interactive functions, primitives within primitives is 
called nesting. In theory this can be done to any depth - 
in other words it is limited only by the amount of memory 
available. 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



29 



J 



tm 



Look To The Horizon. 
The North Star 



HORIZON Computer. 




HORIZON ™ 

To begin programming in extended BASIC, merely add 
a CRT or hard-copy terminal. HORIZON- 1 includes a 
Z80A processor, 16K RAM, minifloppy tm disk and 12- 
slot S-100 motherboard with serial terminal interface — all 
standard equipment. 

And, Look To Computer Enterprises 

For The Lowest Prices & Fastest 

Delivery On North Star Horizon 

Computer System: 

Credit Cash 

Card Discount 

Price Price 

Horizon 1 System (one drive) kit ... $1497 $1439 

Horizon 1 System (one drive) 

assembled $1777 $1709 

Horizon 2 System (two drives) kit . . $ 1 87 1 $1799 
Horizon 2 System (two drives) 

assembled $2199 $2114 

ALSO: Run TDL Software On Your 

Horizon... 

TDL Package A with Super Basic . . $ 228 $ 219 

For Your Serial Terminal: 

Lear Siegler ADM-3 A (kit) $ 728 $ 700 

Lear Siegler ADM-3A (assembled) .$858 $ 825 

Call Or Write Today 

For Computer Enterprises' 

FREE Spring Computerlogue! 

IMSAI PCS-80/30 kit $1097 $1055 

IMSAI PCS-80/15 kit $ 748 $ 719 

IMSAI VIO-C kit $297 $286 

TDL ZPU Board (assembled) $183 $ 176 

TDL XITAN ALPHA 1.5 kit $ 812 $ 781 

Seals 8k 250ns RAM (assembled) . . $ 203 $ 195 
Dynabyte 16k 250ns Static RAM 

(assembled) $ 577 $ 555 

Cromemco Z2D kit $1399 $1345 

Cromemco Bytesaver less Proms kit $ 1 36 $ 131 

Shipping charges: $10 per CPU on larger units; $1.50 per kit. $2.00 min. 
per order. 

Delivery is stock to 30 days on most items. Shipment is immediate for 
payment by cashier's check, money order or charge card. Allow 3 weeks 
for personal checks to clear. N.Y. State residents add approp. sales tax. 
Availability, prices and specs may change without notice. 

AAMM Jfc/V/ Operating Hours: 

Wl I l/VIVl M-VV 10-5 EST. 

/mL^M^ TH-F10-9E.S.T. 
\Jf |%d I /||/\^/ Closed Sat. & Sun 

P. O. Box 71 Fayetteville, N.Y. 13066 

Phone (315) 637-6208 Today! 



Another example of nesting: 

n - - - 

{} %dt,C,H/= 

{} %pt,F,%ft,C//= 

{} %ft,B/=TE SACK ON TF ILL 



In the above example the text named 'T" was partitioned on 
the basis of the characters received on fetchino the text 
named "C". To return it to the original form we tvpe: 

TT ~ 

{} %ct,e,%ft,R,%ft r c///= 

1L 

In the latter reconstitution, text "C" was first fetched 
then this in the act of fetching "D" was used to reolace 
partitions found therein; the result was then the argument 
of the define text expression. 

At this time we will introduce a short cut in the act of 
"fetching". If the name of the text to be fetched is not 
the same as any of the primitives or built in functions 
then the first argument "ft" may be left out and the name 
of the text is usee as the first araument of the 
expression. As we are usini one character names for all our 
examples we can do this ouite safely from now on. 

In order to find out what the primitives in a system are 
you can do this by executing the "Pf" - 'what function" 
command thus: 

TT — 

&@?f, /={function list will be here} 
{} 



Observe the use of the & - ampersanc instead of the % sign 
as a warning character to start the expression; also since 
£ is in its own right a warnirq character, it ir protected 
by oreceding it with a second a, and the sr,ace after the 
comma is used to tell the function what you wish to use to 
separate the individual function mnemonics from each other. 

The SA^'76 language provides the ability of executing text 
strinqs and have the functions or expressions in that 
string executed. This is done by enclosing these executable 
expressions within the bounds of a "protected expression" 
thus inhibiting execution at the time of definition. These 
protected expressions are also called Drocedures or 
scripts. 



\r 

[) 
{) 
{} 
{} 



%dt,D,!%pt,B,%C////= 

%D/= 

%B/*TF. SACK ON TE ILL 



The fetching of "D" caused the execution of the procedure 
stored therein which in turn said - partition text "B 



on 



the contents of "C". 



Next we can define a text that will restore "P" to its 
oriainal state: 



30 



n - -- ' 

{} %dt,E,i%dt,P,%P,%C/////= 

{ } %E/= 

{} %P/=THE SHACK Of: THE HILL 

{} 



The part of the expression to be executed is enclosed 
between an ! - exclamation mark and a / - slant sign 
showing an executable procedure. It is easy to qo from here 
and let the expression call another expression or itself by 
simply fetching the text it is contained in. This ability 
cf recursion lets individual strings act as "subroutine" 
expressions. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




II 
II 
II 



Beainner's - Part II - Procedures 



II 
II 
II 



A SAM76 language procedure is a strina of SA. M 76 functions 
executed when fetched by one of the three followino 
excressions: 



We will now use "os" in an executable expresssion to 
disolay the contents of 'T": 



TT 
{} 
{} 
U 



%dt , F , ! %D/%OS , %P//%E///= 
%F/=TE SACK OK TV HILL 



%ft,text name/ or %text name/ or &text name/ 

The latter two of the three are said to be imolied fetches, 
that is to say that when the first argument of an 
expression is not the mnemonic of a resident or built in 
function, then a "fetch" of the "text" whose name is in the 
first argument is assumed. 



There are two other ways of protect ina orocedures, besides 

using the ! / form; these are by using ( ) or 

< > ; in this manner you can incoroorate ! and / in 

your text without having them act as if they were warning 
characters. 

Let us now say that we wish to be able to fetch one string 
and have it partition out of "E" the contents of "C" ; then 
outout the contents of "P" and then restore "F" to its 
original form. To do this we need to use the "os' or 
"outnut string" primitive. This primitive outputs the 
contents of the second argument of its expression: 



TT 
{} 
{} 



%OS,ADC/=APC 



Now 
"OS" 

execution: 



if we nest the expression that fetches "P" within the 
expression, the contents of "B" will be displayed on 



TT 
{} 
{}" 



%OS,%E//=THE SHACK CT THF FULL 




First on execution of "F" , "D" was fetched. Execution of 
"C" caused the Partitioning of "P" on the contents of "C". 
The execution of "os" displayed "B" as it stood with its 
partitions empty or "null". Then "F" was fetched and in its 
execution "F" caused the redefinition of "B" replacina the 
partitions with the contents of "C" thus restoring it hack 
to its original condition. 

Finally we would like to know just what we have created and 
stored in the "text area" of memory. To do this we use the 
"It" or "list text" primitive; the second argument 
represents the character string we wish to use to precede 
each name just so we can tell them apart from each other 
thus: 



TT 
{} 
{} 



%lt, /= P C D E F F 



In this example we used a space which precedes each na^e; 
note that "P" is last in the list - that is "because it was 
redefined for the last time when we fetched "F" in the 
previous example. 



The editor of this beginner's 
descriotion of the SA"76 language wishes 
to credit Robert H. Fvans, from whose 
first technical writing effort this was 



II 




II 


1 1 


Nota Bene 


II 


II 




II 



derived. 



Note that in the definition of procedures it is necessary 
to protect the functions to prevent immediate execution; 
for example: 

TT -— 

{} %dt,A,!%os,THIS IS A PROCEDURE///= 
{} 



If there are partitions in the procedure they will be 
replaced in the same manner as when fetching ordinary 
strings of text with partitions; thus arguments can be 
plugged in at the time of execution: 



TT 
{} 
U 
{} 

{} 



%dt , SQUARE , ! %MU , * , *///= 

%Pt,SCLAFE,*/= 
%SOUAP£,12/=144 



Functions can be nested tc eliminate the I I 
need for storing a text in memory if it II 
is to be nested only once; for instance: I I 

i i 



nested 
functions 



II 
II 
II 



%os,WHAT IS YOUF f«AME?- Aos, 
V.ELL HELLC THEFE %is// 

The above procedure will display "WHAT IS YOUF KAMF?- " 

then it will input a strinq from the keyboard and displav 

' i.ELL HELLC THERE " followed by the strinq read in from, the 
keyboard. 

It will input the string first because the inout string 
function is nested within the outout string expression so 
the input string expression will have to be evaluated to 
make the output string function complete with a value. 

Another example of nested functions is concatenating 
(joining end to end) something onto a string: 



"Oh-oh . . . that's something I hadn't counted on." 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



31 



n — 

{} %dt,A,&ft,A/ SOKF TFXT/= 
{} 



This will fetch "A" and place the contents where the 

fetching expression was. Then it will redefine "A" as the 
previous value plus whatever else was put in the define 
text expression. 

When expressions are nested the innermost expression is 

evaluated first and the value is placed where the 
expression used to be. 



To make a procedure loop, all that is 

necessary is tc place a fetching 

expression to the procedure within the 
Drocedure thus: 



1 




II 


1 loooino 


and 


II 


1 recursion 


II 


! 




II 



TT" 
{} 

n 

{} 
{} 
{} 
{} 

{} 
{} 
{} 
o 



%dt / PFOC,!%os, 

THIS PROCEDURE 

%PPOC/= 

THIS PROCEDURE 
PROCEDURE 
PROCEDURE 
PPOCECUFE 
PROCEDURE 
PROCEDURE 



THIS 
THIS 
THIS 
THIS 
THIS 



LOOPS /%PROC///= 

LOOPS 

LOOPS 
LOOPS 
LOOPS 
LOOPS 
LOOPS 



<sce-pro> 



The above example would keep running indefinitely, and so a 
means of emergency interruption is orovided through the 
operation of the "rub out" or "delete' key during the 
procedure execution; termination in this manner is 
inoicated by the "special condition exit" message. If the 
loopina procedure had partitions in it, these would be 
replaced durino the fetching operation. 

Short recursive orocedures car be written to do such things 
as factorial, square roots or exponentiation. Following is 
an example of a procedure to take the factorial of a 

number: 




'Looks like it might be a nice day tomorrow!" 



The following is an example of a procedure that is not 
recursive: 



TT' 

{} 

{} 

{} 

{} 

{} 



%dt,F, 

!%ii,*,l,l,!%mu,*,%F,%su,*,l//////////= 

%pt,F,*/= 

%F,5,/=120 



Note the extra number of slant sicrns used in the exoression 
that defines "F" is not really recuired, but it is safer to 
put a few extra / signs than too few, and the count can be 
a little hairy at times. 

In the foregoing example the procedure first tests to see 
whether or not the number (in the partition which reolacod 
the asterisk) is one; if it is then the factorial is one, 
else the factorial is the number times the factorial of the 
number minus one which is computed by fetchina aaain "F". 



Another example of recursive 
expression to do exponentiation: 



procedure is the followinc 



V 
i) 
{} 
I) 
I) 
i) 



%d t , POV.Tfc , ! % i i , EXP , 1 , RASr , 

! %mu, BASE, % PO- -EF,PASE,%su,FXP,l ///////= 

%pt , POKER , EASE , EXP/= 

%PCY.TR,2,4/=16 



This procedure is cuite similar to the one for factorial; 
first it tests to see whether or not the exoonent 
(partition [2] or EXF) is ecual to one. If it is so ecual , 
then the result is the EASE (partition fl]), else the 
result is the base times the base raised to the oower of 
the exponent minus one, which is computed by recursion, as 
before. In the end all the multiplications are performed 
and the result is left. 



TT 




{ } %dt , 


PI , ! %dt , K , l/%dt , X , l/%os , 


{ } /%F2///= 


{ } %dt , 


F2,!%os,%ps,-3, ,V:// %F/ 


{ } /%dt 


,!:,%3d^y,l//%ct,Y,*mu,%N7, 


{ } %X///%F2///= 


{} %F1/ 




{} 1 


1 


{} 2 


2 


{} 3 


6 


{} 4 


24 


{} 5 


12u 


{} 6 


720 


{} 7 


5040 


{} 6 


40320 


{} 9 


362880 


10 


3628800 


{} 11 


39*168u0 


{} 12 


479001680 


{} 13 


622702U800 


{} 14 


87178291200 


{} 15 


1307675368000 


{} 16 


20922789888000 


{ } <sce- 


-F2> 



This procedure starts at 1 an^ disolays the factorials of 
each number in ascending order until it is interrupted. The 
"text" named "Fl" sets "r" to 1, and "X" (the factorial of 
"f'") to 1 also; then it disolays a new line code and 
fetches "F2". 

"F2" displays the values of "K" and "X" seoarated bv some 
spaces - some spaces are padded to the left of "W to make 
it look nice - and the whole line is terminated by a new 
line code. "F2" then redefines "N" as "N" clus 1 ," and 'X" 
as the value of *W" times the value of "X". lastly "F?" 
fetches itself aaain. 



32 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






m 

X w o w 

os "~+ -* 
to 3D £ *< 
3 > ® 

II 



±3 

— CD 

*3 



o — • 

so "O 3 
m Q) _k 



o 

o 



"O =♦ 
O ^ 

* £*< 
c o) O 

H (O C 

z CD ""• 

- 2 ^ 

« 3 °- 
3 °-2 



w 



a"2. 
ql c -5' 
==co 

5'o> 

CO 3 

»8 

<Q CO 

a> — 
»fo 

& 

CO 
ST 

8 



z 

cd g 
2 • 

> 
a. 

5 

■ 
8 









1/9 

m 




Z 


s 




o 

a o 


3B 




© 




00^ > 


s 




§ 2. H 






c © m 


5 




£<■> » 


• 

CO 




78. "< 


X 




o © z 
!Iz c 


!< 




J.° 2 


S 




a 






w m 


r— 




30 


a^ 






2E 




H 


CO 


o 






3 

o O 


— « 




C3 






jj^ 




"n^ (9 


g 




a 5 o 

-2r O 


o 




c/xd ^ 


s 






5 




-r ° 






3 > 


o 




z 


(JS 




H 









0*3 

<D g 
Co 



3 
Ct) 

S"Co 
3 ~» O 

• O 3 
C Co 
CQ =* 

^C 

go 1 

<■» 
p-» 

C to 
to X 



Cr 

CD 



O 

CD 



"O ^ 



CD 

"O 
CO 



~© 

?r © 



o 

CD 
Co 

CO 

c 

a' 
o 



0) 

o 

CD 

cr 
o 

o 

-1 
0} 



O © O 3 3 CD 

rnO — * — 3 



r H3 — ® 



o 



CO Os< •£■ 

go* ztn 2 

CD 3 — O o ° 

a 5 ' 2 -©! 3 

C O Q.CO 2. I 

™ 5 5' — cd o 



0) - 
O 3 

3". CD 

o to 

? CO 



W £ CD 3 

=? 3 



o 



cr=- _ = 



»< CO 

-*3 



8*° 

O CO 
CO - Q. 
— CD 



;CD - 

3 g- 



3 

p» 

CD CO 

co c 
3-co 



<J ~* CD CO 



O 

3- 
CO 

tQ 
CD 



a 

CD 
3 



£"2 i-o o 

3 2 -• CO 
~ o 2» O -i CT 
CO CO 3Q.Q 



3tQ _ O 



-J. CO 



CO w 

• 3 

OS 



CD 



Q> 



T3 

tQ =^ 
O O 
O Co 

o -» 
^ o 

Co c 

CD CO 
CD 
CO 



^5.8 P 



3 CD CO 



=tp; 


o 


CD 


c 


m ^ t 




3- 


3 


CD 


o 


O 




o 


o 

CD 


3 








n 


a 


CD 


o 


3 


3 


CO 


■Q 




CO 

3 


c: 


^5 


CO 


CO 


3 



tO O CD O CO ^ 
CD - 3" 

IT = — 2 ^ w 

c?" W ?" W 
• CD o S w 3 

*♦ *° CD T3 
5>" W CD Q, _ 3 

co Q. ^ £• 
ex 3*. w = ^f 

"^ a> c q, 3- 

C^S.cD^i" 

o;cd 3 =5Q 

8Z?q w & 

„,OT3 CD 
CO c 3 

i . 3<0) 



~l<Qc 

=1 — 5 CD 3 
~-*2. CD Q. 

CD ^ _ ° 2 

CO =t—-Q 
^2-^^c^ 

- -~+ 3 CD W 

"° P CD 

CD © 5. ZT 

co3| 3. 3 

O CD 

3=r» 



tQ 3* 
CO CD 

q ® | 

" Q.C0 



o 

o 

3 
■a 



cr 
o 
o 



C^ 



3< 

il 

o 3 

CT 



CD 
i 



Co CD . ^> CD 
^ »-»■ — . -* C/) 

^ c =rcD 3 

~* CD — 

__CD 2 W T3 
-KQ.CD Q, 

_W CD 

3CD_^- 

2 CD CD 

^ ° — 
CD •-> =? 

Oct cd 
3 °-c o ~ 

CO CD CD 
CO X" -• 3 CD 

3 CD 3 *< X3 



< =f 

c^c? 
-CD 3. 

c/> w =? 



CD O 



> CD» CD 



O 

a. 

c 

_3 o 

CD o 

3 S3 

CO CT 

*< cd -a 

2L c-o ° 
"3 c o 

-* CO ~* 

=?-♦!? 

m CO -* 

® x 00 

^^ 

o ^ 1-1 

00^ 
x-wc 
co T co 



CD 

co 

CO 
CD 

CD 

3 



3 

CD 

CO 
CO 

CO 

3 

CD 

3 

CT 
CD 

^ 

CD 

3 

a. 

CO 

CD 

3 

a. 

3 

CD 

? 
CD 

O 

CT 
O 
O 

CO 

5' 
Q. 

o' 

a 

CD 

Q. 



CO* W ,« 

x >< S5 

1 



O CO 



CD 



3D 



O 

o 



>4 



Co 3) 

&> 

o < 

» o 

li 

— CD 



■o =» 

CO -* 

*< c 

CO — 

o ^ 

(O v< 

co o 

to c 

CD ^ 

^° 

3 °- 
a. cd 



tD-a m 

— CO 

3 CO 
CO 3 

°1 

»8 

' CO 



* 



>o 
w 
o 
to 



co co 

3 
Q. 

CO 

CO 

CD 



3 

CD 
CD 

> 

a 

a. 

CD 
CA 

ca 



Z 
3 

CD 









CO 

m 






O 




a 


z 









§ 3. -H 






c® m 


3 




£0 °° 


• 

i2 




£.<» z 
Jz c 


r— 




5.° s 


£ 




CD 


1— 




30 


=J 




H 




CO 


C3) 






O O 


O 














3-. W 


e 




s?* ^ 


% 




1? !2 


4S 




2.S. -< 






oi g 

*• < 

< 






5 > 







z 


c 




H 









CT3 3 

cd 2 9 

r« rJ CO 

CO P. CO 

• O 3 
C Co 
CQ =• 



CT 

CD 



O 

CD 
T3 



CO 3 =f tt 3 -* 

r o2.^oo 



"o ii 



3?:« 



CD 

CO 
P 



3 
O 
CD 



CT=1C0 
O ° O 

■dE3c«3»3:cd 
ccr^g^cDoto 

Q.5CQ 5" co ? cd 



E.O cd 



CD 



s-Srct* 



9-3 
5 CO 

a-* 

C CO 

to x 
""cd 

Zr CD 



o 
O 



P 0-1 = 



co o«< 

to o - rio® 

3 -C3 
~ 3 _ 3 



O 
CD 
Co 

CO 

c 
o- 

o 



0} 
I 

3: 



CD 
-O 

C 
— < 
CD 

3 

CD 

3 



O 



o at»2. I 

C =■ _. CD O 

W CD 3 3" 
CT__^ 3 



== CD 

o =; — 



o8o§o-g 
Co co 3-Q.g cd 



CO 

co E 




?1 

CQ =^ 

o o 
O co 

a?: 

-*<D 

o -» 
""• o 

CD c 

^c^ 

3 Q) 
CD CO 



3 CD co 

^* /A ^' 



3 

o 

o* 
p 

O 
o 

3 

"O 
to 

3 

^: 

o- 

c 

CO 



3* 
CD 

O 
O 

3 

3* 
CD 

3 

5. 

CO 

• 

3 

c 

CO 



5 So sl^l 

"HCO ^.=5 Q.J- T! 

coco cD tt _3- a 

3 ~ ^ O CO 

^— CD ". ^ — . — 

a -• to _ -•«< < 2 
^cDCcoSSo' 

o-cd 3=^Q_- 

2 "* 2"o C0 C 3 
2. =f 2 " CT < CD 

mCO ® 3" to © 
-* CD ^.Q-CO CT3 Q- 

P -» -• =v < »< s. ^. 

^0*0 CD co 

gc_.3 50,5- 

V73«<CDi3CD 



^©=-«3 CD" 
3 3 i° _^ 3 

£ liS Is 

CO - Q.3-CD_^ 
3 -to to CD CD. 

CO tow q." < 
CL<Q — S'CD 
c CD "3 3 3 -* 

5 S ^toO 
^033:^0- 

5—° zj 3" 2 
©^■c32«>i 
3 cd co a. co 

^1^2.2.-* 

»Cq< 5 

-^ CD CO -i CD 

5° o 3 co o -• 

-2ST" 

— . - 

= (DJQ. 



©co 

CO 50 ° 



CD 

to 

CO 
CD 

CD 

3 



3 

CD 

to 
co 

to 

3 

CD 

3 

CT 
CD 

to 

3 

Q. 

co 

CD 

3 
Q. 

3 

CD 



325 



■o 

© to ,_ CD o 
CDgc?33^ 

3- B: _ to CT^ 

^ ^» O s< CD T5 

CD 5- w ^ ™ ^ 
~ 2 3 -, CO -• 
3= O CD" O 
CD ©CD £--0 CD 

00-03 s a 

— O Q. CO 

□QtO -CD * ^ 

= -*3T0^5 -n 
CD _ CD O OS. 

=;. 3 © 5c JO C 



3" 
CD 

O 

CT 
O 
O 

3T 
CO 

5' 
Q. 

O* 

to 

*♦ 

CD 

Q. 



Business Reply Mail 

No Postage Stamp Necessary if Mailed in the United States 



FIRST CLASS 

PERMIT NO. 42 

Hightstown, N. J. 



Postage will be paid by 



Computer Professionals' 
Book Club 

P.O. Box 582 

Hightstown, New Jersey 08520 



Business Reply Mail 

No Postage Stamp Necessary if Mailed in the United States 



FIRST CLASS 

PERMIT NO. 42 

Hightstown, N. J. 



Postage will be paid by 



Computer Professionals' 
Book Club 

P.O. Box 582 

Hightstown, New Jersey 08520 




MICROPROCESSOR APPLICATIONS MANUAL 

by Motorola, Inc. 

435/278 Pub. Pr., $28.50 Club Pr., $22.50 

HANDBOOK OF CIRCUIT ANALYSIS 
LANGUAGES AND TECHNIQUES 

by R. Jensen & L. McNamee 

769/656 Pub. Pr., $34.50 Club Pr., $28.50 

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES: 
History & Fundamentals 

by J. E. Sammett 

767/513 Pub. Pr., $25.00 Club Pr., $19.95 

GAMES & PROGRAMS 
MATHEMATICS FOR MODELING 

by R. R. Singleton & W. Tyndall 

767/815 Pub. Pr., $13.00 Club Pr., $10.75 

GETTING INVOLVED WITH YOUR 
OWN COMPUTER— 
A Guide For Beginners 

by L. Solomon & S. Veit 

771/952 Pub. Pr., $9.95 Club Pr., $8.35 

ILLUSTRATING BASIC 

(A Simple Programming Language) 

by D. Alcock 

771/928 Pub. Pr., $10.95 Club Pr., $8.95 

ADVANCED ANS COBOL WITH 
STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING 

by G. D. Brown 

772/118 Pub. Pr.,$19.95 Club Pr.,$15.95 

GRAMMARS FOR PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES 

by J. C. Cleaveland & R. C. Uzgalis 
783/594 Pub. Pr., $15.95 Club Pr., $12.75 

MINICOMPUTER SYSTEMS 
Organization and Programming 

by R. H. Eckhouse, Jr. 

768/641 Pub. Pr., $18.95 Club Pr., $13.95 

THE COMPULATOR BOOK— 

Building Super Calculators & Minicomputer 

Hardware with Calculator Chips 

by R. P. Haviland 

783/578 Pub. Pr., $10.95 Club Pr., $9.30 

BUILD YOUR OWN WORKING ROBOT 

by D. Heiserman 

769/31 1 Pub. Pr., $8.95 Club Pr., $7.60 

MICROCOMPUTERS/MICROPROCESSORS: 
Hardware, Software and Applications 

by J. L. Hilburn & P. N. Julich 

771/499 Pub. Pr., $19.50 Club Pr., $15.60 

MINICOMPUTERS: 
Structures and Programming 

by T. G. Lewis & J. W. Doerr 

773/009 Pub. Pr., $13.95 Club Pr., $10.95 

THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS HANDBOOK 

by F. W. McFarlan & R. L. Nolan 

769/ 29X Pub. Pr., $35.00 Club Pr., $25.50 

MICROPROCESSOR PROGRAMMING FOR 
COMPUTER HOBBYISTS 

by N. Graham 

7831 56X Pub. Pr., $12.95 Club Pr., $10.95 

LET'S TALK LISP 

by L. Siklossy 

770/077 Pub. Pr., $13.95 Club Pr., $10.95 



Introductory offer to new members of the 

Computer Professionals' Book Club 

Special $1.89 bonus book comes to you with your first club selection 

THIS new professional club is designed to meet your day-to-day on-the-job needs by 
providing practical books in your field on a regular basis at below publisher prices. If 
you're missing out on important technical literature — if today's high cost of reading curbs 
the growth of your library — here's the solution to your problem. 

The Computer Professionals' Book Club was organized for you, to provide an economical 
reading program that cannot fail to be of value. Administered by the McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, all books are chosen by qualified editors and consultants. Their understanding 
of the standards and values of the literature in your field guarantees the appropriateness 
of the selections. 

How the Club operates: Every month you receive free of charge The Computer Profes- 
sionals' Book Club Bulletin. This announces and describes the Club's featured book of the 
month as well as alternate selections available at special members' prices. If you want to 
examine the Club's feature of the month, you do nothing. If you prefer one of the alternate 
selections — or if you want no book at all — you notify the club by returning the card en- 
closed with each Bulletin. 

As a Club Member, you agree only to the purchase of four books (including your first 
selection) over a two-year period. Considering the many books published annually, there 
will surely be at least four you would want to own anyway. By joining the club, you 
save both money and the trouble of searching for the best books. 




VALUES UP TO $35.00 WITH MAJOR DISCOUNTS ON ALL OTHER CLUB SE- 
LECTIONS. Your bonus books come with the first selection, and you may choose both 
of them from the books described in this special introductory offer. 

EXTRA SAVINGS: Remit in full with your order, plus any local and state tax, and 
McGraw-Hill will pay all regular postage and handling charges. 

NO RISK GUARANTEE: 

If not completely satisfied return selections for full refund and membership cancellation. 



MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY 



COMPUTER PROFESSIONALS/Book Club P.O. Box 582 Princeton Road, Hightstown, NewJersey 08520 



Please enroll me as a member and send me the two books 
indicated. I am to receive the bonus book at the intro- 
ductory price of $1 89 plus my first selection, plus tax, 
postage, and handling. If not completely satisfied, I may 
return the books within 10 days and request that my member- 
ship be cancelled. If I keep the books, I agree to take a 
minimum of three additional books during the next two years 
at special Club prices (guaranteed 15% discount, often 
more). I will receive the Club Bulletin 13 times a year. If 
I want to examine the featured selection, I need take no 
action. It will be shipped automatically. If, however, I want 
an alternate selection— or no book at all— I simply notify the 
Club by returning the convenient card always enclosed. I 
will always have a minimum of 10 days in which to return 
the card and you will credit my account fully, including 
postage, if this is not the case. Membership in the club is 
continuous but cancellable by me at any time after the four- 
book purchase requirement has been filled. This order 
subject to. acceptance by McGraw-Hill. Orders from outside 
the continental U.S. must be prepaid. Company, business, or 



Institutional tax exemption status Is not appliable to pur- 
chases made through individual Club memberships. All prices 
subject to' change without notice. Oiler good for new mem- 
bers only. 



Write Code # of $1.89 bonus 
book selection here 



Write code # of 
first selection here 



] I 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE. 



.ZIP. 



P39301 



CIRCLE 110 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




FALLIN 





0) 

03 

O 
V) 
0> 



1. The cat acquires a velocity 

At thirty-two feet per second per second 
And everything begins to blur — the tail 
Is twirling, the cat is turning, the paws 

Are on the ground. Again the cat has turned 
From upside-down around to downside-down 
Without a wall to push on or a string 
To pull itself around on the way down. 

What is the mechanism? What is the 
Solution to the problem of the cat, 
Released from rest and oriented up, 
Descending in a circle in a line 

Of gravity, the quickest thinker, down, 

To always land with four paws on the ground? 



Herr Magnus" (no computer) had to crank 
The torso of the cat manually 
Through its manoeuvres. So he simplified 
His model for the numbers it would use. 

Dr. McDonald, physiologist, 
Dealt with the phenomenological 
Aspects. His cat was not an equation 
That did its business neatly on the paper. 

Professors Kane and Scher were fortunate. 
A man on the moon supported them 
And NASA sectioned cat cadavers so 
The moments of inertia of the cat • 

That Kane and Scher did use were accurate 
Enough to lend credence to their results. 



2. In Comptes Rendus, in 1894, 

The cat stop falls in photographs Monsieur 
Marey has taken with his camera. 
His explanation is a hopeless use 

Of words for pictures: everyone can see 
The cat superimposed upon himself: 
The first slow feet, and then the faster feet 
Prepared to meet the sidewalk half way down. 

Monsieur Marey contorts his vertebrae 
With words like torsion, opposition, tors 
And wraps his tail around his helix spine 
Once clockwise for a counterclockwise half 

Rotation of the animal. We see 

Two human hands still grasping for the cat. 

References. 

M. Marey, Des mouvements que certains animaux 
executent pour retomber sur leurs pieds, lorsqu'ils 
sont precipites dun lieu eleve. C. r. hebd. Seanc. 
Acad. Sci. Paris 119, 714-717 (1894). 

R. Magnus, Wie sich die failende Katze in der Luft 
umdreht. Archs. Neerl. Physiol. 7, 218-222 (1922). 



34 



4. A couple of cylinders is their cat, 

Without a head, with negligible legs, 
Without a tail: a mechanical Manx. 

This cat possesses a Lagrangian, 
Potential and kinetic energy 
Confused in an expression for the cat 

Falling, the cat jumping, the cat at rest. 
The lithe Lagrangian, ready to be 
The cat in the clutches of gravity 

Submits to differentiation with 

Respect to time and with respect to speed 

To fall in a falling and revolving mode. 

Released now, the equations, upside down, 
Descend in the computer, and they turn. 

D. A. McDonald, How does a falling cat turn over? St. 
Bart's Hosp. J. 56, 254-258 (1955). 

T. R. Kane and M. P. Scher, A dynamical explanation 
of the falling cat phenomenon, Int. J. Solids 

Structures 5, 663-670 (1969). @19 78, Henry Petrosk, 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 









^d /otitic &hucA o£ (Ae • ' 

IQ120 



Clearly displays the results of a 
careful blending of Old World 
Elegance with today's New 
World of Technology. This 
blending is what creates char- 
acter in the IQ 120, and such re- 



• 



fined features as: upper and 
lower case / 24 line x 80 char- 
acters / address cursor / tabbing / 
dual intensity / numeric pads / 
auto repeat / 15 baud rates / aux. 
port and optional printer port. 



so if you are one who is serious about what terminal to buy, con- 
tact SOROC where character along with quality and design 
excellence is part of each and every display $995.00 




165 FREEDOM AVE., ANAHEIM, CA 
» ,INIC ' 714-992-2B60 • 800 

CIRCLE 164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



854-0147 




Ai 1 







Cand our talking 

tennis game) 



Steve North 



Now that many microcomputer users 
have a microcomputer with the usual 
array of memory boards, cassette-tape 
units, and terminals, there are some 
unusual and' interesting accessories 
appearing on the market, formerly 
available only on large-scale com- 
puters at large-scale prices. Among 
these: music synthesis boards, color- 
graphics interfaces, boards for con- 
trolling external devices, speech syn- 
thesis boards, and speech-recognition 
units. In this review we'll take a closer 
look at the Ai Cybernetic Systems 
Model 1000 Speech Synthesizer 
System for S-100 bus computers. The 
Model 1000 Speech Synthesizer costs 
around $380, and requires only a 
connection to an external audio 
amplifier to be used. 

The Model 1000 Speech Synthesizer 
hardware itself consists of an analog 
model of the human vocal tract, and 
digital logic to interface this to the 
computer. The analog circuitry 
simulates two basic types of sounds 
used in the English language: voiced 
sounds made by the larynx, and non- 
voiced sounds (made by rushing air). 
The sounds are passed through an 
array of ten active filters that "simulate 
the formant frequencies associated 
with the preferred energy passage of 
the resonant cavities of the mouth, 




Ai Cybernetic Systems Model 1000 Speech 
Synthesizer is a hardwired analog of the human 
vocal tract; the cord connects to an external audio 
amplifier. 



nose, tongue, and teeth." The summed 
output of the filters is then spectrally 
compensated so it will match the 
properties of the human voice. The 
digital, logic on the board decides when 
the board is being addressed, and 
controls the analog portion of the 
speech synthesis unit. There are quite 
a few trim pots on the board, for 
adjusting various portions of the 
analog model. Ten of these are used to 
adjust the active filters. This is done at 
the factory, and the user is advised not 
to touch these at all. There are four 
more controls, used for: noise level, 



pitch frequency, voice level, and 
speech rate. These adjustments are 
also preset at the factory but may be 
safely adjusted by the user to satisfy his 
own tastes. 

The Model 1 000 hardware is very sim- 
ple to program. The unit uses one I/O 
port, located at 254 decimal. The board 
is programmed to speak as easily as 
one programs a printer to print. A 
character output to the port is spoken 
as a predetermined corresponding 
"phoneme" (a unit of speech, a single 
sound). One bit of the input port tells 
the processor when the unit is ready to 
speak another phoneme. Thus to say a 
word, one has only to decide what 
sounds are contained in it, convert 
these to certain characters, then output 
these characters to the speech syn- 
thesizer unit. 

The character symbols that repre- 
sent phonemes were chosen to 
suggest the actual sounds they make. 
For example, "A" is spoken as the A in 
STAY. "E" is spoken as E in ZEBRA, 
and "M" as the M in AM. However, there 
are some symbols that do not resemble 
the sounds made when they are spoken 
by the Model 1000. For example, "+" 
means a th sound, as in THAW. 
Likewise, the "#" is used to make an er 
sound, as in bird or computer. A few 
sounds are programmed by two sym- 



36 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



English: "I AM A TALKING ROBOT " 
Program: &&IE AM AE T)..KEN RO.B)..T 



bols such as the CH phoneme (as in 
CHINA), which is represented by "TC". 

The manual contains a very good 
explanation (for a novice like myself, at 
least) of how the spoken language is 
broken up into different sounds, and 
how these can then be encoded for the 
Model 1000. In general, the characters 
used to represent sounds are as similar 
as possible to the written characters. 
(For instance, IIZZ is used to represent 
the word IS). However, because there 
are many more sounds in the language 
than characters, some special 
characters (&, /, ', etc.) are also used. So 
in the Model 1000 Speech Synthesis 
System's language, /(!!.T really means 
SHOULD. The manual does explain in 
great detail what characters should be 
used to make what sounds, and in- 
cludes rules used for conversion. A 
helpful glossary is included. 

Although the speech synthesizer 
may be programmed directly at an 
assembly-language level, you'll 
probably prefer to program it in BASIC. 
This would allow you to have speaking 
computer games! The Model 1000 
manual includes three speaking BASIC 
programs: Lunar Lander, a version of 



HELLO (the computer introduces 
itself), and a very short program used 
for testing your own words and 
sentences for speech synthesis. A 
machine-language subroutine actually 
outputs the characters to the board. 
Although the board could have been 
controlled directly from BASIC, using 
INP and OUT statements, it is very 
important that the board be program- 
med with a new phoneme as soon as 
possible after it has finished a previous 
one, to improve the quality of the 
speech. So a machine-language sub- 
routine, called from BASIC (which 
supplies the phonemes to be spoken) is 
used. At the beginning of a program, 
the machine-language program is 
POKED into a predetermined area of 
memory. Then, when a certain word is 
to be spoken, it is placed in a character- 
string variable and a BASICsubroutine 
is called. This subroutine then calls the 
machine-language subroutine, speak- 
ing the word one phoneme at a time, 
and returns to the part of the BASIC 
program which wanted something 
spoken in the first place. 

The crucial question in all this is, how 
does it sound? The truth is, one must 



bend his ear a bit to understand what 
the Model 1000 is trying to say. I was 
able to understand most of the words in 
the glossary provided in the manual, as 
well as those in the sample program 
(see below). However, it's a great 
advantage to know in advance what the 
machine might be trying to say. Steve 
Gray, our Editor-in-Chief, who didn't 
know what the unit was trying to say, 
commented that he didn't understand a 
single word it was saying. I thought that 
its pronunciation of words such as 
"ENTERPRISE" ("N .. T### .. P. 
R&&IEZZ) and ASCII (&&ZZ ... KEE) 
was quite good, while words like 
"ROBOT" (460U .. B) ... T) and 
"CYBERNETIC" (SS&IE.B## . . N" . . Til 
... K) were rather weak. 

If you want to experiment with 
computer-speech synthesis, the Model 
1000 would be worth investigating. It 
isn't necessary to buy one without 
hearing it first — you can check the 
capabilities of speech synthesis units 
out at a computer festival. Ai 
Cybernetic Systems also sells a 
demonstration tape on audio cassette 
of the Model 1000 for $5, and the 
manual for $4 (both are $7.50). 




"It appears to be some form of primitive life. Totally unable to speak!' 

MAY JUNE 1 978 37 



TENNIS MATCH 




A talking game! 



ARE YOU READY... HERE UE 60!!! 



SERVE! TYPE? S 

SERVE IS GOOD... CAN'T DE RETURNED! 

SCORE 15 - LOVE 



SERVE! TYPE? S 

SERVE IS GOOD... CAN'T BE RETURNED! 

SCORE 30 - LOVE 



SERVE! TYPE? S 

SERVE IS GOOD... CAN'T BE RETURNED! 

SCORE 40 - LOVE 



SERVE! TYPE? L 
SERVE IS BAD 

SERVE AGAIN! TYPE? L 
SERVE IS BAD... DOUBLE FAULT! 

SCORE 40-15 



Steve North 

To show you how the Model 1000 is 
programmed for speech we've written a 
speaking tennis game. The original 
game was written by V. Nahigan and 
Dave Ahl, with modifications for 
speech synthesis by the writer. The 
part of the program that loads in the 
machine-language subroutine is con- 
tained in lines 10-66. The routine is 
loaded starting at location 12201 
decimal, and is designed to be run in a 
12K computer with MITS (Microsoft) 
8080 BASIC. (The program is a rather 
tight fit, so the instructions were 
removed). When we want the speech 
synthesis unit to say something, the 
string of phonemes is placed in V$, and 
W$ is used for pitch control. 1's are 
spoken normally, 2's are stressed. 
This helps to make the speech a bit 




more understandable. Then a GOSUB 
5000 causes this to be spoken. When a 
phoneme is spoken and the unit is 
ready for another, it continues to voice 
the previous one until reprogrammed 
(on and on and. . .) soline5110mustbe 
used to silence the unit when it has 
finished the word or sentence. In this 
program, only certain phrases are 
pronounced as the game proceeds, 
while the scores, for instance, aren't 
read off. 

Since the instructions were removed 
from the program, here they are. Shots 
are designated by S or L, for Slam or 
Lob. Areas of the court are referred to 
by number, 1 , 2, 3, or 4, which refer to 
left backcourt, right backcourt, left 
forecourt, and right forecourt. On 
serves (you always serve first), you 
only input the type of shot, S or L. ■ 



SERVE! TYPE? L 

SERVE HAS BEEN RETURNED... 

UHAT IS YOUR POSITION? 3 
WHAT TYPE OF SHOT ARE YOU MAKING? S 
UHAT PART OF THE COURT ARE YOU AIMING FOR? 2 
YOUR RETURN IS GOOD! 
NICE SHOT-THE COMPUTER COULDN'T REACH IT 



SCORE GAME 
GAME OVER - 
SCORE-GAMES 



YOU. ..HE 
1 



5 PRINT "TENNIS MATCH" 

10 REM SPEECH SYNTHESIS 

20 UT-128 

22 SF=64 

24 ST=63 

30 POKE 73,16? 

35 POKE 74,47 

SA=12201 

LN=28 

DATA 33,177,47,229,42,4,0,233,219,254 

DATA 230,1,202,177,47,230,0,198 

DATA 20,214 

DATA 1,194,188,47,123,211,254,201 

FOR II=SA TO SAHN-1 

READ UD 

POKE II, UD 

NEXT II 
PRINT 



INITIALIZATION CODE 



Program Listing 



SERVE! TYPE? L 

LET SERVE... TAKE 2 
SERVE! TYPE? S 

SERVE IS BAD 

SERVE AGAIN! TYPE? S 

SERVE IS BAD... DOUBLE FAULT! 

SCORE LOVE - 15 



SERVE! TYPE? L 
SERVE IS BAD 

SERVE AGAIN! TYPE? L 
SERVE HAS BEEN RETURNED... 

UHAT IS YOUR POSITION? 1 
UHAT TYPE OF SHOT ARE YOU MAKING? S 
UHAT PART OF THE COURT ARE YOU AIMING FOR? 3 
YOUR RETURN IS GOOD! 
NICE SHOT-THE COMPUTER COULDN'T REACH IT 



SCORE 15 - 15 



40 

42 

44 

46 

48 

50 

60 

62 

64 

66 

100 

320 PRINT TAB(10);"ARE YOU READY... HERE UE 60!!!" 

325 REM N0U THE COMPUTER SAYS, 'HERE UE 60' 

330 V*="HEEKH UEE GOO" 

340 U$ = "1211111211112ir' 

341 GOSUB 5000 
350 Y*0 

360 Z=0 

370 PRINT 

380 PRINT 

3?0 PRINT 

400 PRINT " SERVE! TYPE"; 

404 V$ = "SSMiV T1IEE.P" 

406 U$s M 11211111111111111211H" 

408 GOSUB 5000 

410 INPUT Af: IF A$<>"L M AND A$<>"S" THEN PRINT "'L' OR 'S'": GOTO 400 

420 A«100*RND<1) 

430 IF AI="L" THEN 520 

440 C=6 

450 D-51 

460 IF A<C THEN 500 

470 IF A<D THEN 700 

480 PRINT TAB(10);"SERVE IS BAD" 

482 VI="SSiMV IIZZ B'M'.T" 

484 Uf«"1121111112111111211111" 

486 GOSUB 5000 



38 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





490 GOTO 550 


1080 


A1*INT(4*RND(1)) 






500 PRINT TAB(10>;"LET SERVE. ..TAKE 2" 


1090 


IF R*A1=5 THEN 1270 






502 V$="L"'.T SS«N«V T.AE...K T.OUU" 


1100 


U«100*RND(1> 






504 U$= M 221 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 221 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 221 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 211 " 


1110 


REN 






506 GOSUB 5000 


1120 


IF U<84 THEN 1220 






510 60TO 400 


1130 


GOTO 1150 






520 C=4 


1140 


IF U<84 THEN 1220 






530 D=66 


1150 


C1=4*RND(1) 






540 GOTO 460 


1160 


PRINT TAB(30);"C0HPUTER'S RETURN IS BAD..." 






550 PRINT TAB(10);"SERVE AGAIN! TYPE"; 


1162 


V$ = "1IEE HII/C.8T II. .T" 






552 V$="SS*MV IIG'"IIN UIEE.P" 


1164 


UM"1221111211111111211H" 






554 Mt=" 11 21 111 1211 211111 11 1111 111 21111" 


1166 


60SUB 5000 






556 GOSUB 5000 


1170 


IF B<2 THEN 1200 






560 INPUT Bf: IF B$<> H L" AND B$<>"S" THEN PRINT "'L' OR 'S'": GOTO 550 


1180 


PRINT TAB(33);"HIT OUT-OF-BOUNDS" 






570 E=100*RND<1) 


1190 


GOTO 1280 






580 IF B$="L" THEN 670 


1200 


PRINT TAB(33);"HIT INTO NET" 






590 G=5 


1210 


GOTO 1280 






600 H=41 


1220 


PRINT TAB(30);"C0MPUTER'S RETURN IS GOOD!" 






610 IF E<6 THEN 650 


1222 


V$="M*IEE /C(..T UMZZ G'H.T" 






620 IF E<H THEN 700 


1224 


^ = "122111111111111211111112111" 






630 PRINT TAB(10);"SERVE IS BAD. ..DOUBLE FAULT!" 


1226 


60SUB 5000 






632 V$ = "SS**IIV IIZZ B'll'.T DIM..BLLL F.mL.T" 


1230 


60T0 860 






634 U$="1 1 21 1 1 1 1 221 1 1 1 1 1 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 221 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1" 


1240 


PRINT ' NICE TRY-YOU UERE UNABLE TO REACH THAT SHOT-COURT *"0 






636 GOSUB 5000 


1242 


V»="90UU K.(!!.T.NT 46EE/C II. .T" 






640 GOTO 1300 


1244 


U$ = "221 111 11111111 111 11 1211 11221111" 






650 PRINT TAB(10);"LET SERVE. ..TAKE 1" 


1246 


60SUB 5000 






652 V$ = "L'".T SSttllV T.AE...K U!!!N" 


1250 


60T0 1300 






654 U$="221 11111 12211 1! 11 11 1221111121111" 


1270 


PRINT " NICE SHOT-THE COMPUTER COULDN'T REACH IT" 






656 GOSUB 5000 


1272 


V* = "1IEE K.(!!.T.N.T 46EEE/C II. .T" 






660 GOTO 550 


1274 


U$ = "1 2111 12221 1111 11 11211111 11 111 11" 






670 6=3 


1276 


GOSUB 5000 






680 H=76 


1280 


Y = Y + 1 






690 GOTO 610 


1290 


GOTO 1310 






700 I = 100*RNDU) 


1300 


Z = Z + 1 






710 IF I>6 THEN 740 


1310 


PRINT: GOSUB 2000 






720 PRINT TAB(10);"SERVE IS GOOD. ..ACE!" 


1320 


PRINT TAB(15);"SC0RE M S$ 






722 Vf="SS###V IIZZ G'M.T AESSS" 


1340 


IF Y>=4 AND Y>Z+1 THEN 1370 






724 U$="1121111 122111111211 1111122111" 


1350 


IF Z>=4 AND Z>Y*1 THEN 1390 






726 GOSUB 5000 


1360 


60T0 380 






730 GOTO 1280 


1370 


Y1=YH1 






740 K=100*RND(1) 


1380 


GOTO 1400 






750 IF Af="L" THEN 810 


1390 


Z1=Z1+1 






760 IF B$="L" THEN 810 
770 N=61 


1400 
1410 








PRINT TAB(15);"SC0RE-GAHES YOU. ..ME" 






780 IF K<N THEN 850 


1420 


PRINT TAB(32);Y1 H "Z1 






790 PRINT TAB(10);"SERVE IS GOOD. ..CAN'T BE RETURNED!" 


1430 


IF Y1>=6 AND Y1>ZH1 THEN 1460 






792 V$ = "SS»OV IIZZ G'H.T K."IINN..T B'EE RE. TUN. D" 


1440 


IF Z1>=6 AND Z1>Y1*1 THEN 1490 






794 Ul="1121 11 11221 11 11 1221 11 11 1221 11111 111 121 11121111111" 


1450 


60T0 350 






796 GOSUB 5000 


1460 


PRINT 






800 GOTO 1280 


1470 


PRINT "*****C0NGRATULATI0NS...YOU UON*****" 






810 N=76 


1472 


V$="90UUU U!!N" 






820 GOTO 780 


1474 


I*-"! 2211 11111" 






850 PRINT TAB(10);"SERVE HAS BEEN RETURNED..." 


1476 


GOSUB 5000 






852 VM"SS#MV H1IZZ B"'INN R.TM.D" 


1480 


GOTO 1510 






854 U$=" 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 1 1 1 1 1 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l M 


1490 


PRINT 






856 GOSUB 5000 


1500 


PRINT "♦****AS PREDICTED, THE COHPUTER IS AGAIN TRIUMPHANT*****" 






860 PRINT 


1502 


V$="JIEE U!!N" 






870 0*INT(4*RND<1)>+1 


1504 


U«="12111111211- 






880 PRINT TAB(20);"UHAT IS YOUR POSITION"; 


1506 


GOSUB 5000 






882 V$ = "UM1.T IIZZ 90M«« P.ZII/Cm.N" 


1510 


PRINT 






884 U$= " 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 22 1 1 1 1 221 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1" 


1520 


PRINT ■ I'D LIKE TO PLAY AGAIN SOMETIME, BUT RIGHT NOU, I" 






886 GOSUB 5000 


1530 


PRINT "HAVE TO REST! BYE' MM' 






890 INPUT Q 


1540 


PRINT: GOTO 9999 






900 IF 0+0=5 THEN 1240 


2000 


IF Y>=2 AND Z>=2 THEN 3000 






910 PRINT TAB(20);"UHAT TYPE OF SHOT ARE YOU MAKING"; 


2100 


IF Y = 4 OR ZM THEN S$="GAME": GOTO 4000 






912 V$="U*U.T TIIEE.P UV /C(..T" 


2200 


IF Y*0 THEN Y$="LOVE - " 






914 U$ = "121 111 11 121 1111 11 11 111111111" 


2300 


IF Y=1 THEN Y$= H 15 - " 






916 GOSUB 5000 


2400 


IF Y=2 THEN Y*="30 - " 






920 INPUT C$ 


2500 


IF Y=3 THEN Y$="40 - " 






930 PRINT TAB(20)J"UHAT PART OF THE COURT ARE YOU AINING FOR"; 


2600 


IF Z=0 THEN Z$="LOVE" 






932 V* = "UUl.T Pdttl.T 11V T.IM KIMM.T" 


2650 


IF Z=1 THEN Z$="15" 


M 


m 


2700 


IF Z=2 THEN Z$="30" 






936 GOSUB 5000 


2800 


IF Z=3 THEN Z$="40" 






940 INPUT R 


2900 


Sf=Y$+Z$: GOTO 4000 






950 S»100*RND<1> 


3000 


IF Y=Z THEN S$="DUCE": GOTO 4000 






960 IF C$="L" THEN 990 


3010 


IF Y=Z*1 THEN S$="ADD IN": GOTO 4000 






970 IF S<81 THEN 1070 


3020 


IF Y=Z-1 THEN S$="ADD OUT": GOTO 4000 






980 GOTO 1000 


3030 


IF Y=Z*2 OR Z=Y*2 THEN S$="GAME" 






990 IF S<91 THEN 1070 


4000 


RETURN 






1000 U*4*RND(1> 


5000 


REN 






1010 PRINT TAB(30);"Y0UR RETURN IS BAD..." 


5010 


REN SUBROUTINE UHICH "SAYS" THE CHARACTER STRING V* 






1012 V$*"REET.MIN IIZZ B'U'.T" 


5020 


REN PITCH CONTROL INFORMATION IS PASSED IN US 






1014 lf$>"11 11122221 1121 11111 121 11" 


5030 


REN 






1016 60SUB 5000 


5040 


FOR 11= 1 TO LEN(V$) 






1020 IF U<2 THEN 1050 


5050 


C$=NID$(V$,II,1) 






1030 PRINT TAB(33);"HIT OUT-OF-BOUNDS" 


5060 


U$=NID$(U$,II,1 ) 






1040 60T0 1300 


5070 


UD=ASC(C$) AND ST 






1050 PRINT TAB(33)J"HIT INTO NET" 


5080 


IF U$="1" THEN UD=UD*SF 






1060 GOTO 1300 


5090 


X=USR(UD) 






1070 PRINT TAB(30);"Y0UR RETURN IS GOOD!" 


5100 


NEXT II 






1072 Vf="90IMI RE. Till. N IIZZ G'HI.T" 


5110 


OUT 254,0: REN TURN OFF THE VOICE! 






1074 W*="1121111221 12111 1112211111121111" 


5120 


RETURN 






1076 GOSUB 5000 


9999 


END 






MAY/JUNE 1978 


39 








I'M CONVgRTllSkS TWB LAST OF 
My BRAIN CSUS TO A SIUO 
ALUMWATE COLLOID I PUN 
TO R5LVOJ PIRgCT gUgCTRia 

STIMULATION. 







TO Bg CONTINUED 



About Marsport.... 



/ recently received the following 
paragraphs from Ned Sonntag, the 
talented creator of the Marsport car- 
toon strip which has appeared in 
Creative Computing over the past year 
or so. For both new and old readers, the 
following will bring you more-or-less 
up to date. —DHA 



€) 



TM 



/A 



S*A 



fa 



Let's see, this thing is very intuitive; 
but I started picking up futuristic 
impulses on my mental radio back 
around 73 ... in fact, these are the first 
two on this yellowed flyer I'm enclos- 
ing. 

The duck in the hard hat is inspecting 
radioactive parts for defects. They are 
passing on a conveyer belt in front of a 
closed-circuit camera, and if he spots a 
defect he pulls the lever and the belt 
stops. The belt is somewhat like a 
Twist-O-Flex watchband. It develops a 
trapdoor and the cracked ring of 
plutonium drops back into the molten 
vat. The duck is a mutant born in 2001 
on Earth who had to travel to the 
Martian colony to find work in late 
2023. He has a wife (a chicken) and two 
bird-like children back on Earth who 
are forced to retreat to an underground 
leadlined city when a nuclear accident 
occurs in mid-February 2024. They are 
thus protected in fact because the duck 
works for Ohms Electric. This is a 
unique 21st Century corporation. 



The duck works at Jaws Jarvas 
Rocket Repair, a body shop run by a 
brilliant, crusty native Martian. Thisisa 
division of Ohms Electric, a cybernetic 
corporation supplying electric power 
to the Martian colony. It is headed by a 
cyborg, "Spark" Ohms, a human brain 
in an android body. He is always 
devising ways to eliminate and replace 
the last human cells in his system. He is 
highly immune to radiation. More and 
more he can become one with his 
computers and experience the city as if 
it were his body : every electric 
terminus corresponding to a nerve. But 
there's much he doesn't know about 
the running of the city. Conspiracies of 
rich people run things in 2024. 
Technology leaps forward, new An- 
drew Carnegies, new Rockefellers . . . 
To give himself a human agent, Ohms 
revives a cryo-genically suspended 
Wrigley la Rock, with whom Ohms 
used to play in a band back in 73&74. 
This gives him a crony also in his 70's 
but also like him untouched by age. 
This is the closest anyone in the 21st 
Century has come yet to achieving 
immortality. 

Marsport is full of Art Deco 
skyscrapers, and everyone wears Mid- 
WWII-style clothes. An envelope of air 
surrounds the city, held in place by the 
same preservative that keeps Good 
Humor bars from melting on a summer 
day. 

BEST, NED 



&&&* 



H,niTfri HERLIN in the Mixed! 
Dense (168H by 198U) IraPhic iod« 



IMS 



>!/ \y 



ilt JUL- 



Ifl! 



High Resolution Graphics 
Intelligent Terminal 
Software Development System 
ROM Graphic Software 
ROM Monitor Board 

Wordprocessing Text Editor 
[26 Commands in ROM] 



MERLIN 
is all this and more! 



Write or call today for a 
catalog and a dealer list 

For the S-100 bus 



MimTerm Associates, inc. 



DundM Park. AnrJo»«i MA 01810 (617) 4700525 



MAY JUNE 1978 



41 



CIRCLE 106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Creative Computing Equipment Profile. 







Neil Shapiro 



The Challenger IIP is up and running nearly as fast as it can be unpacked. All you need do is hook itupto 
any CRT monitor (or TV set using a RF modulator), plug in a tape recorder, and you're soon writing your 
first program. 



There are some new faces in com- 
puterland. They're the new, take 'em 
home and plug 'em In personal com- 
puters that seem on the verge of 
becoming true mass-market consumer 
items. With BASIC in ROM they speak 
the Queen's English (or at least Dart- 
mouth's); they have their own 
keyboards, either self-contained or 
marketed right alongside; they're 
equipped with a CRT display or can use 
the family TV set; and if they are not 
supremely easy on the wallet (at 
around $600 to a shade under $1000), 
well, the price goes down smoother 
than anything their equal would have 
cost just two years ago. 

The Challenger IIP from Ohio Scien- 
tific at $598 is the latest entry into this 
field, and it may be a real contender for 
the title. Thus far — what with the 
Commodore PET, Radio Shack's TRS- 
80, and the Heathkit systems — the 
Challenger IIP is just about the only 
"consumer computer" that can boast of 
a true computerish pedigree. Ohio 
Scientific is no newcomer to the 
computing field and had already es- 
tablished itself with other hobby and 
business systems before the introduc- 
tion of the IIP. They manufacture, 
among many other items, the only 
hobbyist-level triple processor board 
and a 74-megabyte hard-disk drive. 

How come the Challenger IIP? Their 
Fall 77 catalog spells it right out: "The 
Challenger IIP is a four-slot computer 
. . . designed for direct competition with 
the Commodore PET." There is an 
enormous potential market out there 
that, for some reason, non-computer- 
oriented electronic firms latched onto 

Neil Shapiro, 32-20 91st St., Apt. 607, Jackson 
Heights, NY 11369. 



first. Now the computer companies are 
closing in and Ohio Scientific would 
love to lead the pack. 

Has it worked? Has a "real" computer 
company managed to do everything 
right, surpassing all else in the field? 
That's a tough question to answer, but 
the Challenger IIP is certainly worth 
the careful attention of anyone who is 
now in the market for a hobby com- 
puter. 

On The Outside 

Ohio Scientific has packaged the 
Challenger IIP in an attractive cabinet 
which measures 15"x18"x4y 2 ". The 
general appearance is similar to the 
SOL-20 computer, but without the 
wood. It's certainly a computer no one 
would have to be ashamed to keep in 
the livingroom. 

The self-contained keyboard is a 
dream to operate. It's a real typewriter- 
style keyboard with capacitive con- 
tacts and the "feel" to a touch-typist is 
almost indistinguishable from an office 
typewriter. If you've been annoyed in 
the past by hard-to-type-on keyboards 
(a real pain when that four-hundred- 
line program comes along), you will be 
pleasantly surprised the first time you 
type away on a IIP. 

Nothing could be easier than inter- 
facing the IIP with the human world. 
Three RCA phono jacks on the back 
panel take care of video out, tape in and 
tape out. The video is RS-232 and you 
may attach any CRT monitor. If you 
prefer to avoid that expense, use any of 
the low-cost RF modulators to hook it 
up to your TV set's antenna terminals. 

Five minutes after you get it home, 
the Challenger IIP is up and running. 
Five minutes after that you should 



already have RUN your first program. 
What a far cry from the multitudinous 
hours of assembly and debugging that 
faced each and every hobbyist a few 
short years ago! 

It Speaks Your Language 

Ever since it was invented on Dart- 
mouth's campus, the BASIC computer 
language has been a favorite in the 
hobby. It has its critics and detractors 
and no one would maintain that it does 
everything, or is even the best of the 
higher-level languages. Still, when 
most people talk to a microcomputer, 
they are talking BASIC. The 
Challenger IIP is equipped with a very 
well-designed 8K BASIC resident in 
on-board ROM. 

The 8K BASIC was designed by the 
firm of Microsoft for Ohio Scientific 
and they have turned in a nice inter- 
preter. This BASIC has just about 
everything you will probably need. If 
you are familiar with the Altair BASIC 
then you already know how to speak to 
the IIP. Microsoft designed both 
Altair's 8080 and 6800 BASICS. The 
major difference is speed. The 
Challenger IIP uses the 6502 micro- 
processor which, being faster than the 
8080 or 6800, allows the 1 1 P's BASIC to 
run about six times quicker than the 
Altair's. 

There seem to be no bugs in this 
BASIC. It's just a nice, complete, 
dependable language that will get the 
computer to do what you tell it. 

You can use two-letter variables, 
subscripted in arrays or matrices; there 
are the Boolean logic operators NOT, 
AND, OR; available are both trig- 
onometric and logarithmic functions; 
there is a wide range of string-handling 



42 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



functions; and the hobbyist is allowed 
direct access to computer memory via 
POKE and PEEK and to machine 
language subroutines via USR. 

By no means, though, does the IIP 
"tie" you to using BASIC. Machine 
language is instantly available via the 
HP's monitor. Any address can be 
programmed and it's all done hex- 
idecimally right at the MP's keyboard. 

The Inside Story 

The Challenger IIP is based on Ohio 
Scientific's new Model 500 board 
which, in turn, is based on the 6502 
microprocessor from MOS Tech- 
nology. Many of OSI's larger systems 
also use this board (any of the 
Challenger computers with a Roman 
numeral II in their name). 

The 6502 microprocessor is similar 
to the 6800, being the latest de- 
scendent of that chip. There are, 
however, differences that negate using 
6800 software on a 6502. The main dif- 
ference is in the stack pointer. Whereas 
the 6800's stack pointer is 16 bits wide, 
the 6502's is 8 bits and maximum stack 
length is 256 bytes. Memory is there- 
fore often partitioned improperly in a 
6800 program if looked at by a 6502. 
The index register is also different — 
the 6502 splits a 16-bit register into two 
separate 8-bit registers. You can get 
around these things but it would take 
considerable reprogramming. 

However, software for the 6502 in 
machine or assembly language is not 
all that hard to come by. Many of the 
popular journals have published quite 
a bit. Also, as the Apple II and the 
Commodore PET computers are 6502- 
based themselves, it seems a safe bet 
that we will be seeing much, much 
more in the way of 6502 programs in 
the upcoming months. (Ohio Scien- 
tific publishes a "Small Systems Jour- 
nal" which is one of the livelier user 
group newsletters in the industry, and 
it carries an abundance of 6502 
programs and programming techni- 
ques. The Journal is free to new Chal- 
lenger owners and $6 for six issues to 
other subscribers). 

The Challenger MP's 500 board 
comes complete with 4K of 2102-type 
RAM memory chips, along with four 
2616-type ROMs which contain the 
BASIC language. It is a versatile board: 
the 2616 ROMs may be replaced with 
2704s, 2708s, or 2716s if the user 
wishes to add his own custom 
software. Though it arrives configured 
for a video RS-232 operation, it can 
later be changed to 20-ma loop. Up to 
three 1 702 PROMs may be added to the 
board and there is a 256K Memory 
Management option (this allows the 
computer to address up to 256K of 
memory). 

The 500 board occupies the first slot 
of the Challenger MP's four-slot 
motherboard (which OSI calls a 




Interfacing the IIP is quite simple. The three RCA 
phono jacks on the back are for video out, tape in 
and tape out. The computer is also supplied with a 
fan to keep the innards cool. 



backplane). The bus is a 48-line 
arrangement and the IIP will accept 
much of OSI's accessory boards. (A 
slight problem: the MP's power supply 
is shy of +12 volts — but more on that in 
a moment). 

The second slot of the backplane — 
leaving two slots open for expansion — 
is taken up by the 540 video board. The 
video board can display either 32 lines 
of 32 characters, or 32 lines of 64 
characters; a simple POKE command 
at the keyboard instantly changes back 
and forth from each format. 

While the 540 display is, of course, 
normally used as a conventional CRT 
display board; the entire display 
memory is accessible as normal 
memory to the computer. When you 
program, you may directly address any 
portion of the display. On-screen 
animation, constantly up-dated dis- 
plays and more are all possible through 
use of this feature. 

The cassette interface is one of the 
easiest to use. It is simply a matter of 
typing SAVE (then LIST) or LOAD. 
Running at 300 baud, the computer 
LISTs out, on the CRT or RF- 
modulated TV, each line of the 
program as it is being recorded. It also 
visually LISTs a recorded program that 
is being played back into computer 
memory. 

Cassette operation, however, is 
completely under manual control. For 
instance, the computer will not turn off 
the recorder when a program is 
through being read in; it is up to the 
human operator to press "stop" on the 
recorder. It is a minor inconvenience 
but, according to a technician at Ohio 




The 500 board takes up one slot of the mother- 
board and beneath it, in a second slot, is the 540 
Video board. This leaves two slots open for further 
expansion. Due to the 48-line bus, the IIP will only 
accept boards manufactured by OSI, but a number 
of options are in production for the IIP. 



Scientific, this mode was chosen so 
that "a person would be able to use any 
moderately priced recorder, including 
those without Remote functions." Still, 
it would have been nice to have had 
automatic control. 

Baud rates are jumper-selectable up 
to 600 baud on the parallel- 
serial/serial-parallel part of the inter- 
face, located on the 500 board. The 
analog-digital/digital-analog portion is 
located on the 540 board. 

There we have two slots of the four- 
slot backplane filled. What about the 
other two? After all, nature and the 
computer hobbyist abhor a vacuum. 
What does Ohio Scientific have in 
mind. . .? 

Looking Ahead 

With a Star-Wars name like IIP 
(wonder if R2D2 and C3PO got their 
start this way?), it should come as no 
shock that a future is planned for this 
Challenger. According to Ohio Scien- 
tific, the IIP has enjoyed so much 
"overwhelming acceptance" that many 
accessories are now in the planning 
stages, and a few have already begun 
production — likely to be available by 
the time you read this. 

First off: memory. As now manufac- 
tured, the IIP can accept Ohio Scien- 
tific's 4K board but not the 16K. The 
reason? As mentioned previously, the 
MP's power supply just does not supply 
the +12 volts required by the larger 
board. 

OSI will soon release a new 16K 
board, designed specificallyforthe IIP, 
which will have an on-board inverter to 
obtain the +12V. It's too bad that the 
MP's power supply wasn't designed at 
the start to overcome the problem. 
However, once the new board comes 
on the market, the MP's in-case expan- 
sion will be 36K. 

There will also be an expansion 
chassis for those who feel they could 
use even more memory or goodies. It 
will essentially be one of the standard 
eight-slot Challenger cases. The user 
will only have to move his Challenger 
IIP 500 and 540 boards to the new 
chassis and then run a ribbon cable to 
connect the MP's captive keyboard to 
the chassis. 

Then there are plans for a "low-cost" 
and full-size, eight-inch tloppy-disk 
drive. The disk will be presented in a 
case to match the IIP and will contain a 
built-in power supply. Though plans 
could change, right now that disk drive 
is planned to be compatible with the 
MP's ROM BASIC. If so, the addition of 
the disk should be painlessly easy. 

If you are in the market for a hobby 
computer, and you'd like the con- 
venience of a captive keyboard with 
BASIC in ROM all at a low cost, you 
should consider the Challenger IIP. Its 
features and performance make it 
interesting indeed. ■ 



MAY JUNE 1978 



43 



A Creative Computing Equipment Profile. . . 



M.S.I. Floppy Disk 



Steve North 



It is generally acknowledged that a 
floppy disk is required for 
sophisticated data handling and 
storage with a microcomputer. 
Midwest Scientific Instruments' FD-8 
floppy disk memory unit contains a 
G.S.I. Model 105 or 110 disk drive, and 
a controller that may be interfaced 
with any system having two bidirec- 
tional data ports. However, the FD-8 is 
primarily for use with M6800 - based 
systems, such as the Southwest 
Technical Products 6800 or M.S.I.'s 
own system, since most of the options 
and software supplied for the FD-8 are 
compatible with 6800-based systems. 

The floppy-disk controller in the FD- 
8 is not intelligent since it relies on the 
host computer for major functions of 
its operation. This isn't really a disad- 
vantage, but merely means that 
designers of the FD-8 made a tradeoff 
— more software and memory re- 
quirements in return for less hardware. 
CPU time isn't usually at a premium in 
personal computer systems, and 
anyone willing to buy a floppy disk 
should also be willing to buy another 
memory board. The controller has a 
sector buffer so that I/O operations 
may be done independently of the 
speed of the CPU. Hard-sectored 
diskettes (not IBM standard) must be 
used. The FD-8 is configured for 256 
bytes per sector, 16 sectors and 77 
tracks per diskette, for a total of 
315,392 bytes of storage per diskette. 
Under normal conditions a handful of 
these tracks are reserved for use by 
the system, but the rest are available to 
the user. The controller may be 
jumpered for 32 sectors per diskette 
with 128 bytes per sector, but M.S.I.'s 
software does not support this format. 

As we mentioned before, the FD-8 is 
interfaced with two bidirectional 
parallel data ports (provided by a 
single PIA chip). M.S.I, sells an inter- 
face card designed especially for use 
with the FD-8, but other interface 
boards could be used. 

M.S.I, supplies a Floppy Disk 
Operating System for use with the FD- 
8. To be used, the FDOS must be read 
from the system diskette into memory 
at 2400 hex. There are three ways to 
do this. First, M.S.I, supplies a disk 
bootstrap program on a cassette. This 
program is loaded and executed at 
2400 hex, and then it loads the FDOS 



from the diskette and executes it. The 
same cassette also contains a program 
called MINIDOS which is, as its name 
suggests, a mini-floppy disk operating 
system. MINIDOS can be used to read 
or write sectors on the diskette to or 
from memory in the computer. So, in 
its crude way, MINIDOS could be used 
to read the FDOS from the diskette 
into memory at 2400 hex. MINIDOS 
must be loaded starting at location 
7700 hex, where most people don't 
have any memory. The third method 
(which we chose) is to get a PROM 
board with a disk bootstrap program 
on it. M.S.I, sells just such a PROM 
board, and supplies the disk bootstrap 
program in two 1702A EPROMs. 
Actually, we're a bit surprised that they 
used 1702As, because 1702s are too 
slow for the 6800, and 1702As are just 
barely fast enough. But it does work, 
and it's much faster and more con- 
venient than bothering with cassettes 
every time you want to use your disk. 
Using a disk bootstrap PROM board, 
one merely tells the MIKBUG monitor 
to execute the bootstrap program 
located at C000 hex, and you're off! 

The M.S.I. FDOS is easy to use. 
Commands are entered as keywords, 
such as LOAD, SAVE, RUN, COPY, and 
CATALOG. These commands permit 
you to do such things as load and save 
files, print a directory, attempt to 
recover damaged portions of a disk- 
ette, initialize a new diskette, etc. File 
names may contain up to six 
characters. We did note a rather nasty 
problem with the FDOS: it does not 
check for duplicate file names when 
you ask to create a new file. In other 
words, you are permitted to create 27 
files with the same name. Subsequent- 
ly, you can only access the file that was 
created first, because that's the file the 
FDOS will see first when it looks in the 
directory. At any rate, the FDOS 
supports the following file types: 

System Files: System files contain 
programs that are considered part of 
the operating-system software. This 
includes BASIC, assemblers, a text 
editor, and utilities (such as one to 
PACK the diskette to recover space 
taken up by deleted files, and another 
that lists the directory including 
passwords and system files.) To run a 
system file, merely type its name, such 
as BASIC, and the program is loaded 



and run. It is also possible to create 
your own system files, by making the 
first character of a file name a dollar 
sign. The file is then considered to be a 
system file. This is a nice feature, but 
unfortunately it is not possible to delete 
a system file, so it must be used 
carefully. 

Text Files: These are files created by 
the co-resident text editor/assembler. 
They may be assembly-language 
programs or just general text. 
Object Files: Output produced by the 
assembler. 

Machine Code Files: These are files 
you create by directly saving a portion 
of memory on the disk. An example 
might be an old version of BASIC, 
which was previously loaded from 
audio cassette before you had a floppy 
disk. 

BASIC Programs: BASIC programs 
may be saved on the diskette, both in a 
"packed" and in a pure ASCII format. In 
the packed format, the keywords are 
condensed into BASIC'S internal for- 
mat. In pure ASCII format, the program 
is saved on disk exactly as it appears 
when it is listed. The reason for the 
difference is that a packed program 
takes up less space on the disk and may 
be loaded more quickly, but an ASCII 
program can be appended to a 
program already in memory. Ad- 
ditionally, programs saved in pure 
ASCII would be compatible with a text 
editor. At present, the text editor in the 
co-resident assembler/editor isn't 
much different than a BASIC editor. 
However, M.S.I, plans to come out with 
a much more sophisticated text editor 
in the future. When they do, it would be 
very handy to be able to edit BASIC 
programs with the fancy text editor. 



BASIC 

Since most personal computer users 
want to use a high-level language with 
their systems, we'll take a closer look at 
M.S.I.'s Disk BASIC Interpreter. 
M.S.I.'s BASIC is based on the 8K 
BASIC written for the 6800 by Robert 
Uiterwyk. However, the POS and SGN 
functions have been removed. In re- 
turn, there are many more useful 
features, including TRACE, ? as an 
abbreviation for PRINT, and most 
importantly, statements, commands, 



44 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




and functions for handling programs 
and data files on disk. M.S.I. Disk 
BASIC takes up nearly 16K of mem- 
ory, so 24K or even 32K are required to 
run reasonably large programs. 

Saving and loading of programs is 
accomplished in a straightforward 
manner with the LOAD, SAVE, 
REPLACE, and CHANGE commands. 
The CHANGE command is used to 
save a program in ASCII format, so the 
command is not really very suggestive 
of its function. Well, maybe they were 
running out of command keywords. 
Data-file manipulation is somewhat 
more complex. A CREATE statement 
(or command) is used to reserve space 
on a disk for a data file. Then, an OPEN 
statement must be executed to access 
the file in a program. The OPEN 
statement assigns a "channel number" 
to the file, so that the file is subsequent- 
ly referred to by number, not name. 
When the file is opened, it may be 
accessed for INPUT, OUTPUT, or 
UPDATE. I/O is done in fixed-length 
records. A FIELD statement is used to 
define the record format for a file. For 
instance FIELD #10, A$=40,C=5, X$=20 
means that when a record is read from 
file #10 (which was OPENed before), 
the first 40 characters of the record will 
be put in variable A$, the next five will 
be put in variable C (a number), and 
then the next 20 characters go into 
variable X$. So, the total record length 
is 40+20+5, or 65 bytes. GET and PUT 
statements are used to do input and 
output with a data file. With the 
example of a FIELD statement used 
above, GET #10 would read a record 
from file #10 and place the information 
in the appropriate variables, while a 
PUT would have the opposite effect. 
The OPEN for UPDATE feature is 
interesting. When a file is opened for 
update, one may change records of the 
file in place, using a REWRITE state- 
ment (similar to GET and PUT). Note 
that at any time no more than threefiles 
may be open, and only one for OUT- 
PUT. 



Random access within data files is 
provided by a SET statement, which 
permits you to set the file pointer to any 
record within the file. For example, SET 
#20 = N would set the file pointer to the 
Nth record in the file. LOC# is used to 
determine the location of the file 
pointer, and EOF# is used to detect 
end-of-file conditions. Finally, a 
CLOSE statement is used when 
processing of a file is complete. 

Overall, the facilities in M.S.I. Disk 
BASIC for processing data files are 
complete and most people would find 
them adequate for their applications. 
There does seem to be some overlap in 
the functions of the OPEN for OUTPUT 
and CREATE statements. Both OPEN 
for OUTPUT and CREATE can cause a 
data file to be created on the disk, and 
since the FDOS allows duplicate file 
names, you can end up with a rather 
unpleasant problem. M.S.I. Disk 
BASIC also has program CHAINing 
(which we feel all disk BASICS should 
have) and a means for one program to 
call another from disk, and for the 
subprogram to return to the next 
statement in the main program when 
completed. A nice touch, we thought. 

M.S.I, also plans to introduce a 
BASIC compiler (not an interpreter) 
which will data files, PRINT USING (for 
formatting of output), and an ON 
ERROR option which permits trapping 
of errors within a program, rather than 
have your nice application program go 
BLA! in front of the dumb user. The 
compiler is a two-pass compiler, which 
produces an assembly language ver- 
sion of your program. Then you 
assemble the program using the disk 
assembler. According to M.S.I, the 
compiler is much faster than the 
interpreter. For instance, a card shuf- 
fling program which ran for 90 seconds 
under the interpreter ran in three or 
four seconds using the compiler. 
Indications are that the compiler used 
with a 1 .6-MHz 6800 CPU, is faster than 
most of the other BASICs available for 
microcomputers. This should be an 



interesting product, especially for 
business applications. 

Summary 

The FD-8 manual contains a step-by- 
step construction list, schematics, 
drawings, calibration instructions, an 
explanation of how the FD-8 works, 
and documentation for the software 
including source listings of the disk 
drivers; and diagnostic routines on a 
cassette tape as well. We have found 
the FD-8 to be a reliable product. At 
one time we did have some trouble, 
when we made a factory recommended 
modification to prevent accidental 
write operations (a very bad thing if it 
happens— we had no problems, but we 
decided to make the modification 
anyway). We botched the job and 
managed to get a tiny sphere of solder 
between two pins on the connector 
which runs from the disk to the 
computer. The result was that the disk 
would operate normally for about 30 
seconds when it was turned on, and 
was then unable to step the head back 
towards track zero after it had been 
moved out. We called M.S. I., and they 
immediately suggested that the con- 
nector on the FD-8 might have been 
shifted to the side, causing two pins to 
be shorted together, which made a 
driver get very warm and also not work 
very well. We went back and checked 
the connector on the FD-8, which was 
OK, but armed with this information we 
decided that there was a short and 
found it readily. 

The big question for those con- 
sidering purchase of a floppy disk for 
their 6800-based system will be 
whether they should opt for the FD-8, 
or some other product (such as 
Southwest's dual minifloppy, or Smoke 
Signal's triple minifloppy). There's no 
clearcut answer, and we haven't had 
any experience with the other units, so 
we won't make a recommendation. The 
minifloppy units get only 90 or so 
Kbytes on a diskette, which isn't that 
much, considering that a few big files 
and some system software will easily 
chew that up. It is true that both 
SWTPC and Smoke Signals get you up 
and running- with a floppy for less 
money than M.S. I., and that it is 
sometimes very handy to have more 
than one drive (for copying files, 
processing one file against another, 
etc.). Of course, M.S.I.'s controller can 
handle up to four drives by daisy- 
chaining, and two full-sized floppy 
drives will outperform two mini- 
floppies, with only a small difference in 
cost, like only 100% or so. Also, we hear 
that the SWTPC and M.S.I, disk 
operating systems and BASICs are 
similar. Ultimately, price/performance 
will be the deciding factor for both 
hobbyists and application-oriented 
users. ■ 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



45 




&& 




Can you flowchart his path 
through the four mazes? 



John Maniotes 
James S. Quasney 



Flowcharting "mechanical things" 
has been around for quite a long time in 
beginning programming courses. A 
popular flowchart problem, which the 
senior author was exposed to in the late 
1950's and which has since undergone 
many revisions, is The Mechanical 
Mouse problem. This is a fun-type 
flowchart problem that should delight 
the novice, intermediate, and 
professional programmer. 

The Problem 

Draw one flowchart that will cause 
the Mechanical Mouse to go through 
any of the four mazes shown in the 
figure. At the beginning, an operator 
will place the mouse on the entry side 
of the maze, in front of the entry point, 
facing "up" towards the maze. 

The instruction "Move to next cell" 
will put the mouse inside the maze. 
After that, the job is to move from cell to 
cell until the mouse emerges on the exit 
side. 

If the mouse is instructed to "Move to 
next cell" when there is a wall in front of 
it, it will hit the wall and blow up. 
Obviously, the mouse must be in- 
structed to test if it is "Facing a wall?" 
before any "Move." 

The Mechanical Mouse's instruction 
set consists of the following: 

A. Physical Movement 

(1) Move to next cell (the mouse 



John Maniotes and James S. Quasney, Informa- 
tion Systems and Computer Programming, Pur- 
due University, Calumet Campus, Hammond, IN 
46323. 



Maze 1 



Exit 



Maze 2 



Exit 





will move in the direction it is facing) 

(2) Turn right 

(3) Turn left 

(4) Turn around (all turns are 
made in place, without moving to 
another cell) 

(5) Halt. 

B. Logic 

(1) Facing a wall? (Through this 
test, the mouse determines whether 
there is a wall immediately in front of it; 
that is, on the border of the cell it is 
occupying and in the direction it is 
facing.) 

(2) Outside the maze? 

If the mouse is outside the maze, the 
mouse can also make the following 
decisions: 

(3) On the entry side? 

(4) On the exit side? 

(5) Branch (unconditional to any 
part of the program). 

Types of Solutions 

There is a variety of ways of attacking 
this problem and a variety of solutions. 

Beginners seem to use two methods 
of attack to gain a solution. The first 
involves the "sledge-hammer" ap- 
proach, where a flowchart is written to 
work for one maze and then additional 
logic is added in a piecemeal fashion to 
handle the remaining three mazes. 
Naturally a lot of trial and error is 
involved, and the flowchart solution is 
spread over several pages, making it 
difficult for one to comprehend the 
solution readily. 

The second method of attack in- 



Maze 3 



Maze 4 



Exit 



Exit 



rn m 



Entry 



Entry Entry 

Four mazes where each maze has four cells. 



Entry 



46 



volves some creative thinking before 
the first flowchart symbol is ever 
drawn. The key centers around the 
definition of a cell. In this problem a cell 
is a "four-sided" figure with one or 
more sides missing. It is this symmetry 
that one wants the mouse to take 
advantage of so it can turn right or left 
or around accordingly. 

The types of flowchart solutions 
generally fall into the "short" or "long" 
flowchart category with some 
solutions in between these two ex- 
tremes. The short flowchart solutions 
have a few symbols (six to seven 
symbols, excluding Start and Halt) but 
subject the mouse to a lot of false and 
inefficient turns in each cell. 

The long flowchart solutions have a 
lot of symbols (1 5 to 20) and subject the 
mouse to few false and inefficient turns 
in each cell. Other flowchart solutions 
are in between these two extremes and 
represent a compromise. 

The short flowchart solutions have 
the advantage of using less "storage" 
than the long ones. However, the long 
flowchart solutions take less "execu- 
tion time" for the mouse to carry out its 
objective. Hence, one has to weigh the 
amount of "storage" and "execution 
time" used to determine the "best" 
solution. 

Note that one flowchart solution 
must work on all four mazes. The 
hardest maze for the beginner is 
usually maze 4. So don't be surprised if 
your flowchart works for the first three 
mazes but fails on the fourth maze. 

As an extra-credit problem, enlarge 
each four-cell maze given to either a 9 
or 16-cell maze and see if your existing 
solution still works for the new mazes 
as well as those shown in the figure. 

For those who desire a solution to 
The Mechanical Mouse problem, 
please send the senior author a self- 
addressed stamped envelope (SASE) 
and enough postage for its return. For 
those who have other versions of this 
problem, we would be interested in 
corresponding with you. Either way, 
we hope you have fun with The 
Mechanical Mouse problem! ■ 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Profile of a Smart Electronic Game . . . 





Electronic 
Battleship 



"Sink your opponent's fleet using pushbutton warfare." 



Stephen B. Gray 



The ad shows a couple playing the 
game; he looks shocked; she smiles. 
The large type reads "Great Sea Battle 
on East 78th Street!" The smaller print 
says, "Only skill, daring and luck has 
kept surviving ships afloat, the out- 
come in doubt. Now — in one inspired 
move — it can all end. The excitement 
mounts. The whistle of shells rips the 
air, explosions flash and rumble. The 
last enemy ship sinks in a blaze of 
battle sounds and sights. New Elec- 
tronic Battleship is so real it's unreal. 
You plot strategy, defend your fleet, 
and destroy your opponent's fleet by 
computer logic. And victory is sweet. 
New Electronic Battleship, theexciting 
computer strategy game!" 

The Box 

This is the largest of the electronic 
games we've profiled so far; the box is 
almost two feet long, a foot wide, and 
six inches high. On opening the box, 
you find a lot of cardboard has been 
used to protect Milton Bradley's elec- 
tronic version of their older all-plastic 
game. 

Electronic Battleship is available at 
game and toy departments, and at toy 
stores, for $30 to $50. 

Object of the Game 

According to the manual, "Electronic 
Battleship is a computerized naval 
battle game for two players. Be the first 
to sink your opponent's fleet using 
pushbutton warfare. You program the 
location of each ship into the computer 
and fire missiles at your opponent's 
ships while the computer records the 
battle with realistic sounds of probing 




sonar, flying missiles and shattering 
explosions." 

Box Contents 

The long base unit consists of two 
computer control consoles, one for 
each player. Each of the two 10-by-10 
ocean grids is accompanied by a pair of 
sliding coordinate keys that enable a 
player, during setup time, to enter into 
the computer the exact locations of his 
five ships. A single LOAD/GO switch is 
placed in LOAD position "when you are 
entering the coordinates of your ships 
into the computer," and in GO position 
"when both players are ready to begin 
the battle." There are only three other 
switches: a FIRE key for each player, 



and an ON/OFF switch. At the rear of 
each console is a ship silhouetted 
against a red screen; this is for. . . but 
let's wait until later for that. 

The other main part is the vertical 
Target Grid superstructure, which 
slides onto the base, and which divides 
the playing into two "secret zones" so 
that a player can't see how his op- 
ponent's ships are deployed. The 
superstructure also has a target grid on 
each side, identical to each player's 
ocean grid, but used for keeping track 
of hits and misses on the opponent's 
fleet. The third item in the box is a 
plastic bag containing two sets of 84 
white pegs (they indicate misses), two 
sets of 42 red pegs (to indicate hits), 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



47 




and two each of these ships: battleship, 
destroyer, carrier, submarine, and PT 
boat. 

Setting up the Fleet 

Once the computer has been in- 
formed of the locations of each player's 
fleet, the game goes fairly fast. A little 
time is required at first to give the 
computer the coordinates of each 
point occupied by each of the five ships 
on each side. 

Move the ON/OFF switch to ON; 
"you will hear the BEEP. . .PING sound 
of the sonar" coming from a two-inch 
speaker inside the console. Each 
player moves his X-coordinate key to 
the CM position and presses it to clear 
the computer's memory of his previous 
ships' positions. 

Place a ship on the ocean grid by 
pressing the anchoring pegs under it 
into the grid holes. Move the LOAD/GO 
switch to LOAD, and enter the ship's 
coordinates into the computer. Each 
ship has as many coordinates as holes 
for the red "hit" pegs. A carrier covers 
five holes, so five sets of numbers are 
entered, such as B-1 , B-2, B-3, B-4, and 
B-5. Slide the Y-coordinate key to B 
and press it; slide the X-coordinate key 
to 1 and press it. Then press the FIRE 
key, which in LOAD mode enters the 
coordinate C-1 into the computer. 
Leave the one key at B, move the other 
to 2, and enter this coordinate, then B- 
3, B-4, etc. The computer responds 
with a signal tone after each key is 
pressed, to tell you that the coordinates 
have been entered. Players may enter 
their ships at the same time, or take 
turns. One player's signal tone is high; 
the other is low. 

When all five ships and 17 coor- 
dinates are entered correctly, each 
player will hear his own WHOOP signal 
from the speaker, and each must hear 
his WHOOP before the battle can 
begin. If a player doesn't hear his 
WHOOP signal, he must press CM and 
reload the coordinates. During LOAD, 
a player can correct an error in the 
number and/or letter he has just 
entered, without having to erase all the 
previous entries, by sliding his Y- 
coordinate key to the CLE (Clear Last 
Entry) position and pressing it. 

To Fire a Missile 

The first shots are guesses. You 
choose a coordinate on the upright 
target grid, put a white peg at that 
point, set your coordinate keys to that 
grid point, press the keys to enter the 
missile coordinate into the computer, 
and press FIRE. The computer will 
respond with the WHISTLE sound of a 
missile in flight. 

If you score a HIT, the computer will 
cause a flash of light on the red screen 
and the sound of an explosion. So you 
take out the white peg and put in a red 



one, to record your hit. You also tell 
your opponent the coordinate of the 
section of his ship you've hit. He must 
tell you which ship was hit (carrier, PT 
boat, etc.) and must place a red peg in 
the corresponding hole in that ship. 

Now you have to figure out where the 
rest of that ship is. If you had a MISS, 
there is no flash of light and no 
explosion, and you just leave the white 
peg at that coordinate on your target so 
you won't aim there again. 

Winning 

When any ship is HIT enough so that 
all its holes are filled with red pegs, the 
ship is sunk. The first player to sink all 
five of the opponent's ships is the 
winner and will hear the Victory signal: 
WHOOP. . .WHOOP. . .WHOOP. 

Salvo Game 

"The Salvo variation is for experienc- 
ed players who are familiar with the 
basic game." Each player fires five 
missiles during his turn. "When any 
player loses a ship. . .the ship is remov- 
ed from the ocean grid and the player 
loses one shot in the next salvo." 

Inside the Console 

All controls are centered on a portion 
of the control console that can be 
removed for repair. All components 
except the speaker are mounted on a 
5 1 /2-by-6-inch PC board, including a 28- 
pin Texas Instruments one-chip 
microprocessor of the TMS 1000 
series. This family of ICs is used in all Tl 
calculators, as well as in another Milton 
Bradley game, COMP IV, reviewed in 
the Nov-Dec 1977 issue (p 36). Also on 
the PC board is a Tl 555 timer for 
clocking the sound effects, a small 
lamp for the HIT flash, and about 70 
other components. 

A built-in test program allows a fast 
battery check: if the resulting missile 
whistle and whoop signal are missing 
or weak, put in new batteries. 

Observations 

Game-players familiar with Milton 
Bradley's all-plastic Battleship game, 
which has been a favorite for years, will 
be playing the electronic version in no 
time at all, because all the rules, 
strategy and game play are identical 
with the older version. Although a few 
minutes are required to input the 17 
ship coordinates to the computer, that 
time is quickly forgotten amidst the 
continuous sonar bleeps, the whistle of 
incoming missiles, the HIT explosions, 
and the whoop of victory when the 
entire fleet is sunk. If that fleet is your 
opponent's, then victory can indeed be 
sweet. But if it's your fleet that went to 
the bottom, try to tell yourself it's only a 
game, stop pounding your head 
against the wall, and reset for a return 
match. Players, man your consoles! ■ 



Your 

Sol dealer 

has it 

AL: Birmingham: ICP, Computerland, 1550-D 
Montgomery Hwy., (205)979-0707. AZ:Tempe: 
Byte Shop, 1425 W. 12th PI., (602)894-1129; 
Phoenix: Byte Shop, 12654 N. 28th, (602) 
942-7300; Tucson. Byte Shop, 261 2 E. Broadway, 
(602)327-4579. CA: Berkeley. Byte Shop, 
1514 University, (415)845-6366; Costa Mesa: 
Computer Center, 1913 Harbor, (714) 
646-0221; Hayward: Byte Shop, 1122 'B' St., 
(415)537-2983; Hayward: Computerland of 
Hayward. 22634 Foothill Blvd., (415)538-8080; 
Lawndale: Byte Shop, 16508 Hawthorne, 
(213)371-2421 ; Mt. View: Byte Shop, 1063 El 
Camino, (415)969-5464; Mt View: Digital 
Deli, 80 W. El Camino, (415)961-2670; Orange: 
Computer Mart, 633-B W. Katella. (714) 
633-1222; Pasadena: Byte Shop, 496 S. Lake. 
(213)684-3311; Sacramento: Micro-Computer 
Application Systems, 2322 Capitol, (916) 
443-4944; San Francisco: Byte Shop, 321 Pacific. 
(415)421-8686; San Jose: Byte Shop, 2626 
Union, (408)377-4685; San Rafael: Byte Shop. 
509 Francisco, (415)457-9311; Tarzana: Byte 
Shop, 18424 Ventura, (213)343-3919; Walnut 
Creek: Byte Shop, 2989 N. Main, (415)933-6252. 
CO: Boulder: Byte Shop, 3101 Walnut. 
(303)449-6233; Denver: Byte Shop, E. 1st Ave. & 
University. (304)399-8995. FL Ft. Lauderdale: 
Byte Shop, 1044 E. Oakland Pk., (305)561-2983; 
Miami: Byte Shop, 7825 Bird, (305)264-2983; 
Tampa: Microcomputer Systems, 144 So. Dale 
Mabry, (81 3)879-4301 . GA: Atlanta: Computer 
Mart, 5091-B Buford, (404)455-0647 IL 
Champaign: Computer Co., 318 N. Neil, (217) 
359-5883; Numbers Racket, 623 1 /2 S. Wright, 
(217)352-5435; Evanston: itty bitty machine co. 
1322 Chicago. (312)328-6800; Schaumburg: 
Data Domain, 1 61 2 E. Algonquin, (31 2) 397-8700. 
IN: Bloomington: Data Domain, 406 S. College, 
(812)334-3607; Indianapolis: Data Domain. 7027 
N. Michigan. (317)251-3139. IA: Davenport: 
Computer Store. 4128 Brady, (319)386-3330. 
KS: Overland Park: Personal Computer Center, 
3819 W 95th St., (913)649-5942. MA: Boston: 
Computer Warehouse Store. 584 Commonwealth, 
(617)261-2700. MD: Towson: Computer Etc., 
1 3A Allegheny, (301 )296-052O Ml: Ann Arbor. 
Computer Store. 310 E. Washington, (313) 
995-7616; East Lansing: General Computer Store. 
1310 Michigan. (517)351-3260; Troy: General 
Computer Store, 73 W. Long Lake Rd., (313) 
689-8321. MN: Minneapolis: Computer 
Depot, 351 5 W. 70th, (612)927-5601. NJ: Cherry 
Hill: Computer Emporium, 2438 Route 38, 
(609)667-7555; Hoboken: Computer Works. 20 
Hudson PI., (201)420-1644; Iselin: Computer 
Mart, 501 Rt. 27, (201)283-0600. NY: Endwell: 
The Computer Tree, 409 Hooper Rd., (607) 
748-1 223; New York: Computer Mart, 1 18 Madison. 
(212)686-7923; White Plains: Computer 
Corner, 200 Hamilton, (914)949-3282. NC: 
Raleigh: ROMs N' RAMs, Crabtree Valley 
Mall, (919)781-0003. OH: Columbus: Byte Shop, 
2432 Chester, (614)486-7761; Dayton: 
Computer Mart, 2665 S. Dixie, (513)296-1248. 
OR: Beaverton: Byte Shop, 3482 SW Cedar 
Hills, (503)644-2686; Eugene: Real Oregon 
Computer Co., 205 W. 10th, (503)484-1040; 
Portland: Byte Shop. 2033 SW 4th Ave., (503) 
223-3496. Rl: Warwick: Computer Power. 
M24 Airport Mall. 1800 Post Rd.. (401)738-4477 
SC: Columbia: Byte Shop. 2018 Green, 
(803)771-7824. TN: Kingsport: Microproducts 
& Systems, 2307 E. Center, (615)245-8081. 
TX: Arlington: Computer Port, 926 N. Collins, 
(817)469-1502; Arlington: Micro Store, 
312 W. Randol Mill Rd.. (817)461-6081; Houston: 
Interactive Computers, 7646'/2 Dashwood. 
(713)772-5257; Lubbock: Neighborhood 
Computer Store, 4902- 34th St., (806)797-1468; 
Richardson: Micro Store, 634 So. Central 
Expwy., (214)231-1096. VA: McLean: Computer 
Systems Store, 1984 Chain Bridge, (703) 
821-8333; Virginia Beach: Home Computer 
Center, 2927 Va. Beach Blvd., (804)340-1977 
WA: Bellevue: Byte Shop, 14701 NE 20th, 
(206)746-0651; Seattle: Retail Computer Store, 
410 NE 72nd, (206)524-4101. Wl: Madison. 
Computer Store. 1863 Monroe, (608)255-5552; 
Milwaukee: Computer Store, 6916 W. North, 
(414)259-9140. D.C.: Georgetown Computer 
Store, 3286 M St. NW, (202)362-2127 
CANADA: Toronto, Ont: Computer Mart, 1543 
Bayview, (416) 484-9708; First Canadian 
Computer Store, 44 Eglinton Ave. W. (416) 
482-8080; Vancouver, B.C.: Basic Computer 
Group, 1438 W. 8th, (604)736-7474; Pacific 
Computer Store, 4509 Rupert, (604)438-3282. 

ProcessorTechnology 



48 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Seven points 

to consider 

before 

you buy your 

small computer. 



In this magazine, alone, there are probably a dozen 
ads for small computers. New companies are breaking 
ground like spring flowers. 

How, then, do you determine which computer offers the 
features you need most ... at the price you can afford? 

We'd like to propose seven basic questions to help you 
make an intelligent decision. 

IHow complete is the 
computer system? 
w Many buyers of small computers are in for a rude 
awakening when they have to spend additional money 
for interfaces. 

The Sol-20 Terminal Computer was the first complete 
small computer system. Everything you need to make 
it work is included in the basic package. 

Is powerful system 
software available? 

It won't do if your system is "tongue-tiedr 
Processor Technology Corporation has devoted 
more effort to the development of software than any other 
small computer maker. Our latest offering is the first 
fully implemented disk operating system for a small 
computer: PTDOS. It contains over 40 major commands, 
several languages and numerous utilities. Our high 
level languages include Extended BASIC, Assembler, 
FORTRAN? FOCAL and PILOT* 

Is the system easy 
to expand? 

More and more computer owners are 
expanding their small computers to handle business and 
other specialized requirements. 

The largest Sol system can handle 64K bytes of RAM 
memory and operate with a three megabyte on-line 
disk memory. Sol systems use the S-100 Bus. So you can 
use a wide variety of hardware. 








Is the computer 
well-engineered? 

Our Sol systems are the most conservatively 
rated and ruggedly built in the industry, period. In 
addition we designed them with you, the user, in mind; 
Sols are easy to build and a joy to operate. 

Does it have proven 
reliability? 

What is the track record? There are over 
5,000 Sol systems in the field. Our track record for reliable 
performance is unparalleled in the small computer field. 

Does it have good 
factory support? 

A computer is a complex piece of hardware. 
So you want to be sure it is backed up with complete 
manuals, drawings and a factory support team that cares. 

Processor Technology offers the most extensive 
documentation of any small computer manufacturer. And 
we maintain a patient, competent telephone staff to 
answer your questions. 

Are maintenance and 
service people accessible? 

Where are they located? 

Processor Technology has maintenance and service 
people in over 50 cities around the U.S. 

As you continue turning the pages, see how we stack up 
to the other computers in this magazine. If we've 
succeeded in whetting your appetite, see your Sol dealer 
or write for information on the complete family of 
Sol computers. 

Processor Technology Corporation, Box C, 
7100 Johnson Industrial Drive, Pleasant on, CA 94566. 
(415) 829-2600. 




•Available soon. 



ProcessorTechnology 

CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Hardware & Software 









- ZPU 



h * M 






*. zie 



- 
L 









-* 




iniiiiiiiiiiiiiii 




TECHNICAL 
DESIGN 

LABS INC.. RESEARi 



INC., RESEARCH PARK. BLDG. H 



1101 STATE ROAD, PRINCETON. NEW JERSEY 08540 

(609)921-0321 



l,r ^ ■i.u* 



*»u 



*i 



»4 N 



**"* 






U **/lS, 



'*L 



**>t 



°se» 



>*«% 



***** 



"*l 




y*^ 




CIRCLE 111 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







A Creative Computing Equipment Profile... 



Umtech Video Bra in 



David H. Ahl 




VideoBrain comes with keyboard console, two plug-in joysticks, AC adapter, TV-antenna switchbox, 
and several program cartridges. 



The VideoBrain is essentially a cross 
between top-of-the-line video games 
and full computer systems such as PET 
or TRS-80. VideoBrain has an F-8 
microprocessor in it, 1K bytes of RAM 
memory and 4K bytes of ROM memory. 
It hooks up to a TV set, preferably 
color, like any of the video games 
through a TV/game switch box. It is 
powered by a low-voltage power 
adapter which is included. The unit 
itself measures 14 inches by 11-1/2 
inches by 5 inches high. It comes 
complete with two plug-in joysticks. 
The unit has a 36-key keyboard which 
is a somewhat abbreviated typewriter 
keyboard. The number keys are in a 
numeric keypad arrangement at the left 
side of the board, which is somewhat 
unexpected but okay once you get 



used to it. The only thing I didn't get 
used to in playing with the unit over a 
period of time was that the key used as 
the equivalent to the RETURN in a 
computer — called on this unit the 
NEXT key — is at the bottom center of 
the keyboard and is the same size as 
every other key. Also, the second 
(upper-case) symbol on the keys 
correspond to no known pattern; that 
is, the T has the times sign on it, the Y 
the division sign, U has an exclamation 
point, O the number sign and so on. On 
the other hand, if you haven't been 
exposed to alternative layout over a 
long period of time you shouldn't have 
too much trouble in getting used to the 
keyboard. 

Seven Lines of Print 

The built-in memory of the unit 



provides for alphanumeric characters 
in the rather coarse arrangement of 
seven lines of print with 16 characters 
on each line. Like the programmable 
video games, this unit uses plug-in 
ROM memory cartridges. A ROM 
equipped with enough memory will 
allow for more tightly packed print 
characters up to a maximum of 16 lines 
containing 24 characters each. In 
contrast to the somewhat coarse print 
characters, the graphics are very good. 
The grid is 140 horizontal lines by 
either 200 or 400 vertical lines. In 
addition to the VideoBrain console 
itself, there is a matching expander unit 
that has a 3870 single-chip 
microprocessor in it, a 2K ROM 
memory and which allows the control 
of two standard cassette-tape 
recorders to store and retrieve data. It 
also has a third cable, to connect with 
standard RS-232 printers or com- 
munications devices and it has a cable 
with a plug for current-loop com- 
munications with a standjard Teletype 
or acoustic coupler. Obviously the 
VideoBrain, when equipped with the 
expander box, is the equivalent of a 
small computer. 

Program Cartridges 

As of this writing, (March 1978) there 
are seven cartridges of programs 
available, with four scheduled for 
release within the next month or two. 
According to Ted Haynes, Manager of 
Product Marketing, many other 
programs are in the programming 
and/or planning stage. VideoBrain 
clearly is coming up with a somewhat 
different programming philosophy 
than the manufacturers of the video 
games. From the initial offerings, it is 
obvious that they are concentrating on 
somewhat more serious applications in 




You can play checkers at three different levels with 
this cartridge. 



52 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



the areas of household management 
and education. That is not to say that 
there are not some very good games 
being offered, but there are propor- 
tionately more education and 
household management programs 
than are offered by other manufac- 
turers. Some of the initial offerings are 
somewhat simplistic in their approach 
but that should, of course, improve 
over time. Let's look at some of the 
program library. 

Finance One 

Finance I lets you complete analyses 
of loans, mortgages, savings accounts, 
and other financial alternatives. The 
program prompts you for the 
necessary inputs and then computes 
the value requested: net present value, 
internal rate of return, accumulated 
interest or principal for any period, 
interest rate or term of loan. The 
program also graphs the results of the 
last eight evaluations. In addition, you 
can write formulas for evaluation with 
up to 20 user-defined variables. 



IIIHIIillill 

The VideoBrain is es- 
sentially a cross be- 
tween top -of -the -line 
video games and full 
computer systems such 
as PET or TRS-80. 

MfflfflffllMIHIilHllilHffllBlB] 



Music Teacher 1 

This cartridge teaches the user to 
read, write, and play music in a four- 
octave range. When you play a note on 
the VideoBrain keyboard, the note is 
played through the TV, and the note is 
named and displayed in five-line 
musical notation on the screen. Once 
you've played a tune, the VideoBrain 
will play it back just as you keyed it in. 
The program also includes two built-in 
songs. 

The only problem I had with this 
program is that songs are played back 
in the same tempo as when you type 
them in. Clearly, if you are used to the 
keys of the piano, typing a song in on a 
typewriter keyboard is somewhat 
foreign, and it is rather difficult to type 
it in real-time. It seems to me it would 
have been desirable to have a variation 
which allowed picking out notes and 
then having the computer put them 
together and p)ay them back in tighter 
sequences than you might have 
typed in. 




Ancient Gladiator is one of the three games, with a 
total of 384 variations, in the Gladiator cartridge. 



Wordwise 1 

This program trains from one to four 
people in word-building skills at 3 
different skill levels. The computer 
gives each person a random assort- 
ment of ten letters and challenges the 
person to build words with them. The 
program includes a challenge round 
(to correct score for misspelled words) 
and a song to salute the best word- 
builder. 

Wordwise 2 

Wordwise 2 teaches accurate touch- 
typing through three exercises. 
VideoBrain signals your mistakes and 
records your progress with a words- 
per-minute score after every exercise. 

On the same cartridge is Cypher, an 
electronic word game for two players. 
One player decides on a quotation or 
phrase to be scrambled by VideoBrain. 
The other player tries to unscramble it 
as fast as he or she can. Good scrabble 
players should have no trouble with 
this one. Although let me tell you when 
you are trying to unscramble a phrase 
of seven or eight words, it is no picnic. 

Gladiator 

Gladiator includes three games with 
an incredible 384 variations. In Ancient 
Gladiator, you aim your bow and arrow 
to fend off a hungry lion as well as your 
opponent. In Modern Gladiator, you 
can run or pass to two receivers to 
score a touchdown in "Scrimmage." 
Future Gladiator pits two laser-armed 
space ships against each other in an 
intergalactic battlefield. The strategic 
nature of each game changes as you 
add bouncing arrows, joystick-guided 
lasers, bullet passes or other exciting 
variations. If no opponent is available 
you can let VideoBrain play one 
gladiator while you run for cover with 
the other. 



Blackjack 

One or two players can try to beat the 
dealer in this Nevada-style game. Start 
with $500 and bet up to $250 with a 
move of the joystick. Blackjack pays 
you 1 1 /2 times your bet and you can 



double your bet if you're dealt a 10 or 
11, so you can count cards to gain an 
advantage. VideoBrain plays a musical 
tone to tell you if you won or lost. 

Other program cartridges scheduled 
for early release include: cash manage- 
ment, real-estate analysis, stock valua- 
tion, math tutor, pinball, checkers, and 
tennis. 




With the Cash Management program, you keep 
permanent records of all household income and 
spending. 



How Much and Where 

The price of the basic VideoBrain 
$499 and the expander unit is $199. 
ROM program cartridges cost $20 for a 
cartridge with 2K of memory, $30 for a 
4K cartridge and $40 for an 8K car- 
tridge. Most of the currently available 
cartridges are 2K programs. The price 
of the cartridges is about right and 
what one has come, to expect. The 
$500-plus for the unit itself sounds a bit 
pricey to me although we'll see if there 
is any discounting once it hits the retail 
stores in mass. Umtech plans to 
distribute the VideoBrain through 
various department stores such as 
Macy's and the May Company primari- 
ly, although some retail computer 
stores and electronic outlets will un- 
doubtedly carry it too. ■ 



o OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

o o ooooooooooooo 

o o o o oooooo ooo oo 
o o o oooooooooooo 
ooooooooooooooo 



[ 




oooo oo 
o o o o o/~ 
o o o o 

oooo 
oooo 

o ooc { 

o oo 



c 







o ooooo 

KOODOO 

n> Qoooo 

oooo 
oooo 

oooo 
oooo 



fij"lJ LU lfr 



"Says 'How the #*??() should I know?'" 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



53 




Meers the 



AVON LADY 1 



©* 



** 



Our story opehs as CRE- 
ATIVE COMPUTING Sop£R 
SALES REP, fcONALb LNSol, 
SITS WAiTiMC, Itf THE OFFICE 
OF PRINCIPAL X WHO H-AS 
EXCUSED HWASEL? TO 6t> 

To -mt w.c. (astute Reboots 

WILL RECALL THAT MIL* L1S0L 

1*1 in realit^ Movie cornea 

THAK EDUfKAM.) TMiklW.iUfc % 

G>H JAl STAKE- , THAT UN Sou 
IS H.S. PRi|4C\PAL X , THE 
AVON LAM CHIEFS 'WITH 
HER &A<^ O* TRiC*c4. 



We €rCTT REGULAR AVONS, 
AMD SUPER AVON S AMu 
EL CHEAPO AVoN Uoo's 



If 




ANO, BECAUSE 

You've mcm so 

NICE TOMC, I 1 * 

^otNCr To PUT 
THIS sumr AVoN 
BEAUTY m Your 
SCHOOL. ABSO- 
LUTELY mcE*i 






To ST S|*N HERE ON 

this Contract por 

WATERED STOCK j OoPS, 
WRoN* OMC! MERE 

rr is — avoms. 



%^ 0SC(A ^S^^ 






YOU FbRtfT "lADY* THAT ft 
A WART- Ho*..- AND l % JA 
GOlKS TO poumo you INTO 
/AOUND OF PLAY OOUftM* 



^ 



v»: 




you woulon't hit a 
iady, would ya eoo- 
manT you wouldn't 
let down your ever- 

LoViW AAUTHA IMAGE , 
WoutDy^wYA'? SOB? 



MMM, NOW TO *ET BACIcN 
INTo M SPARE LYSOL ) 
50 IT eefO*E PRINCIPAL \ 

X Returns .*. H£h,*eh, J 




AW, LVSOl 

JUST CALLED you 
OVER TO TELL 
YOU THAT THE 

TAXPAYERS 
TURNED DOWN 
THE BONO IS- 
SUE. NO CO/A- 
PUTER. SORR*? 




WITW ALL out APOLOftlE* TO OUR feop FRIENDS IN SoUTHDoRO WMoSE NOVAS AJtE 
KCUABl* SERVING HUNDREDS OP SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES TDDAY. 



54 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






FOR ALL CUSTOMERS EXCEPT CALIF. CALL TOLL FREE 800-421-5809 



21L02 (450ns) 
Static Rams 
100 @ $1.10 ea. 



^-8 

Microprocessor 
5 @ $20.00 ea. 



1702A 
E— PROM 
8 @ $3.75 



ea. 



8224-4 

Clk.Gen.&Dvr. 
25 @ $8.75ea. 



6502 

Microprocessor 
5 @ $11.00 ea. 



410D (200ns) 
Static Ram 
100 @ $8.75ea. 



MICROCOMPUTER COMPONENTS 



MICROPROCESSOR'S 



MISC. OTHER COMPONENTS 



F» 

Z80 

ZS0A 

CDP1802CD 

2650 

AM2901 

6502 

6800 

6802 

8008- 

8035 

80S0A 

8085 

TMS9900TL 



■1 



16.95 
12.00 
28.00 
19.95 
24.95 
22.95 
11.95 
18.95 
25.00 
9.95 
22.00 
11.95 
2 7.00 
75.00 



8080A SUPPORT DEVICES 



DISC 



8212 

8214 

8216 

8224 

8224-4 

8226 

8228 

• 238 

8251 

8253 

8255 

8257 

8259 

8275 

8279 

FLOPPY 

1771 B 
1771B-01 

KEYBOARD 

AY5— 2 3 76 
AY5— 3600 

PROM'S 

1702A 

2704 

2708 

2716 

2716 Intl 

2758 

D3601 

D3604 

5203 AQ 

5204 AQ 
6834 
68341 
82S23B 
82S129B 
8223B 



3.50 
9.00 
3.75 
3.50 
9.95 
3.95 
7.95 
7.50 
95 



21.95 
21.95 
21.95 
21.95 
75.00 
20.00 

CONTROLLER 

55.95 
5 7.95 



CHIPS 
13.75 
13.75 



4.00 

15.00 

12.00 

30.00 

38.00 

26.60 

4.50 

13.00 

5.00 

7.50 

17.50 

14.95 

4.00 

4.25 

3.50 



6800 SUPPORT 

6810P 4.95 

68B10P 6.00 

6820P 7.50 

6821P 7.50 

6828P 11.25 

6834P 16.95 

6850P 9.75 

6852P 11.75 

6860P 10.00 

6862P 14.50 

6871P 28.00 

6875P 8.75 

6880P 2.50 

280 SUPPORT DEVICES 

3881 12.95 

3882 12.95 



STATIC 
21L02 
21L02 
21 U>2 
410O 
1101 A 
2101-1 
2102 
2111-1 
2112-1 
2114-3 
2125L 
2147 
31 L01 
3106 
3107 

TMS-4044 
4200A 
TMS-4045 
5101 
74C89 
7489 
74S201 
PB101 
P8155 
P81S6 
8599 
9102BPC 



RAMS 

1.50 

(350) 1.60 

(250) 1.75 

10.75 

1.00 

2.95 

1.25 

3.95 

2.95 

11.00 

11.10 

37.50 



SO 
95 
95 
95 



12.95 

11.00 

8.30 

3.25 

2.25 

4.50 

4.20 

17.00 

21.00 

1.88 

1.65 



1.24 
1.35 
1.60 

10.00 
.90 
2.75 
1.15 
3.50 
2.80 

10.00 
9.00 

2.35 
3.70 
3.70 
9.00 

10.00 
7.40 
3.05 
2.10 
4.00 
3.40 
14.00 
18.00 
1.75 
1.4 5 



1.18 
1.25 
1.50 
9.25 
.80 
2.60 
1.00 
3.25 
2.6 9 
9.25 
8.30 

2.00 
3.25 
3.25 
8.95 

9.25 
7.25 
2.85 
1.90 
3.75 
2.80 



1.60 
1.30 



CHARACTER 

2513 

2513 5v upper 

2513 5v lower 

2516 

MCM6571 

MCM6571 A 

MCM6574 

MCM657 5 

WAVEFORM 

8038 

MC4024 

566 



GENERATORS 

6.75 

9.75 
10.95 
10.95 
10.95 
10.95 
13.25 
13.25 

GENERATOR 

3.50 
2.25 
1.50 



DYNAMIC RAMS 

416D/4116 32.00 

1103 1.00 

2104 4.00 

2107B 4.25 

210 7B-4 3.9 5 

TMS40S0 4.00 

TMS4060 4.50 

TMS4070-2 32.00 

4096 4.00 

4 116/4 16 D 3 2.00 

MM5270 4.50 

MCM6605 5.00 

USRT 

S2 3 50 

UART'S 

AY5-1013A 
AY5-1014 A 
TR1602B 

TMS601 1 

IM6402 

IM6403 



10.75 



5.25 
8.25 
5.25 
5.95 
10.80 
10.80 



JADE 8080A KIT 
$100.00 KIT 

BARE BOARD $30.00 



N8T20 

N8T26 

N8T9 5 

N8T96 

N8T9 7 

N8T98 

8 1 LS9 5 

8 1 LS9 7 

1488 

1489 

O320S 

O3207A 

O320BA 

D3211 

B3222 

B3242 

D3 24 5 

C3404 

P3408A 

P4201 A 

MM5 3 20 

MM5369 

TMS5501 

DM8130 

DM8 1 3 1 

OM8833 

DM88 3 5 

DM8837 

MK50240 

MK50250 



3.39 

2.10 
1.3 5 
1.35 
1.35 
1.35 
2.00 
2.00 
1.75 
1.75 
4.00 
4.55 

14.20 

10.00 
9.75 

10.15 
5.60 
6.75 

12.00 
5.20 
7.50 
1.90 

24.95 
2.90 
2.75 
2.50 
2.50 
1.75 

20.00 

15.00 



2708 

E— PRO 

8 @ $11.00 



(4 50 ns) 



ea. 



4096 

Dynamic Ram 
100 @ $3.50 ea 



E-PROM BOARDS 

MB 8 I8K MM 77081 KIT S99 bO 

~.tri IK RAM 
MR I6T H6K uhi 77161 KIT S99 SO 

■MM IK RAM 
MM 16 1 16K mm 77081 S99 00 

RAM N ROM (16K uw» «,, 

I PROMI KIT SI 17 00 

JO 8 16 1mm 7708 ... 77161 

KII S59 96 

BAH I BOARD S30 00 



TV-i 



to 



Convert TV. set 

Video Monitor. 

KIT $8.95 



STATIC RAM BOARDS 





8K 






250m 


ASSEMBLED 8. 


TESTED 


$189.95 


450ns 


ASSEMBLED & 


TESTED 


$149.75 


2SOns 


KIT 




$169.95 


450ns 


KIT 




$125.00 


BARE 


BOARD 




25.00 


6800 


ADAPTER to SI 00 System 






KIT 




$1295 




. 16K 






250ns 


ASSEMBLED & 


TESTED 


$435.00 


450ns 


ASSEMBLED & 


TESTED 


$380.00 


450ns 


- KIT 

32 K 




$335.00 


250ns 


ASSEMBLED 8. 


TESTED 


$850.00 


450ns 


ASSEMBLED & 


TESTED 


$775.00 


450ns 


KIT 




$675.00 



DYNAMIC RAM BOARDS 

On board Refresh poon is provided with no mm 
states or cyck. stealing required 
•8VOC 400MA DC. • 18VDC 40OMA DC and 
18VOC 30MA DC 





EXPANDABLE 


8K (375ns) KIT 


16K 


(375 ns) KIT 


24K 


(375n$) KIT 


32K 


(375ns) KIT 




EXPANDABLE 


16K 


(375ns) KIT 


32K 


(375ns) KIT 


48K 


(375ns) KIT 


MR 


(375ns) KIT 



32K 



64 K 



$151 00 
$259.00 
$367.00 
$425.00 



$281.00 
$519.00 
$757.00 
$995.00 



MOTHER BOARD'S - S 100 Style 
13 slot - w /front panel slot 
BARE BOARD $35.00 

KIT $95.00 

22 slot - $149.95 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED 



THE PROM SETTER 

WRITE & READ 
EPROM 
1702A - 2708 - 2716 
5204 - 6834 

* Plug* directly into your ALTAIR IMSAI Compute 

* Includes Main Module Board and Eatemal EPROM 
Socket Unit 

* The EPROM Socket Unit is connected to the Com 
outer through a 25 pm connector 

' Programming is accomplished by the Computei 

* Just read m the Program to be Written on the 
EPROM into your Processor and let the Computei 
do the rest 

* Use Socket Unit to Read EPROM' s Consents inte) 
your Computer 

* Software included 

* No eternal power tuppiies Your compuifi don 
it all 

' Doubles as an Eight Bit Parallel I/O 
' Manual mrluded 

KIT $210.00 

ASSEMBLED $375.00 



KIM-1 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED 



$245.00 



MEMORY PLUS 

for KIM-1 

8K RAM (21L02) 
8K EPROM 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED 

$245.00 



21L02 (250ns) 
Static Rams 
100 @ $1.36 ea. 



4200A (200ns) 

Static Rams 

2 5 @ $10.00 ea. 



Z— 80 A 

Microprocessor 
5 @ $25.00 ea. 



74LS367 
Hex Buffer 
100 @ .70? ea. 



jadeZ80„. t 

-with PROVISIONS lor p\ | 

ONBOARD ?7M and POWER ON JUMP 



(2MHZ) 



$135.00 EA. 
$149.95 EA. 

BARE BOARD $35.00 



i4MH/l 



Z80 "UPGRADE" KIT 

Change your JADE 2MH* Z80 to a 4MHz version 
with this simple kit: 

only $17.95 with trade 

$49.95 purchase. 

To trade, you must give us your 2MH* Z80 chip 
and 8224 clock driver. 

The "UPGRADE KIT" includes: 
Z80Ach.p. 1.8K resistor 

8224-4 clock driver 20 pf. capacitor 

36MHz crystal 



8212 

8 Bit I/O Port 

25 @ $3.00 ea. 



74LS368 
Hex Inverter 
100 @ .70? ea. 



4116 (200ns) 
16 K Dyn. Ram 
16 @ $24.00 ea. 



2 513 (5 v) 
Character Gen. 
5 @ $9.00 ea. 



COMPU TIME 

S100 BUS COMPATIBLE ^T lOO 

TIME & CALENDAR 

Microprocessors need the power that a real time clock 
can offer Date and time becomes instantly available 
C0MPU/TIME does not have to be initialized every time 
the system is powered up. It possesses a crystal-controlled 
time base to obtain superior accuracy and has two setable 
coincidence counters. Time, date, and counters are set 
via software. 

COMPUTATIONAL FUNCTION 

Microprocessors need to be complimented by hardware 
arithmetics to free up memory pages dedicated to float 
mo point routines and mathmatical software COMPU/ 
TIME provides a 40 function calculator array so that 
algebraic, trigonometric, basic arthmetic problems can 
be solved without the need of developing sophisticated 
software. _ . v 

Buy It Your Way 



COMPU/TIME CT100 $199 KIT 

COMPU only C101 $149 KIT 

TIME only T101 $165 KIT 

COMPU/TIME PC Board only $80 



$245 Assembled 
$189 Assembled 
$205 Assembled 



JADE VIDEO 
INTERFACE KIT 



$99.95 



FEATURES 

■100 Bus Compatible 
32 or 64 Characters per line 
16 lines 

jraph.cs(128 x 48 matrix) 
Parallel & Compositive video 
On board low-power memory 

Powerful softvvare incjudedjor 
cursor, home. 
Character, etc 



Powerful software included for 
jursor, home, tOL, Scroll Graphics/ 
-hara 



_ r r case lower case & Greek 
ack on white & white -on- black 



full ASCII 
PROFESSIONAL KEYBOARDS 

Full 128 Character ASCII! 
Tn-Mode MOb Encoding' 
MOS OTl TTL Computable Output 1 
Two-key Rollover 1 

Level and Pulse Strobe 1 MODEL 

Shift and Alpha Lock 1 yge 

Selectable Parity 1 ._ 

■'■• Positive or Negative Logic 1 '*'" *Sys) 
•MCINO INFORMATION 

Model 756 (assembled) $75 95 
Model 756K (kit) 64.95 

Model 702 Enclosure 29 95 

Model 710 Numeric Pad 9.95 
Model 7S6MF Mtg Frame 8 95 



REAL TIME CLOCK FOR S 100 BUS 

1 MHZ Crystal Oscillator 
Two independent interrupts 
One interrupt uses 16 bit counter in 
10 US EC steps 

Other interrupt is in decade steps from 
100USEC to 10 sec. 
Both software programmable 
Board can be selected by 1 28 device 
code pairs. 

Complete documentation includes soft- 
ware to display time of day. 
Double sided solder mask 
Silk screen parts layout 

JG-RT ASSEMBLED & TESTED $179.95 

JG-RT KIT $124.95 

BARE BOARD with Manual $30.00 



TARBELL 
CASSETTE INTERFACE 

• Plugs directly into your IMSAI or ALTAIR ' 

• Fastest transfer rate 187 (standard) to 540 bytes/second 

• Extremely Reliable — Phase encoded (self -clocking) 

• 4 Extra Status Lines. 4 Extra Control Lines 

• 37-page manual included 

• Device Code Selectable by DIP switch 

• Capable of Generating Kansas City tapes also 

• No modification required on audio cassette recorder 

JADE KIT* $99.95 ASSEMBLED $175.00 

*(6 month warranty Irom JA0E) MANUAL $4.00 



JADE PARALLEL/SERIAL 

INTERFACE KIT 

s-ioo $124.95 KIT 

2 Serial Interfaces with RS232 

interfaces or 1 Karrsas City cassette 

interface. 

Serial interfaces are crystal controlled. 

Selectable baud rates. 

Cassette works up to 1200 baud. 

1 parallel port. 



DATA COMMUNICATIONS ADAPTER 



80 103 A Sana! I/O and FSK modem for 
profattional and hobby communication! 

• Completely compatible with your IMSAI. ALTAiR* 
SOL** or other S-100 microcomputers. 
Trademarks of *MITS, "Processor Technology 

• Designed for use on the dial telephone or TWX 
networks, or 2-wire dedicated lines, meets all 
FCC regulations when used with a CBT coupler. 

• All digital modulation and demodulation with on 

board cyrstel clock and precision filter meen that 
NO ADJUSTMENTS ARE REQUIRED 

* Bell 103 stendard frequencies 

■ Automated dial (pulsed) and answer 

* Originate and answer mode 
e 1 10 or 300 BPS speed select 
e Complete self test capability 

e Character length, stop bit. and parity 

* 90 dey warranty and full documentation 

PRICES: BARE BOARD and Manual $49.95 

Assembled (48 hr. burn in) $279.95 

JG-DCA KIT $159.95 



NUMBER CRUNCHER 

The CT200 is a number-oriented microprocessor intended 
for use in those applications that require fast versatile 
mathematical solutions. 

THIS IS NOT A CALCULATOR CHIP. THERE ARE NO 
KEY DELAYS. 

The CT200 has a unique architecture that is designed to 
be a TASK processing system within a system. This 
unique architecture will allow the CT200 to work and run 
with ANY S100 BUS microprocessor system. It is 
completely compatible with Z80, 4MHZ version also. 
8080. 6800. 6502 microprocessor A micro incoded 
instruction set allows programming in a calculator like 
language. The instruction set includes a full set of test 
and branch instructions. All decoding of S100 bus 
signals (for select or control functions) is performed with 
strobed latches to eliminate the possibility of glitches. 



PRICE: $249.00 
Includes - Manual, ASSEMBLED & TESTED. 



CONNECTORS 




DB - 25P $3.00 




DB - 25$ $4.00 




COVER $1.50 




44 Pin - PC & EYE 


$1.95 


44 Pin - WW 


$2.50 


86 Pin - (6800) PC 


$5.00 


86 Pin - (COSMAC ELF) 


$5.00 


PC 




100 Pin - (Altair) PC 


$4.50 


100 Pin - (Imsai) PC 


$3.75 


100 Pin - (Imsai) WW 


$4.25 




Computer Products 

5351 West 144th Street 
LAWNDALE, CALIFORNIA 90260 
(213) 679-3313 

RETAIL STORE HOURS Monday Friday 9-7 

Saturday 9-5 
Discounts available at OEM quantities ADD $1.50 
under 10 lbs. for shipping. California residents add 
6% sales tax. 

NEW CATALOG NOW AVAILABLE 






CIRCLE 112 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




A Creative Computing Software Profile. . . 




UIMTER! 



A real-time combat game, each 
player moving independently, typing 
as fast as he can, with minimum time 
to consider his moves. 



It is estimated that 75% of all per- 
sonal computer systems are used 
solely for games and recreation. Con- 
sequently there is quite a bit of interest 
in games for personal computers, 
especially those featuring unique 
graphic displays. I recently had the 
chance to try out one such game, 
called ENCOUNTER! written and 
marketed by Objective Design, Inc. 

Encounter! is a game written in 8080 
assembly language. An 8080-based 
microcomputer, two keyboards, and a 
memory mapped video display with 
video inversion (such as the Processor 
Tech VDM-1) are required to play the 
game. Encounter! is a board game 
played in realtime. Moves are accepted 
from the players independently, as fast 
as they can be typed. So Encounter! is 
an entirely different type of game than 
Chess, where moves are made alter- 
nately. There is no time for lengthy 
consideration of your moves. 

The board in Encounter! is divided 
into districts, referred to by column 
number (A-J) and row number (1-12). 
A district may be empty, occupied, or 
blocked. Empty districts are 
represented by spaces, and occupied 
districts by the number of men in the 
district (flanked by either +s or -s to 
indicate which side occupies the 
district— as in +23+ or -05-). Blocked 
districts, which serve as obstacles in 
the game, are shaded in. At the outset 
of the game, each player sets up his 
portion of the board, while the other 
player leaves. Thus the players do not 
know the other player's initial setup 
until the game actually begins. When 
both players have finished the set-up 
procedure of distributing a limited 
number of men within his quadrant of 
the board, the game is started. 

Commands 

The object of the game is to wipe out 
all the opponent's men, or his home 
district, depending on the particular 
version of Encounter! played. Each 
side has one district designated as the 
home district. Side 0's home district is 
located in the lower lefthand side of the 
board, and side Vs home district is in 
the upper righthand corner. During 
execution of the game, you have at 



your disposal the commands shown in 
the box. 

The Display 

While the game is in progress, 
various portions of the screen indicate 
what the game is doing. At the bottom 
left side of the screen, player 0's input is 
echoed, and at the bottom right, player 
Vs. This actually permits you to 
observe your opponent's commands, 



Steve North 



though you rarely have time to do so in 
actual play. If a command is illegal, the 
word REJECT appears next to it. The 
line immediately above the command 
entry line is used to display informatory 
messages for each side. These 
messages tell you if you've won or lost 
a district, or if there is an immediate 
loss on your side, or if you've broken off 
an attack. The area above this is used 
for the board. The border of the board 



COMMANDS FOR ENCOUNTER! 



Command Example, 
M M10A12C9 



T 10 E8 F8 



A A12 B12 
A A12 B12 L5 
A A12 B12 X6 
A A12 B12 L5 X6 



X 

D 



X E8 
D L5 X6 



Description 

Move men from one occupied district to 
another. In the example, we moved 10 
men from A12 to C9. 

Transfer men from an occupied district 
to an adjacent unoccupied district. This 
command is used to expand into empty 
areas on the board. In the example we 
transferred 10 men from E8 to F8. 

Attack an adjacent enemy district. When 
this command is executed, the computer 
automatically controls the encounter 
between the two opposing districts, 
displaying the decreasing number of 
men within both districts. There are two 
optional parameters that can be set in 
this command. When you win an en- 
counter, men from the attacking district 
are automatically transferred into the 
taken district. The L parameter specifies 
how many men to leave in the attacking 
district. There is also an automatic 
breakoff point, so that an attacking 
district can not attack itself out of 
existence. When the number of men 
reaches below this level (the X 
parameter), the attacking district breaks 
off the attack automatically. The 
breakoff point must always be higher 
than the number of men to leave, and at 
least one man must be left. 
Break off attack. 

Sets default values for parameters in the 
Attack command. 



56 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



F G H 



.............. 

:::::::::::::: 

•XZ 



••••••••••••••a 






I:::::::::!::: 



••???••••••• 






111-01- 



i !sr ** 



:::::::::::::::: 



:::::::::::::::: 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



:t::::it:h::::i 



?5?!??* : ?????? 



• •••• 



:::::::t:::::t: 

........JHHHHHii!? 

••••••••••a 

••• •■•••■•• 

••••••••••• 



♦99* 



F G H 

TAK G7 



3S 



The circled numbers indicate game features: (1) side 1 home district; the exact location is program- 
mable; (2) side home district; (3) occupied district; (4) unoccupied district; (5) blocked district; (6) 
attack in progress; reverse video; (7) keyboard command entry display area; typical command: M 33 
E8; (8) keyboard 1 command entry display area; typical command: T20 11 12 13 14 REJECT; (9) field 
messages line. The dark lines show the setup limits of both sides, and do not actually appear on the 
screen. The limits are programmable for each game. 



displays the coordinate system, while 
the rest of the board is a display of the 
playing area. Areas engaged in en- 
counters are displayed in reverse video 
(white on black, rather than black on 
white). There are also two displays of 
the game timer, located on the bottom 
left and right sides of the screen. 

During the game, men are naturally 
lost due to attacks. However, each side 
has a birthrate, determined by the 
number of districts that side occupies. 
Births occur in the home district only, 
so it is important to protect the home 
district. Encounter! comes configured 
as three different games. The rules are 
basically the same for all the games, 
but the variations are in the blocked 
districts, the number of men each side 
starts with, and the conditions for a 
win. 

When the game is started, the version 
of Encounter! to be played and the level 
of play (speed of the game) are 
selected. There is a time delay in the 
execution of most of the commands 
(such as Transfer) which makes it 
possible for a slow typist or inex- 
perienced player to use the game. So 
the ability to set the speed of the game 
is quite desirable, since it makes the 
game playable for both beginners and 
experts. (A member of the staff at 
Creative recently remarked that game 
writers sometimes play their games so 
much that they become experts and 



make them trickier, so that a beginning 
player may find many games bewilder- 
ing.) 

Playing Encounter! 

A game like Encounter! permits 
many different styles of play and 
strategy within a simple framework of 
rules. " For instance, the manual 
suggests starting an attack at one area 
of the board with a high breakoff point, 
and while the opponent handles this 
problem, starting another elsewhere. 
Also, since it is to your advantage to 
spread out a bit, so as to obtain a high 
birthrate, it is sometimes possible for 
an opponent to break through into a 
sparsely populated area and to move 
quickly towards your home district. 
You can try keeping the other player 
busy in one portion of the board while 
you sneak over into another part. 
Really, it is necessary to play En- 
counter! for a while to appreciate all the 
techniques you can try out. In some 
ways it is like the games of Risk and 
Chess. 

Documentation 

The Encounter! documentation is 
generally excellent. The instructions 
include lots of explanation, examples, 
and a diagram or two. The style of the 
manual is quite clear and interesting. 
The source code for the game is 
provided, but is unassembled. It is hard 



to understand what good this really 
does for someone who wants to modify 
the game, unless they want to type in 
thousands of characters of source 
code. However some details on 
modification of the game (for custom 
versions of Encounter!), with 
references to the appropriate memory 
locations, are given. 

One big problem with Encounter! is 
that the object code is assembled to 
run at 8000 hex (starting at 32K). Very 
few people have memory up there. A 
much more reasonable place would 
have been 0000. On the other hand, it 
isn't going to kill anyone to pull out a 
memory board and set the board 
address DIP switch. Larry Weinstein of 
Objective Design explained that the 
rationale for providing the object code 
for that address was not the probable 
location of RAM but the probable 
location on non-writable ROM. Larry 
said that they could have provided the 
code at 8K or 16K, but even then there 
are people who don't have that much 
memory. I still don't see why they 
couldn't have provided it at 0000 (the 
only computers I can think of offhand 
that have ROM down at 0000 couldn't 
run Encounter! anyway) but as Larry 
said, it's no big deal. You will need two 
terminals or keyboards to play En- 
counter!, but that goes without saying. 

Larry Weinstein also mentioned that 
he was surprised that more people 
aren't writing sophisticated video 
games for their systems, but are 
instead content to play Bagels for the 
two-hundredth time. One of the 
reasons for this may be that games like 
Encounter! or TREK-80 or Spacewar 
(see the July-August issue of Creative) 
have to be programmed in assembly 
language. A BASIC interpreter is just 
too slow and clumsy for writing com- 
plex, high-speed video games. If you 
don't believe it, write a routine in 
BASIC to clear the VDM screen using 
the POKE statement. You will of 
course have to convert the memory 
addresses from hex to decimal, etc. 
Then see how long (yawn) it takes to 
clear the screen. So because of a lack 
of compilers with special graphics 
features, video games must be written 
in assembly language or perhaps 
BASIC with machine-language sub- 
routine calls. Since most people find 
programming in assembly language 
tedious and error-prone, as well as 
more difficult than programming in a 
high-level language, it is a lot easier to 
just play Bagels (again). 

At any rate, if you're interested in 
video games, and especially in two- 
player games, this is a product that will 
provide you and someone else with 
many hours of fun. Encounter! is 
available on papertape for $16.95, or 
Tarbell cassette for $19.95, postpaid, 
from Objective Design, Inc., P.O. Box 
20325, Tallahassee, Florida 32304. ■ 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



57 



Can a Computer Really Play 
Winning Chess? 



David H. Ahl 




Back in the '50s when Elvis was 
making like a hound dog, Victory At 
Sea was NBC's top prime-time hit, and 
Shockley demonstrated the first tran- 
sistor at Bell Labs, some optimistic 
researchers speculated that computers 
really ought to be able to think. At that 
time, it was generally accepted that one 
good measure of "thinking" was play- 
ing a good game of chess. I'm sure that 
many chess experts and amateurs 
wouldn't disagree with that view today. 

Chess is the intellectual game par 
excellence. There is no random chance 
involved, just sheer intellect in a 
situation so complex that neither 
player can hope to understand it 
completely, but sufficiently structured 
that each can hope to outthink the 
other. Even after 200 years of ex- 
haustive play and thorough analysis, 
the field is still ripe for further explora- 
tion and development. Thus, if one 
could devise a successful chess 
program, one would seem to have 
penetrated to the core of human 
intellectual endeavor. 

Three researchers in particular delv- 
ed into this problem with great fervor. 
They were, of course, Allen Newell and 
J. C. Shaw at Rand Corporation, along 
with Herbert Simon at Carnegie In- 
stitute of Technology, now Carnegie- 
Mellon University. 

During their efforts to produce a 



good chess-playing program, they 
discovered a number of things. First of 
all, it's not easy. Indeed, it may not be 
possible at all to produce a program 
that can play at the master level. Why 
not? First (and the reason that chess- 
playing programs are so good as a 
measure of thinking) is that the possi- 
ble number of moves is in the 
neighborhood of infinity, give or take a 
bit. (Actually, Claude Shannon es- 
timated that there are something like 
10 12 ° possibilities, which doesn't help 
us too much, since there are only 1 16 
microseconds in a century!). Conse- 
quently, you can't store all the 
possibilities in memory of any kind, nor 
could you possibly analyze them all. 
The approach, therefore, is to "teach" 
the computer how to play chess, 
evaluate possible moves, and for- 
mulate a playing strategy. 

To teach a computer, it is probably 
helpful to first evaluate how a human 
plays chess. Most players have either 
learned from experience, or been 
taught by another player or book, that 
beginning game moves are best made 
following proven approaches. These 
openings minimize one's vulnerability 
and hopefully create a strong position 
for the attack to be launched in the 
middle part of the game. These 
"relatively" few openings, about 20 or 
so, follow reasonably predictable 





Microchess on the KIM-1 proves a formidable opponent to the unwary at various computer conferences 
(here at PC77 in Atlantic City). 



Peter Jennings, president of Micro-Ware Limited, 
is the co-creator of Microchess. 



courses of action for perhaps the first 
seven to ten moves. Thus the opening 
of the game can largely be played from 
memory — human or computer. 

The middle part of the game gets a bit 
hairy. Moves aren't nearly as predic- 
table and most players adopt a strategy 
of evaluation of each move by con- 
sidering its consequences after several 
more moves on both sides. This is, of 
course, what separates the men from 
the boys, so to speak, with the expert 
player able to accurately evaluate the 
consequences of a move 12 to 15 
moves later while most novices are able 

to look ahead only 2 or 3 moves. 

Different players put different impor- 
tance on various pieces and positions. 
However, there seems to be general 
agreement that at least five factors 
should be considered in evaluating a 
move: mobility, value of attacked piece, 
vulnerability (and value) of attacking 
piece, King safety, and overall board 
configuration. Clearly, you don't just 
"tell" the computer these things and 
then say, "OK, now play." 

If the middle game is hairy, the end 
game is downright mind-boggling 
when each side has maybe six or seven 
pieces left. Sides of the board have 
largely lost their meaning and con- 
figurations are possible that may never 
have occurred before. A strong attack 
can lead to an impossible defense in 
the span of just eight or nine moves. In 
short, heuristics and textbook ap- 
proaches begin to break down and 
each player tends to develop his or her 



58 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



own individual strategy. What does one 
do with a computer program at this 
point? Good question, with as many 
answers as there are programmers. 

The ACM and some other groups 
have been running computer-chess 
tournaments for years. David Levy, an 
international master, regularly beats 
the winning computer at the end, 
although the playing is getting awfully 
good. Many of these programs are 
written on big (read, gigantic) 
machines of the CDC 6600 class, 
although some are on minis (I recall a 
Nova that played extremely well in the 
1975 tournament in Minneapolis). 

If the middle game is 
hairy, the end game is 
downright mind-bog- 
gling when each side has 
maybe six or seven 
pieces left. 

Given this background and the 
difficulty of the problem, what can we 
expect from a micro? A year ago, I 
would have been tempted to say, "Not 
much." But Peter Jennings has proven 
that statement quite wrong. 

Peter wrote a program called 
Microchess for the KIM 1. After all, 
what else can you do with a bare board, 
not-very-expandable microcomputer 
with only 1K of memory? Only 1K — 
you must be kidding! But I'm not 
kidding. Of course, it has a rather 
powerful 6502 chip at the heart of the 
system. 

Peter follows the general outline 
above. The opening game consists of 
nine moves on both sides, in which the 
computer plays from a table if possible. 
This table occupies about 200-300 
bytes. From there on, the program 
looks ahead approximately three 
moves on both sides and evaluates the 
possible outcomes from the standpoint 
of mobility, value of piece under attack 
and value of pieces open to attack. The 
program only uses castling in the 
opening and cannot capture pawns en 
passant — minor limitations in my 
opinion. 

Peter has recently converted the 
program to run on 8080 systems; 
however, it requires 4K of memory. 
Actually, 2K is for I/O so the equivalent 
1K 6502 program occupies 2K on an 
8080 system. Interesting. 

The accompanying manual is quite 
thorough and includes a description of 
the program, a sample run, and appen- 
dix with details of converting the I/O 
routines to your particular system. 
Microchess is available on cassette for 
the SOL or on paper tape for other 
systems. An interesting feature is the 
ability to reverse the board at any time 
which, if done continuously, lets the 
computer play against itself. 



How good is Microchess? Well it beat 
me, but I'm a rank beginner, so that's no 
measure. Against Dark Horse, the 
program which won 6th place in the 
last ACM computer chess cham- 
pionship, Microchess was up one piece 
after 26 moves, but faltered and lost in 
the end game. (Microchess does not 
have a separate end-game strategy.) I 
had hoped to have the results of the 



game between Microchess and Fidelity 
Electronic's Chess Challenger, but that 
will have to wait until later. 

Microchess costs $13 for the KIM-1, 
$18 for 8080 systems on paper tape or 
$20 on SOLOS cassette. Contact feter 
R. Jennings, Micro-Ware Ltd., 27 
Firstbrooke Road, Toronto, Ontario, 
M4E 2L2, Canada. (416) 424-1413. ■ 



Another View of Microchess 



A most interesting thing about 
Microchess is the manner in which it 
generates moves. Unlike most larger 
chess-playing programs, Microchess 
selects a move as a result of a sequen- 
tial search through all possible moves. 
This very primitive algorithm for move 
evaluation does not hamper 
Microchess as much as one might 
guess. An example of typical play by 
Microchess may be seen in the follow- 
ing opening game: 



Microchess 

(white) 

KP- K4 

KN - KB3 

KN x KP 

Q- KN4 

QP - QP4 

QPx KN 

K-Q2 

Q- K4 

Q- Q4 



Challenger 
(black) 
KP- K4 

KN - KB3 
KN x KP 

KN - QB4 

Q- KB3 

Q x KN 

Q x KP 

Q- K2 



Obviously neither player was playing 
[particularly inspired chess; however, 



all the moves made by Microchess 
were reasonable if not optimal. Unfor- 
tunately Microchess does not fare so 
well when the game requires a move 
that is not obvious in the current board 
position as can be seen by the follow- 
ing opening: 

Challenger Microchess 
(white) (black) 

KP - K4 KP - K4 

Q - KB3 Q - KR5 

KB - QB4 QP - Q4 

KB x QP QBP - QB3 
Q x KBP K - Q1 

Q x KB K - QB2 

Q x KNP KN - K2 
Q x KP K-Q1 

Q x KR 

Another flaw in this program is the 
fact that the internal board representa- 
tion used by Microchess will allow only 
one Queen per side at any time. Thus 
the value of pawn promotion is con- 
siderably reduced. 

Richard Freeman 

Irvine, CAj 




Macrochess is a popular way to spend an afternoon in Frankfurt-am-Main. While games are played 
between individual players, each has a team of advisors (hecklers?) ready with opinions and 
recommendations. 



MAY JUNE 1978 



59 




The Music Cassette ^ 



We're always glad to see second 
sources of hardware and boards for 
computer systems. It's good for the 
consumer. Generally the second 
source offers advances in technology 
over the original manufacturer, lower 
prices, or both. The manufacturer then 
responds with a second-generation 
product and the whole market benefits. 
The same is true, of course, with 
respect to software. The more com- 
panies marketing software for a com- 
puter system, the better. Not only will 
the user have more choice, but the 
hardware manufacturer will be able to 
concentrate on state-of-the-art hard- 
ware advances while the software 
company focuses on the applications. 

The Music Cassette by HUH is the 
third step in the chain. Namely, a 
company marketing applications 
software (actually data) that runs on a 
second-source software system (the 
Music System by Software 
Technology) designed for a hardware 
system (the SOL-20 by Processor 
Technology). 

HUH's Music Cassette #1 contains 



David H. Ahl 

no actual systems software, but rather 
the data for seven musical selections to 
be played under the Software 
Technology Music System. It's easy to 
use. First, load the Music System on the 
SOL by simply typing GET and, after 
the tape has read, type EX O. Type an R 
to get back to SOLOS (or CUTER). 
Then swap tapes and type GET again 
to get the first selection off the Music 
Cassette. When it has read, type EX O 
to get back to the Music System. Then 
simply follow the steps in The Music 
System manual — F to initialize thefile, 
S to create the machine executable 
score and P to play the composition. 
All the arrangements on The Music 
Cassette are by Alan Rawson. The 
seven compositions are: 

1. Star Wars Main Title Theme, by 
John Williams. 

2. Invention #8, from the 2 and 3 part 
Inventions by J.S. Bach 

3. Flight of the Bumblebee, by N. 
Rimsky-Korsakov 

4. Boogie Woogie, by Pinetop Smith 

5. The Easy Winners, by Scott Joplin 

6. Fugue #7, from the Well- 



Tempered Clavier by J.S. Bach 
7. Minute Waltz, by Frederic Chopin 
We frequently play our SOL at trade 
shows and some of our booth per- 
sonnel have complained that eight 
hours a day for three days of nothing 
but the baroque music supplied with 
the Software Technology Music 
System is a bit too much. (Linda 
Harrison feels that's putting it much too 
mildly). Anyway, it's nice to find a tape 
like this if you don't have the time or 
inclination to transcribe a body of 
music yourself. Mark Garetz of HUH 
mentioned to me at the West Coast 
Computer Faire that they are paying 
2.75C to Star Wars per cassette royalty. 
This, of course, is the reason that you 
don't see more tapes of current and 
popular music commercially available. 
The tape is produced by HUH 
Electronic Music Productions. We're 
not sure what HUH stands for, if 
anything (Horrendous Unusual 
Heuristic leaps to mind but...). The 
tape costs $19.95 from HUH, P.O. Box 
259, Fairfax, CA 94930. (415)457-7598. 




MICROPROCESSORS 

FROM CHIPS TO SYSTEMS 

Rodnay Zaks 

420pp, 150 illustr, ref C201 $9.95 

Our Bestseller. This book is the result of the 
author's experience in teaching microprocessors 
to more than 2000 persons. It presents a com- 
prehensive introduction to all the aspects of 
microprocessors, from the components to the 
assembly of a system. The difficulty of each 
chapter is graduated from the basic concepts 
to the actual technical details. It is read by 
students, technicians, managers, engineers, 
educators, doctors and by all those who wish to 
understand rapidly and efficiently all the important aspects 
df microprocessor use, selection, or application. 
CONTENTS: Fundamental Concepts... Internal Operation of a 
Microprocessor... System Components... Comparative Micro- 
processor Evaluation... System Interconnect... Microprocessor 
Applications... Interfacing Techniques... Microprocessor Pro- 
gramming... System Development... The Future... 

ALSO AVAILABLE: MICROPROCESSOR ENCYCLOPEDIA 

• VOL I: 8-BITS, ref E8 $15.00 

• VOL II: BIT-SLICE, ref E5 $15.00 

TO ORDER 

• BY PHONE: call (415) 848-8233 
BankAmericard/Mastercharge accepted 

• SHIPPING: no charge when payment 
included. 
ADD: $1.00 /book for fast shipping. 

• TAX: in California, add sales tax. 

• OVERSEAS: 66 French Francs. Write to: 
SYBEX-EUROPE, 313 rue Lecourbe 
75015 - PARIS, France Tel :( 1)8282502 



MICROPROCESSOR 

INTERFACING 

TECHNIQUES 

Austin Lesea, Rodnay Zaks 

350pp, 320 illustr, ref C207 $9.95 



1 



MICROPROCESSOR 

INTERFACING 

TECHNIQUES 




FROM KEYBOARD TO FLOPPY DISK: All the 
basic concepts and techniques for assembling 
a complete microcomputer system are presented 
in detail, with over 320 illustrations or diagrams, 
including teletype, keyboard, floppy disk, CRT 
display, analog / digital interfacing. One chapter 
is dedicated to the bus standards, including 
S100, and IEEE488, and one chapter to testing 
and debugging. 

CONTENTS: Introduction... Assembling the Central Processing 
Unit. . . Basic Input-Output. . . Interfacing the Peripherals. . . A nalog 
Conversion... Bus Standards... Case-study: a 3 2 -channel Multi- 
plexer... Digital Trouble-Shooting... Conclusion-Evolution. 

DISTRIBUTION /TRANSLATION INQUIRIES INVITED 



SYBEX 



2161 Sha thick Ave. 
Berkeley, Ca 94704 
Tel: (415) 848-8233 



NAME 



POSITION 



COMPANY 

ADDRESS 

CITY STATE/ZIP 

□ Send me: DC201 DC207 □ Other: 

□ Payment enclosed n Bill company n Bill me 

ADD $1.00 / BOOK FOR FAST SHIPPING 

□ charge my □ Visa n Master charge 

□ Number Exp date 

Signature D Send catalog. 



CIRCLE 128 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



60 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Seven Super Computer Stores 



BYTE SHOP 3 OF SAN JOSE 

COMPUTER STORE 

ft«a5«E-1H'M!Mlll ? 

^mnffoMfl'M^i (2626 Union Ave, & J. 

ca95i24) xmmitfoffimm&Qnm - 9tnmm 

^Iff&iSff-^geatm §§408-377-4685 fltRAY LYN 

oho pwner ) tt.mnm*i—wm* • jws 

Hardware. Software For Micro Computers 
HUSI&Jg (Bfc_t) (Offer Classes) 
aft9rFlfc*#r • *©ffi J[ 5 « 



CIRCLE 132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




COMPUTER 



HARDWARE iH 
STORE JMC, 

Dealers for: 

APPLE II, IMSAI 

VECTOR GRAPHIC, KIM 1 

TECHNICO, OAE 

CYBERNEX, JIM-PAK 

TERMINALS, PRINTERS 

BUSINESS SYSTEMS, BOOKS 

SOFTWARE AND MUCH MORE 



CATALOGUE AVAILABLE 



8 1 8 Franklin Street 9 West Cary Street 
Alexandria. Virginia Richmond. Virginia 
(703) 548-8085 (804) 780-0348 



THE ELECTRONICS PLACE 

* * * Vector Graphics 

* * *S WT P C 

* * * Cromemco 
* * * Kim-1 

* * * North Star 
* * * Tarbell 
Sales & Service, Magazines 4 Books 

7250 McKnight Road 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 15237 

(412) 367-2900 

CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



(computer 



Wart 



%* yu 



New York City & Long Island 



IMSAI, SWTPCo, Digital Group 

Processor Tech, Apple, OSI 

TDL-Z-80, Seals, Cromemco, 

Veras, Tarbell, Oliver 

Magazines, books, chips, 
sockets, connectors, terminals. 

IT'S ALL HERE WAITING FOR YOU 
FRIENDLY ADVICE TOO 

New York City 
118 Madison Ave. 
(Enter on 30th St.) 
New York 10016 

212-686-7923 
(Tues. thru Sat.) 



CIRCLE 126 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



r 



VIRGINIA 
HOME COMPUTER 
CENTER 



2927 Va. Beach Blvd. 
Va. Beach, VA 23452 
(804) 340-1977 



DEC 

Apple 

Vector Graphics 

TDL 

Polymorphic 

RCA 

Processor Technology 

North Star 

Digital Systems ^ ^, 

Pe r SC j y 12588 Warwick Blvd. 

Newport News, VA 23606 

(804) 595-1955 



COMPUTERS PLUS 
INC. 

678 S. Pickett St. 
Alexandria, VA 22304 




Ask for Bob or Dan. 
Northern Virginia's 
Newest and Finest 
Microcomputer Store 

(703) 751-5656 




Personal 

Computer 

Corporation 



We know EDUCATION 
We know COMPUTERS 
We have, on the premises 

FULLTIME SERVICE & 

REPAIR 
FULLTIME PROGRAMMING 

We Accept: 

Master Charge 
BankAmericard 
Purchase Orders 

ASK FOR: EVERETT 

DAVE 
ED 

FOR ALL 

YOUR MICROCOMPUTER 

REQUIREMENTS 

Frazer Mall, Rtes. 30 & 352 

Malvern, PA 19355 

Phone: (215) 647-8463 






CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 143 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



So you're thinking about a career in 
Data Processing? That could just be 
one of the worst decisions you'll ever 
make. Take my very good friend, 
Janice, who's in programming school. 
Now Jan's not a dumb girl and she tries 
very hard, but Data Processing and her 
just DO NOT get along. 

But then, deciding to go into Data 
Processing could just be one of the 
best choices you'll ever make. Several 
other friends, Joyce, Cathy and Nancy, 
are each in separate fields of Data 
Processing — Joyce is a computer 
operator, Cathy's a programmer and 
Nancy does system analysis work. 
Each loves her job and can't imagine 
doing anything else. 

Joyce, a graduate of a local com- 
puter college, admits school isn't 
everything. "In fact, you don't really 
need any training to get a job as a 
computer operator. All you need is the 
desire to learn." 

Joyce's first job was on the third shift 
at Little Brown Shoe Company, making 
only $7,800 a year. "But," she contends, 
"this job taught me most of what I 
know. I learned how to run all the 
machines and produce records. I also 



Cathy, my programming friend, just 
graduated from a four-year college this 
spring. She works for the Kleasy 
Company, a business which 
specializes in food wholesaling. Her 
salary is around $10,000 a year. She 
explains her job this way. "A computer 
is a machine — and a dumb one at that. 
It has to be told when and how to do 
something, and, if you'll pardon the 
expression — where to go." 

I asked her how she programs a 
computer to do something. "Well, first, 
to work with a computer you need to 
learn its languages — A/L, Cobol, 
Fortran; it's very much like learning 
French, Spanish or Latin. A/L means 
Assembler Language and is the basis 
for all other languages. Cobol means 
COmmon Business Orientated 
Language and Fortran, FORmula 
TRANslation, deals with math and 
chemistry." 

She told me she's currently working 
on a project to increase the efficiency 
of Kleasy's payroll system. "Program- 
ming is problem-solving — applying 
the computer's time-saving speed and 
accuracy to solving many repetitious 
jobs." 



behind the rest of the class in getting 
her lab problem done. 

Data Processing is a career that, like 
most careers, takes dedication and a 
desire to learn. Data Processing 
teaches you to think and to think 
logically. To ask yourself, "What would 
happen if...", to analyze situations, 
their cause and effect, and to deter- 
mine what you can do to improve them. 

One person made for this kind of job 
is Nancy, a systems analyst with First 
County Bank. She started working with 
First County Bank in 1970, after 
graduating from college with a 
Master's Degree. 

About her job and how far she's 
come in the last six years, Nancy says, 
"I started out with analyses of a less 
complex nature; analyzing existing 
operations, those already done. Since I 
was inexperienced, my ideas differed 
greatly from what should be, but I 
learned. Ideals that seem so perfect in 
college just don't work in the real 
world. But they are a guide, an in- 
valuable tool." 

And Nancy has learned to adapt. 
Today, still with First County Bank, she 
is Senior Systems Analyst. When asked 



If It's Right, You Know It 



Debbie Schulz 



learned how to keep maintenance 
reports on errors and helped devise a 
new system for early detection of 
errors." 

Today, Joyce is Manager of Com- 
puter Operations at Chemicals Diver- 
sified, making a respectable $9,900 a 
year. Her duties include planning, 
organizing, and controlling computer 
operations. She also establishes 
different schedules for the use of 
equipment, and, as head supervisor, 
manages three people. 

I asked Joyce what she likes best 
about her job. "The fact that it's never 
boring — there's always something 
new and challenging happening. Like 
yesterday: one of our new card readers 
broke down — a card was stuck and 
jammed the machine. The guys I work 
with couldn't find anything to release 
the mechanism until I handed them a 
hairpin. It was just what they needed." 

Joyce admits there may come a time 
when she'll get tired of computer 
operations and want something more. 
"If and when that time comes I'll 
probably go back to school. I think I'd 
like to try my hand at program- 
ming " 



It's obvious in talking to Cathy that 
she likes her job. She agrees with 
Joyce that her job is never dull, but she 
says, at times it's very frustrating. 
"There are days I just want to pack it up 
and leave. I guess I get frustrated too 
easily when things don't work exactly 
right — when I get an error in my 
program and can't find it or I get a 
problem I can't solve. Fortunately, the 
people around here are really great 
about helping with things like that." 

Cathy's future looks bright; she 
hopes one day to be Manager of Data 
Processing at Kleasy's or to become a 
systems analyst. 

The one who should think twice 
about programming is Janice, a stu- 
dent at a two-year technical college. 
She hates programming and as a result 
has no patience in solving her 
problems but instead goes to someone 
else for help. She says, "I do dumb 
things. I can't help it, they just happen. 
I've been working on a problem — had 
it all written in A/L and keypunched 
onto cards. Yesterday I dropped all my 
cards. I'm still trying to get them back in 
the right sequence." 

Incidentally, Janice is three weeks 



what she does now, she replied, "I talk 
with others, people in banking and 
business and management to see what 
we can do to improve our present 
setup, to work out our problems and 
plan solutions. If my promotion does 
happen I'll move into a managerial 
position where hopefully I can take a 
more active part in planning, organiz- 
ing and controlling. I hope to be able to 
assign personnel to projects and to 
help others to develop their best poten- 
tial." 

What makes Nancy so enthusiastic 
about her job? "To me it's not just a 9:00 
to 5:00 job bringing home $16,000 a 
year, it's a career. It's what I want to 
do..." 

Data Processing — if you're looking 
for a career, try it. It's like the television 
commercials say, "If it's right you know 
it, if it's good you feel it..." If Data 
Processing is for you, you'll know it; 
you'll want to learn all there is to know 
and you'll want to apply what you've 
learned. You may have to work harder 
than others, but you'll be excited about 
what you've learned. There's no better 
feeling than doing something you like 
to do. ■ 



62 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SCREENSPLITTER 



A COMPLETE TV TEXT DISPLAY SYSTEM 

from 

A/ycPO Diver^ioqs, Iqc. 

■ GENERAL 

SCREENSPLITTER is a self-contained hardware/ software TV 
text display system for your microcomputer. It comes on a 
single, high-quality S-100 buss compatible board, complete 
with its unique Window Package software module. With the 
Window Package, you can logically segment SCREENSPLITTER' s 
huge 40 x 86 display of upper-lower case characters into up 
to 3440 independent "windows" of various sizes. (You get 
the idea from our ad!) Each window has its own optional 
frame, cursor, figure-ground, and optional label, and each 
window scrolls and automatically formats its text indepen- 
dently of all the others. QUICK! There's some interesting 
information flashing by in WINDOW 1. Go read it! 



WINDOW 1 



■EJ-d-esiAl 



A A A A A A 



time 



Whoops! Our output routine seems to be 
having problems. Oh well, at least you 
get to see some of SCREENSPLITTER' S 
scientific symbols. (You can order a 
graphics character set optionally.) 

And any character may be user-defined 
as a winking character. How? you ask. 
Simple: SCREENSPLITTER uses a 2708 
reprogrammable memory as its character 
generator. Turn on the character's 
"wink" bit in the 2708, and presto! 



Oh. and natural.lv. each of the 3440 chu. 

screen mav have its figure-ground reversed independent lv 



Frills, you say? No, thrills! Just take a look in the 
window up there y* to see how SCREENSPLITTER puts these 
raw materials to work in the onboard IK Window Package* 
(that back there — •• is the cursor character). 



The Wind 

ow Packa 

ge ' s aut 

o-format 

ter does 

n't care 

how ski 

nny your 

windows 

are (it 

'11 hack 

vour te 

xt down 

to one c 

olumn if 

you can 

stand i 

tl) 



PARTIAL 
— FUNCTION- 
SUMMARY 

INIT() 

OPEN(W,X,DX > Y,DY) 

CLEAR (W) 

FRAME (W, CI, C2.C3) 

UNFRAME(W) 

REFRAME(W.C1,C2,C3) 

LABEL (W.STR.LEN) 

LABELS (W.STR) 

FLASH (W) 

COMPLEMENT (W) 

SCROLL (W.N) 

CURSORCHAR(W.C) 

PRINT (W.STR.LEN) 

PRINTS (W.STR) 

BACKSPACE (W) 

CLEARLINE(W) 

FRESHLINE(W) 

PLOT(W.X.Y.C) 

MOVEWINDOW(W,X.Y,C) 



. POINTS OF INTEREST ■ 



• Entire hardware/ software system on a 
single, high-quality S-100 buss com- 
patible board. 

• Drives a lOrahz or better TV monitor 
via standard 75 ohm coaxial cable 
(supplied) . 

• 4K static RAM -2114' s- display buffer 
is memory-mapped into your CPU's 
address space for fast, convenient 
access if you ever need to bypass the 
Window Package software. 

• User-selectable wait state for opera- 
tion with 4mhz CPU's. 

• IK onboard 2708 is jumper changeable 
to a 2K 2716 for user extensions to 
the Window Package . 

• Board presents one TTL load to host, 
yet drives up to 20 TTL loads via 
74367 buffers. 

• Provisions for jumpering TV data, sync, 
blanking off board for external mixing 
(via 16 pin socket) . 



WHAT YOU GET 



• Complete SCREENSPLITTER Kit. with all IC's, low profile 
sockets, preprogrammed Window Package EPROM, assembly 
instructions 

• Comorehensive Theory of Operation Manual 

•Complete source-code listing, and User's Manual for the 
Window Package 

• 90 day warranty on parts and labor 



ORDERING INFORMATION 



1. Tell us for which 8K boundary you would like your Win- 
dow Package assembled. 

2. Tell us whether you want the scientific symbols, or 
the graphics characters in ASCII codes 0-31 of your 
character generator, or the optional APL character 
generator. 

3. Send us a personal check, Master Charge or BAC/VISA 
number and expiration date. Kit price is $329. Assem- 
bled, $429. (Virginia residents please add sales tax.) 

4. We will send you the SCREENSPLITTER, postpaid in the 
continental U.S., from stock to 40 days. 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



+ + + 



♦ + ♦ ♦ -f 



the 

PLOT(W. 
X,Y,"+") 
thickens 



40 LINES 

86 CHARACTERS/ LINE 



ONBOARD WINDOW SOFTWARE 
FOR CONTROLLING UP TO 3440 
LOGICALLY INDEPENDENT WINDOWS 

■ —THE CARE AND FEEDING OF WINDOWS --■ 



OK. You have just powered on. Initialize the Window Pack- 
age and turn on your first window: 

INIT() 
OPEN(1,10,15,20.30) 









r-i 




window 1 



Now, just to flex your bits, give 
the user a wal-e-up flash (a brief 
figure-ground reversal inside the 
window) : 

FLASH (1) 

Now that you have his attention, go ahead and frame the 
window (you don't have to, of course): 

FRAME(l) 
and, while you're at it, label it, and set the scroll line 
count: 

LABEL (1, "General I/O") 

SCROLL(l,5) (i.e.. when the window 

fills up, pop it up 5 
blank lines) 
Just to keep him interested, switch the cursor character 
from the default caret to the winking caret: 

CURS0RCHAR(1, A ) 

Now that he's all excited, eyes bulging from the initial 
flash, transfixed by the hypnotic winking cursor, hit him 
with some text through window 1: 

PRINT(1,"I hate to tell you this, William, but 
last night the kids wired that chair 
you're sitting in with 110 volts AC") 

Now (this' 11 really kill him), open a second window to 
the right: 

OPEN(2,10,50,5,20) 

FRAME(2) 

LABEL(2, "Will's Will") 

and print out a second message through this new window: 

PRINT(2, "Please type your last will and testament.") 

Now, of course, you echo his input through window 2, 
relying on the default scrolling of 1-line "pop-up" when 
the window fills up. 

And on , and on . . . 



SOME APPLICATIONS 



1. You have a BASIC program. Open a number of windows, 
giving eaoh important subroutine in the program its 
own window. When your program runs, you get a two- 
dimensional feel of the flow of the execution - flur- 
ries of activity here, brief flashes there. You can 
have the feeling of being able to converse with each 
subroutine individually! 

2. You have a page-oriented text editor. Pick up a para- 
graph here, a paragraph there, isolating each in its 
own window while you rummage through the main text in 
its own large window. Using the MOVEWINDOW function, 
ybu can move blocks of text around to produce a final 
layout. 

3. You have an assembly language debugger. Allocate one 
window to the real-time clock, another to the run- time 
clock, and several more to display various registers 
in your 8080 or Z80. Then, you can keep the debugging 
information separate from your program's I/O, with the 
debugging information continually present. 

4. You have some fancy games. Give each player his own 
window and define some "community windows." Let your 
imagination take over! 



PS: Watch for our full graphics board, also with its own 
onboard software... Coming soon! 

Micro Diversions, Inc. 

7900 Westpark Drive, Suite 308 
McLean, Virginia 22101 

(703)827-0888 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED; 
EVALUATION KITS AVAILABLE 



—TIME-- 
■ i 

■ 06:01:48 ■ 



CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




What the Computer 
Taught Me 
About My Students 



The increased availability of digital computers in the 
classroom presents a challenge to mathematics teachers 
at all levels. Generally this challenge concerns how to 
make the most effective use of the computer in the 
existing syllabus. Answers to this challenge range from 
using the computer as a super desk-calculator to 
developing sophisticated materials such as those 
produced by the students and teachers involved in 
Project SOLO. 

In the rush to do "impressive things" with the computer 
and thereby assure school administrators that their 
dollars have been well spent, we run the risk of 
overlooking an important and subtle byproduct of 
computers in the classroom. The student-written 
program provides us with the opportunity to scrutinize 
the thought processes of our students and gain some 
valuable insight into the way they attack problems. In 
attempting to instruct the computer to perform 
calculations necessary for the solution of a problem, the 
student's program mirrors his own problem solving 
technique or lack of it. 

The following problem was assigned to a class of 
college freshman, non-mathematics majors and produc- 
ed some interesting results. 
Write a computer program to play the game "I am 
thinking of a number." The user picks an integer 
between 1 and 10,000 inclusive. The computer tries to 
guess the number the user has in mind. The user 
responds to each guess by indicating whether the 
guess is too high (type in a 1), low (type in a -1) or 
correct (type in a 0). The game continues until the 
computer guesses correctly. 
This problem is often given to beginning programming 
students and can be found in Getting Started in 
Classroom Compu.'ng, published by Digital Equipment 
Corp. As every smug and self-satisfied math teacher 
knows, the "natural" way to solve this problem is with a 
binary search. A binary-search procedure assumes a set 
of items ordered in some logical sequence; in this case, a 
numerically increasing sequence of numbers. The 
number sought is compared to the midpoint of the set; 
unless this is the number sought, this number will be 
found in either the right-hand or the left-hand half of the 
set. The number sought is compared to the midpoint of 
the correct half; if not equal to the midpoint, it is then in 
either the right or the left-hand half of that portion of the 
set, that is, in one of the two quarters of the set. This 
procedure is carried out until the number is found. 1 

1 Philip B. Jordain, Condensed Computer Encyclopedia, (New York, 1969), 
p. 57. 



Anne Pasquino 



Anne Pasquino, Mathematics Dept., State College at Westfield, Westfield 
MA 01085. 



True to expectations, several students did use this 
approach. They "taught" the computer to guess 
systematically, by first selecting an upper and lower 
bound. The upper (or lower) bound was revised each 
time the guess was too high (or too low). In this way the 
student enabled the computer to squeeze down on the 
correct value. Each guess was computed by averaging 
the upper and lower bounds. A typical student program is 
shown below. 

10 PRINT "THE NAME OF THE GAME IS." 

15 PRINT"PICK A NUMBER FROM 1 TO 10000." 

20 PRINT "THE RULES ARE AS FOLLOWS:" 

30 PRINT "IF MY GUESS IS LOW, TYPE -1 ." 

40 PRINT "IF MY GUESS IS HIGH, TYPE 1." 

50 PRINT "IF MY GUESS IS CORRECT, TYPE 0." 

60 PRINT 

70 PRINT "PICK YOUR NUMBER" 

80 LET U = 10000 

90 LET L = 

100 LET G = INT((U + L)/2) 

110 PRINT "IS THE NUMBER"; G 

120 INPUT A 

130IFA = 0THEN 190 

140 IFA = 1 THEN 170 

150LETL = G 

160 GO TO 100 

170 LET U = G 

180 GO TO 100 

190 PRINT "I GUESSED IT." 

999 END 

Not so true to expectations were a number of students 
who used a dichotomous search, but not a binary search. 
For example, one student used a first guess of 10,000 and 
then subtracted 1,000 from the first guess to get the next 
guess. If the subsequent guess was too high, 1,000 was 
again subtracted to obtain a new guess. This continued 
until a response of "too low" was obtained. At this point 
the last guess was increased in steps of 100 until the 
guess became "too high." The guess was then lowered in 
steps of 10 until it became "too low" and finally, increased 
in steps of one till it was correct. Hence, trapping the 
correct value was accomplished by adding or subtracting 
powers of ten to the upper and lower bounds rather than 
averaging them. The mental decision tree used by the 
student is pictured in Figure 1. 

A similar but more elaborate decision pattern was used 
by another student who wrote a somewhat longer 
program; see Figure 2 for the pattern. 

Still another student used lower and upper bounds that 
were adjusted by adding or subtracting an increment. 
The increment was calculated by a process which 
resembles the "limiting process" in calculus. 



64 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





...or 



Is Binary Search "Natural 





HI&H 




STOP 



SUBTRACT 




coRe.ecr 

ANS- 



Fig. 1. One student's mental decision tree. 



10LETL = 

15 LET U = 10000 

20 LET G = 

30 FOR N = 1 to 14 

35 PRINT "IS THE NUMBER"; G 

40 INPUT A 

45 IF A = THEN 98 

50 LET H = INT(10000/2 f N) 

55 IF A = 1 THEN 75 

60 LET L = G 

65 LET G = L + H 

70 GO TO 85 

75 LET U = G 

80 LET G = U - H 

85 NEXT I 

98 PRINT "I GUESSED IT." 

99 END 

The value of the increment H In line 50 grows successive- 
ly smaller with each pass through the loop. 
The techniques used by the students in solving this 



problem were intriquing for two reasons. First, the 
"natural" application of a binary-search procedure where 
one continually guesses the midpoint, turned out to be 
not so "natural." Second, although the students involved 
lacked formal training in calculus, they seemed to 
possess an intuitive understanding of the notions of 
upper and lower bound, convergence and limit, and were 
able to use complex decision trees. These observations 
suggest the desirability of inventing a series of 
"problems" such as the "number game" which might be 
used to introduce concepts in calculus such as limit, 
convergence, etc. The problems might also serve as a 
diagnostic tool to help assess where a student stands 
regarding such concepts. Further, the use of such 
problems may reveal that many problem-solving techni- 
ques which teachers think are "natural" to student 
thought processes are learned techniques which are 
alien to or only remotely related to the student's manner 
of thinking. At any rate, student-written programs are 
indicative of a great deal more than just the student's 
ability to program. ■ 





'^X +'QQ 





+ 5oo c 



- looo v 





jf-^ri 



coftseor 

ANS. 



v3 



Fig. 2. Another student's more elaborate decision pattern. 



MAY JUNE 1978 



65 



puzzles & problems 



Crossnumber Puzzle 

You shouldn't have too much trouble finding numbers 
which, when inserted in the blank spaces, complete all the 
equations. However, the big question is: how many 
solutions are there? Can you find them? Can you write a 
program on your computer to find them? (It's only eight 
trivial sumultaneous equations but...) 

DMA 



36 

• 
• 

7 


• 
• 

+ 

X 


12 

+ 

• 
• 


+ 

X 


ii< 





14 

• 
• 

If 








• 
• 



lilllHIIIililllliil 



issing Digits 

The famous computer scientist, Professor Abort 
Easycode, is engaged in testing his new computer by 
trying the 81*10 9 possible solutions to the problem of 
reconstructing the following exact long division in which 
all the digits, except one in the quotient, have been 
replaced by a star: 

*i» »t» j* / ^t* %^ %$* *i^ ^f^ »t|j %^ »?* 

*T* *T* *T* / "T* *r* ^* ^* *^ ^* ^p *T* 









(a) Each * denotes a digit between and 9 and all leading 
digits are nonzero. Find a solution to the above. 

(b) How many actual solutions are there? 

(c) If you get a solution, send me the answer. 

(Send solutions to D. Van Tassel, Computer Center, Univ. of 
California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064). 



The Classic 

Love-Bugs 

Problem 




Four bugs, A, B, C, and D, occupy the corners of a 
square 10 inches on a side. A and C are male, B and D are 
female. Simultaneously A crawls directly toward B, B 
toward C, C toward D, and D toward A. If all four bugs crawl 
at the same constant rate, they will describe four 
congruent logarithmic spirals which meet at the center of 
the square. 

How far does each bug travel before they meet? (The 
problem can be solved without calculus.) 

Martin Gardner in 
Mathematical Puzzles & Diversions 





Q 





11 






8 










Remove the Pegs 



In the pegboard above, all 15 pegs are in at the 
beginning of the game. To start, remove any one peg. 
Then jump one peg over another into an empty hole and 
remove the jumped peg. For example, Peg 8 moves to Hole 
13 and Peg 11 is removed. Continue until you have no 
jumps left. The object is to leave only one peg on the 
board. 

Our question is no whether you can leave just one peg, 
but first how many total ways are there to leave only one 
peg. Second, how many unique ways are there to leave 
one peg eliminating solutions that are congruent by 
rotation or reversal. 

Institute for Advanced Computation Newsletter 



66 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



GRAND OPENING: APRIL 28 

COMPUTER COMPONENTS 
OF ORANGE COUNTY 

(FORMERLY COMPUTER PLAYGROUND) 

• ORANGE COUNTY'S ONLY AUTHORIZED 
COMMODORE PET DEALER. 

• PRODUCTS TO BE CARRIED: IMSAI, VECTOR GRAPHICS, APPLE, 
TDL, POLYMORPHIC, PROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY, CROMENCO, 
PERSCI, CENTRONICS, TARDELL, VISTA, SHUGART, NORTH STAR, 
HURISTICS, COMPUTER WORLD, KOYO MONITORS, KIM, MICRO- 
DESIGN AND AAANYAAANY MORE 

• OUR NEW LOCATION IS NEXT DOOR FROM WHERE WE 
PRESENTLY ARE. 

• WE WILL BE THE LARGEST (OVER 5000 SQUARE FEET) AND 
MOST COMPLETE COMPUTER STORE IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

• BROWSE THROUGH THE LARGEST MICROCOMPUTER DOOK 
AND MAGAZINE COLLECTION ON THE WEST COAST 

• WE ALSO TEACH CLASSES IN DASIC AND ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 
AS WELL AS PROVIDE SERVICE AND REPAIR. 

GRAND OPENING DISCOUNTS 



• Microcomputer books, 
Magazines, Software, 
Peripherals, Components 
Kits, Systems 10% Off 

• Electronic Games 50% Off 

• More Discounts on Other 
Items. 

• All Discount Purchases Must 
Be Prepaid. No Charges. 

• Offer Good Thru 



Computer Components 
of Oronge County 
6791 Westminster Ave. 
Westminster, Calif . 92706 
(714)696-6330 

Other Computer Component 
Stores Located at: 

• 5648 Sepulveda Blvd. 
VanNuys, CA91411 
(213)786-7411 

• 4705 Artesia Blvd. 
Lawndale, CA 90260 



June 3, 1978. 



CIRCLE 156 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



(213)370-4842 



A puzzle is a problem with a little fun 
in either its statement or its solution. 
The fun, for those who are entertained 
by such things, arises out of some 
challenge to the imagination that the 
puzzle presents. A puzzle that requires 
the use of a computer for its solution is 
a rarity: most puzzles rely for their fun 
on the statement of the problem, while 
most of the rest are interesting because 
of some ingenuity in the use of analysis 
or logic in their solution. We are just 
beginning to see the popularization of 
puzzles that appeal to the computer 
scientist because of the complexity or 
length of the computation required to 
find the solution. 

Such puzzles should require in- 
telligent use of the computer, rather 
than simple brute-force methods. For 
example, many combinatorial pro- 
blems have simple solutions that re- 
quire inordinate amounts of computer 
time, but at the same time can be solved 
very quickly by the use of some com- 
binatorial tricks or shortcuts. 

Puzzles are usually characterized by 
being specific rather than general, so 
that the solution method may depend 
for its success on some peculiar 
property of the values of variables in 



of a pocket calculator or other readily 
accessible device. 

4. The investigation of the puzzle 
should lead the solver naturally into 
subproblems of independent interest. 

5. It wouldn't hurt if the puzzle had 
some historical or personal interest, 
beyond its challenge as a problem to be 
solved. 

The following problem satisfies all 
the above criteria and is my candidate 
for the ideal computer puzzle; the 
subsequent problems are also of 
interest but are deficient in some 
regard, as indicated. 

Problem 1 

Find three distinct right triangles 
with the following properties: 

1. The triangles are Pythagorean; 
that is, all three sides are integers. 

2. The perimeters of the three 
triangles are equal. 

3. The areas of the three triangles 
are in arithmetic progression. 

How does this problem stack up 
against the criteria? 

1. Judge for yourself the simplicity 



of statement, 
for a college-level Computer Science 
class. 

Problem 2 

Find the smallest solution in positive 
integers x and y of 
x**2 - N*Y**2 = 1, where N = 61. 

A. H. Beiler's Recreations in the 
Theory of Numbers contains a straight- 
forward algorithm for the solution of 
this (Pellian) type of equation, based 
on the theory of continued fractions. 
This particular problem (that is, for N = 
61) has a solution 10 digits long. (The 
length of the solution varies un- 
predictably with N. If you want a real 
challenge, try the case N = 9781, for 
which x and y are each 1 50 digits long!) 

This problem is less interesting than 
problem 1, especially in the number of 
subproblems involved in the solution. It 
is practicable, using a pocket calcula- 
tor and knowing the algorithm, to solve 
by hand in a reasonably short time. 

Problem 3 

In how many ways can the integer 
10,000 be expressed as a sum of 
distinct positive integers (ignoring 
permutations)? 



The Perfect Puzzle for 
Computer Mathematics? 



the problem statement. Thus, while the 
solution of a differential equation by 
computer is of great utility, such a 
problem is of little interest as a puzzle 
(because of the existence of "canned" 
routines for the solution) unless there 
is something unusual about the par- 
ticular equation to be solved. 

Here are my criteria for the ideal 
puzzle for computer solution: 

1. The puzzle should be briefly 
stated, in terms that can be grasped by, 
say, a high-school student. 

2. The puzzle should not be open to 
completely analytical solution, since 
otherwise the need for the computer 
would be circumvented. At the same 
time, the solution should be, for all 
practical purposes, inaccessible by 
hand calculation. Instead, the puzzle 
should tax the arithmetic capabilities of 
the computer at hand, requiring some 
planning to avoid both excessive 
running time as well as the traps of 
roundoff or truncation errors and other 
anomalies. 

3. The correct solution should be 
readily verifiable; for example, by use 



Lynn D. Yarbrough, 128 Simons Road, Lexinqton 
MA 02173. 



Lynn D. Yarbrough 

2. The minimum solution I know of, 
which (for those of us who cheat) 
appears in Dickson's History of the 
Theory of Numbers, Vol. II, consists of 
nine sides, each of which is an integer 
eight digits long. The common 
perimeter is also eight digits long and 
the three areas are 15 digits long. 

3. The solution can be verified by 
pocket calculator: The calculation of 
all 15 digits of the area can be cir- 
cumvented by factoring out the semi- 
perimeter (half the perimeter) 
from the area formula, which reduces 
the calculation to a reasonable size. 

4. One solution I have worked out in 
some detail involves the subproblems 
of generating all Pythagorean 
triangles, of factoring large integers, of 
enumerating the 3-subsets of a set, and 
of sorting. Some tree-trimming 
methods, for reducing the number of 
triangles to be enumerated, are also 
involved. The puzzle is a study in 
combinatorial methods. 

5. The first solution of this problem 
was obtained by hand and published in 
1819! There is no information available 
on how long it took to solve in this way. 

This is not an easy problem; it is 
perhaps in the nature of a term problem 



This problem is a good one for 
introducing backtrack methods of 
solution and can be solved on a 
relatively small computer if the proper 
representation and methods are used. 
Verification is very laborious: the only 
practical way is to verify the algorithm 
for values less than 10,000 and prove 
that the increased value does not 
introduce problems. 

Problem 4 

Find the minimum value of the 
Gamma function (Gamma(n) = (n-1)! 
for integer n) in the range 1 < n < 2. 

You are not likely to find a subroutine 
to calculate the Gamma function in 
your subroutine library (there is a nice 
algorithm in Henrici's Computational 
Analysis on the HP-25 Programmable 
Calculator) and you won't be able to 
use Newton's Method since evaluating 
the derivative of the Gamma function is 
another hard problem. Some investiga- 
tion of the error in evaluating the 
function will be required to assure a 
correct solution. 

This problem is an interesting one, 
requiring some resourcefulness, but 
probably beyond the grasp of most 
high-school students. ■ 



68 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 








£tw«trt? 







ig mi€«>o®n\puter pr< 
itro classri fifed itts, ne 



m ippaufi 






,^ 



a 



"^ 



**^i 



^ 



V 



-*, 






EwiryfWk, 

Monthly Magazines are great for in-depth articles and where you can find (or advertise) bargains on equipment 

detailed technical information - and we're not suggesting or software - or look for people or information you need . 



you stop reading this one. What we are suggesting is that 
we can give you a lot that a magazine can't. 

First, we're a newspaper — which means we cover a lot of 
things briefly, instead of a few things deeply. 

Second, we're weekly t- so you won't be saying "I wish I 
had known about that" when you hear someone talking 
about new micro hardware and software. 

Third, we have a Microcomputing Classified Exchange, 



Fourth, we're into all aspects of computers; so you don't 
have to limit your information to micros. We cover every- 
thing from industry news to data processing to ethical 
issues, as only a newspaper can. 

Fifth, we'll send you 52 issues for about 35c a week with 
a one-year subscription (less than half the newsstand 
price). Just use the form below to start your subscription 
coming. It's a fast way to stay ahead. 



Please send me COMPUT ERWORLD for 1 year RATES: US $18 Canada and PUAS $28 Europe & Middle East $75 AJ1 Other Foreign $125 

(MC Only List four digits above your name) 



O Check Enclosed 

□ Am Ex DBA/Visa □ MC 



If charge we must have 
cardholder's signature 



Expiration 
.Date 



tirst 
Initial 



You. 

I it !.• 



Company 
Name 



Send lo 
Address 



C«V 



Middle 
Initial 



Surname 



1 1 111 L 



i i I l I 1 1 l I 1 I I 



j_l I I L 



I I I I I I MM I II III 111 I MM 



I I I III I I II I II II 



Ml III III! Mill 



Stalt' 



Z.p 

C ode 



_1_L 



_L1 



1 I 1 



n 



Address shown is . ] Business ] Home 

{ } Check here if you do not wish to receive 
promotional mail from Compuferu-or/d THE NEWSWEEKLY FOR THE COMPUTER COMMUNT 

CIRCULATION DEPT. CC, 797 Washington Street. Newton. Mass 02160 




COMPUTERWORLD 



PLEASE CIRCLE 1 NUMBER IN EACH CATEGORY 

BUSINESS/INDUSTRY 

10 Manufacturer of Computer or DP Hardware/ 
Peripherals 

20 Manufacturer (other) 

30 DP Service Bureau/Software/Planning Consulting 

40 Public Utility/Communication Systems/ 
Transportation 

50 Wholesale/Retail Trade 

60 Finance/Insurance/Real Estate 

70 Mining/Construction/Petroleum/Refining 

75 Business Service (except DP) 

80 Education/Medicine/Law 

85 Government/Federal/State/Local 

90 Printing/Publishing/Other Communication Service 

95 Other 

TITLE/OCCUPATION/FUNCTION 

11 President/Owner/Partner/General Manager 

12 VP/Assistant VP 

13 Treasurer/Controller/Finance Officer 

21 Director Manager of Operation/Planning/ 
Administrative Service 

22 Director/ Manager/Supervisor DP 

23 Systems Manager/Systems Analyst 

31 Manager/ Supervisor Programming 

32 Programmer/Methods Analyst 

41 Application Engineer 

42 Other Engineering 

51 Mfg Sales Representative 

52 Other Sales/Marketing 
80 Consultant 

70 Lawyer/Accountant 

80 Librarian/Educator/Student 

90 Other 



CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




ft+B+ c 



e»B»C 



rv\3 




. , hre e natural ««»'» 

tMt '£* " ST***-* 

when »d dc<1 ° 



Louise dropped • ball froa her 
3rd floor apartment window, 
which was 10 aeters above the 
sidewalk. Her friend .Fletcher , 
counted the nuaber of tiaes it 
bounced. The ball rebounded 
half the distance on each 
bounce. How f ar had the ball 
traveled altogether when it 
hit the ground the 100th tiae? 



• V 



i I 



Mr- 



T \s-v ^ N-r-^r 






A, B, C are each a single digit. 
What is the ainiaum value of ABC divided by A*B*C 
(The answer is not 1.) 



KH3HK0 



i. have heard about 

On the first da. ^ ^ ^^ 
its height by 7 • i on tM 
,., it increased b, y ^ ^ 

thir t? y it ta r Re*to reach its _*. 

^ hta00ti.es its original 
mum height liou % p 

heights 



YIHat value of K 
divisible by 36 



would make K43UKO 



// 



OK. bl "J. 



»•. 



IT TOOK 



DAY 5 



The ne„ , peopl . J^ 1 ° »• ««« Per,o„ 
People «ch got |3 end V "'" 3 

fe .iUion,? UlLtZTr HO " """ " ld 



These activities are reprinted from "Computer Conversations" (a set 
of 41 colorful 14x21 cm cards) and "More Computer 
Conversations" (27 cards). "Computer Conversations" costs $3.95, 
teacher guide $2.95, "More Computer Conversations", $2.95, 
teacher guide $2.50. Postage on all orders $1 .00. The Math Group, 
5625 Girard Ave. So., Minneapolis. MN 55419. 



©197S-The Math Group, Inc 



70 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS 

P.O. Box 9641 San Jose, CA 95157 C408) 374-5984 

FOR CATALOG INCLUDING PARTS LISTS AND SCHEMATICS, 
SEND A SELF ADDRESSED ENVELOPE WITH 24c POSTAGE. 



RS-232 /TTL 
INTERFACE 

Part no. Ill 

TAPE 
INTERFACE 




UART 
&BAUD 
RATE 
GENERATOR* 

Part no. 101 

• Converts serial to parallel and 

parallel to serial 

• Low cost on board baud rate 
generator 

• Baud rates: 110, 150, 
300, 600, 1200, and 2400 

• Low power drain +5 volts and 
-12 volts required 

• TTL compatible 

• All characters contain a start 
bit, 5 to 8 data bits, 1 or 2 stop 
bits, and either odd or even 
parity. 

• All connections go to a 44 pin 
gold plated edge connector 

• Board only $12.00; with parts 
$35.00 




8K 

STATIC 

RAM 

Part no. 300 

• 8K Alt air bus memory 

• Uses 2102 Static memory chips 

• Memory protect 

• Gold contacts 

• Wait states 

• On board regulator 

• S-100 bus compatible 

• Vector input option 

• TR1 state buffered 

• Board only $22.50; with parts 
$160.00 

To Order: 




*AjUc* 



Part no. 232 

• Converts TTL to RS-232, and 
converts RS-232 to TTL 

• Two separate circuits 

• Requires 12 and +12 volts 

• All connections go to a 10 pin 
gold plated edge connector 

• Board only $4.50; with parts 
$7.00 




DC 

POWER 
SUPPLY * 



Part no. 6085 

• Board supplies a regulated 
■♦■5 volts at 3 amps., ♦ 12, - 12, 
and -5 volts at 1 amp. 

• Power required is 8 volts 
AC at 3 amps., and 24 volts AC 
C.T. at 1.5 amps. 

• Board only $12.50; with 
parts $42.50 excluding 
transformers 




• Play and record Kansas City 
Standard tapes 

• Converts a low cost tape 
recorder to a digital recorder 

• Works up to 1200 baud 

• Digital in and out are TTL-serial 

• Output of board connects to 
mic. in of recorder 

• Earphone of recorder connects 
to input on board 

• Requires +5 volts, low power 
drain 

• Board $7.60; with parts $27.50 

• No coils 



T1DMA 



mm 






Part no. 112 

• Tape Interface Direct Memory 
Access 

• Record and play programs with- 
out bootstrap loader (no prom) 
has FSK encoder/ decoder for 
direct connections to low cost 
recorder at 1200 baud rate, and 
direct connections for inputs and 
outputs to a digital recorder at 
anv baud rate. 



• S-100 bus compatible 

• Board only $35.00; 
with parts $110.00 




Part 
no. 107 

RF 
MODULATOR 

• Converts video to AM modu- 
lated RF, Channels 2 or 3 

• Power required is 1 2 volts AC 
C.T., or +5 volts DC 

• Board $7.60; with parts $13.50 




Apple II 
Serial I/O 
Interface * 

Part No. 2 

• Baud rates up to 30,000 

• Plugs into Apple Peripheral 
connector 

• Low-current drain 

• RS-232 Input and Output 

SOFTWARE 

• Input and Output routine from 
monitor cm- BASIC to teletype or 
other serial printer. 

• Program for using an Apple II 
for a video or an intelligent ter- 
minal. Board only — $15.00; 
with parts — $42.00; assembled 
and tested - $62.00. 



RS-Jtta/TTY* 
INTERFACE nk 

Part no. 600 A* 

• Converts RS-232 to 20mA ^^ 
current loop, and 20mA current 
loop to RS-232 

• Two separate circuits 

• Requires +12 and -12 volts 

• Board only $4.50, with 
parts $7.00 



TELEVISION 
TYPEWRITER 



v—a*cnssn«i 




Part no. 106 

• Stand alone TVT 

• 32 char/line, 16 lines modifi- 
cation* for 64 char/line included 

• Parallel ASCII (TTL) input 

• Video output 

• IK on board memorv 

• Output for computer con- 
trolled curser 

• Auto scroll 

• Non-destructive curser 

• Curser inputs: up, down, left, 
right, home, EOL, EOS 

• Scroll up, down 

• Requires +5 volts at 1.5 amps, 
and • 12 volts at 30 m \ 

• All 7400, TTL chips 

• Char. gen. 2513 

• Upper case only 

• Board only $39.00; with parts 
$145.00 



MODEM 




Part no. 109 

• Type 103 

• Full or half duplex 

• Works up to 300 baud 

• Originate or Answer 

• No coils, only low cost com- 
ponents 

• TTL input and out put -serial 

• Connect 8 ohm speaker and 
crystal mic. directly to board 

• Uses XR FSK demodulator 

• Requires +5 volts 

• Board $7.60; with parts $27.50 






VtSA 



Mention part number and description. For parts kits add "A" to part number. Shipping paid for orders 
accompanied by check, money order, or Master Charge, BankAmericard, or VISA number, expiration 
date and signature. Shipping charges added to C.O.D. orders. California residents add 6.5% for tax. 
Parts kits include sockets for all ICs, components, and circuit board. Documentation is included with 
all products. Dealer inquiries invited. 24 Hour Order Line: (408) 374-5984.* Designed by John Bell. 



CIRCLE 115 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Interlocking Shapes 

These amazing geometric interlocking 
shapes were done on a CalComp Plotter by 
Clark Dailey, a student of Dr. David Ballew 
at the South Dakota School of Mines and 
Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701. 




72 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



■■•• 



• •• • • ! 

■ •••• 

* fill 

■ i i • 

■ I ■ • 



•lit! Ill til ■■■■■■■ 

■■ ■ • i • ••• •• 




* . 



■ •••• ■• ••• • • • 

• • • - 



■ 




XXSIXIXXS 



hhH I I 






»il^»iim ;in?i:mw*ti ^tim^mm tttMmi 



. .. .... ,4 .. 



4,14..,...- 

IKI 



it U tltl it! 



. • .4. ........ ,. ■ ■ 

i i HiiiiiiiiilHIIIII 



l i iltfll ll HHIIi i HI flt MtM l l W M I I II iillt l ll tll tlltMl l l H tll l llllllHIIliM 





, 4 t . . t . . . 4 4 . t W* I 4 t , * t 4 

• • I ,.4,4.1 



............ n ....... . 



. i ■ . • • • • • , 

4 Ml 



-i > i t i t n i i • < • ■ 

::::::::::,::!::::::::::; m I )li|| ;;;;;;:::;;:;:::;;;;::::i;:::::::n::;::::;::;;::;::;:;:: ; | 



:;:;;;;::::;;!::;;:;; 



•••••■ •WWII 

(■■■■•■■■■■I . ■•■■ 
•■■■■■■•■tut ••■•• 

■ •■•■■•■■ -.lUM*..-.- ••••• 

•••••••iiifl ♦♦♦•♦ 

ft* •••••• 



■ • 

• • • 



1 • < 








«••••. 
■ ••■a 
•aaaa •■ 
•■•••■•* 

■■■•■■■a 

■ it 

iiiiiiii 
■■■■■••a 

■ ■ 

iiiiiiii 



••■■■•■a 

■ lltim 



iiiiiiii 

in 

•■■••••i 
■iiiiiii 
■■■■■■•a 
■>■■■■■■ 
■■■••■■a 
■•••■■•a 
■■■•■■«■ 



in 

■ •• 
in 
laa 
iia 
in 

■ aa 

■ •• 
in 

■ is 
III 
lal 

■ aa 
las 

• aa 

• aa 

■ aa 

■ ■• 

■ ■■ 

■ •• 

■ ■■ 

■ •• 

■ •■ 



■ ■••■ 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

■ ■■•a 
aaasa 

■ ••■ ■ 

■ ■ ■■ ■ 

■ •■as 

■ ■ ■■■ 

• •••• 

• ••■■ 

• •••• 

■ ■•aa 

• ■••■ 

■ ■■■a 
■ ■■• 

a • ■ ia 

■ ma 

■ ■•■■ 

■ •••• 

■ ■■■■ 

■ ■■■■ 

■ ■■■■ 



■■•■■■I 

■■■■■■a 
••••••• 

••••••• 

•••••■ 

••••••• 

•■■■•ia 
<■■•■■■ 
•••••aa 

■■■•■■■ 
••••••■ 

••■■•■■ 
••••••• 

■•■••■a 

• ■•■I 
■ ■■■•■a 

■ ■■ 
■■■■■aa 
■■■>■■• 
■ ■■■■•■ 
••••■■a 

• •••■•• 
■■■■■■■ 



•••••••• 

•aaaaaaa 

•••••• 

■■■■••■■ 

■■■••■■a 
••••••■■ 

■■•■•■•a 
aaaaaaaa 
•■••••as 

■aaaaaaa 

aaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
•■■■aaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
•aaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
•aaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaa 
■aaaaaaa 



■•••■■■■•I 

••■ 

■•••■••••• 

■■■•■■■■■a 
aaaaaaaaaa 

•aaaaaaaa) 
aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 

••«!•••■•■ 

aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 
•••••••■•■ 

•••■•••■•• 

■■aaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 

aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 
aaaaaaaaaa 



•■■■aaBai >al *' Ba * atiaitlll * aMailBlltvl * l,lals>MaMialaail> 4 
■ ■■(■•■(■■■■•■••■■••••■■■■■■■■■•■■•■•■•■■■•■■••■•••■■••■I 



aaaaaa Ma« a a a aaaaaiiMMMiiiMMMMMMa a SM a aaMaMMMaMMl 
Ml ■•■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■•■■•■■■■■■■•■I ■•■■ 



••• ••••••••••••III 

xxxxxxxxxxx: 



• l III 



HH linn I 



ililll 



:t::::::::: n 



I Hi It !• t 

''it f 



I | |I MIMIMMUII> ■■ I UMIIIIIll 

■ ■■• Mlilllll I • ■■ ■IIIIMIIII Il|l 

|> •■■•■•■•••••• I • ■••••■••••••Ill 

■■■■•■•••■•■■■■••■■■■•■■••••■••••••••••■••••••■•■••••■••■■•■•■•■■aa 

Inn •■• • ••• ■■■■■■■■•■■■••■■■■ inn 

!•••■ ■•••■■•■•■■••■■■••■ aa ■•■••■■■••••■■■•■•■••• ■■■■■••■■•■•■■••■■•• 

■■■■■■•■■■■•■■■■■•■•■■■■■■■•■■■■•■■■■•••■■•■•■■■■■•••■■■■■•••■■■■■a 

• •■■ inn ■■•••■•■•■■•■•■I ■ • 




HIM 

•••••a. 



,.,.,.. ... . 



• ■•■•■■ •!»■■ MVM 

■•aaaa ••l|..|fl*« 
..;.. H..JJ| mJ .j.. 

li "'Vr 



'lit] I 

til I I 



*•• 
1 1 1. ■ 



, . , , . 



::::;:;;;:;:;:::::::::;;:;::::::::::::::::: 

::::::■ 

:::::: ::::::::;i;:. ::.:::::::•:;::: 

i . • , (,...... ■ . , I 44 i ' •>•<•••<" ( 

M..4.,|,.IHtM,4l....<M.|l • Illt^l.'".'*." 1 "..* 1 

:.::::::::::::: mi n : | :::;•:::: 
;:::: ::;:::::' \\\ tl ti! 

;::;:::;:::!!;::::::::' li J I:;;:;:::::::::::'. 

4 4.4444, | I ' I 1 1 ' ' " ' " 

• • . I • 4 4 I • I • ■ . • • I 4 , ' . ' I < li' . . 4 f . I 





Kn.. t |.. :; 



iiiiiillHI! 

••MM 



lit 



it i it 



1... t 
•J •• 



■■ 
•■•■■«•,., 

■••■•a.,..., i 
■■•■■••••••••I 

■■■•■...,. 

• •■• i 

■■••■■••. ••••• 

••■••••••••••a 

■■••••••••••a 



•II 



ti j mm J I1U ill J tl ;: 

i i I I It \\\\ i L it :; :: 

1 I i •• Hi : I if I ■•' • 

I tit \H I :: t: 



I ! II 







, • . ■ ■ ■ , . , , . 4 4 I | I 4 I I I > • 4 4 I 

..44,444.... 

4.44444444,4... 4 

■ ' 



:::::m:::::mmmm:mm: 



::;:::;:,::::;::;:::::!:::;:::::;;:;:::::■ m:tt:: I III li IttlJ.I 

:::::it:::::;:::;::::;:;:;;:;:;:::::; II 

.•::::::. •:::!::::!.;::::::::,::. ::::::::: t|t!l :.::;::;,, 

I « •> ,44.4.. 1 (.,, IH 4| 4 

...44.4. 4 4.4.., 111,. 

:::::::::::::;■::::::::;!;;::::::! ;:::;: ::::::;::: ;:;: : mil t I lit Jin tilt li 1111. rmtl 

;:;::;:;:::;;;:;::::;::::;::::;;;: :;;:: lUttiit \Ut\ : !!{] : tit mil 4 

:::m:::::::mmm;m::mm i;i ; J] It ill I : Itlit i 

tmmmmlmm trt jtmj mini j m t: m ,r 



"■■■'■; \ A 




■•1 

••••••ti n^ 

■•■••• ••■1111a 

»•■ • a> «• •• • 

•■• • •••••• 

■*•■• •*••••• 

■ ■■• •»•••• 

»■■* ••••••■ 

■••• ■• •• 

••■• • » • • • 4 

»«!•• •• 



i 1 I 

4 4 iff' 

1 1 I 



'II 1 1 It 

lit ' HI I 



HI II !!! I 



■IIIIIII If 



Ill ■■•■■I ■■■■■■■•■■■■I ■■■■■■ I I 

■■•■aaaaaaa •■•■■■••■••••••■••■•■•■■• ■■■■■■■■•■■■■■••■•■•■■■■■■■■■■•■• 

!,■■■■ IIMIIMIMII ■■•MIIIIMI I MM 

■ ■■■■■iiiniimi" ■■•■■■■■■■■•■••■■HI ■•■■■■ 

■ ■■■■■■•■■■II '• ■■■■■•■>■■■■ II 

■ ■•■■■•■■■■•I •■■•■•• • ■•■•• ■•■•••I 

•■•■■■ MM ■■■■•■■ ■■■■■ MMII 

MUM •■•■• •■•■■• •■•■•••Hill 

:,■■■, •■•■ ■■■•■••■•••■•■ ■■•■■■■ 
■ •■■■■••••■••I ••••■•■•■•■■•■••• ■ • 

M IIMI •■• ••••••■•• Ill ■■•■■••■•■■ 

• ••■•■•■•■••••••■■••••••> •■■■••••■•■•••■■•• •••■■ >■•■ 

■•■■•■•■■■■•••■■■■■•••■■•■■■•■•■•■■■■•■■■•■•■■■■•■■■■••■■■■■■•■•■•■■a 

■ ■■■■■■MIMM •IMI1MII I I ■■■■■■■■■■Ill 

I HU • ■■•■■■■•■■•■■■■■•■■■>■■■■■■■■>■•■■ II 

IIIIIIIII1IIM •■•■■■•■•I I ■■■■■••in mi 

• ■„■■■■■■ I Ill I •■■■•■■■■■•■IM|4 

aaaaa . aaaaaaaaaaa IMMailMMMMMa>MMM a iiai««« a i a aSM>MMMM«l 

■ ■■■■■ ■■.■•• ■■■■•■■■■.■■••■■■••■■■•■■■■■■•■I •■••••■I 

■ I I • • •■■■> Ml M 

II • ■ MMMM ■IIIIIMMII MMMII 

11 ••••• ■■•■••■• ■» ■■■!• I 

■ ■■■■■■I ■■■■■■■■•■>•■■■■■ ■■■■■■ >■■■■■■> 

■■■■••■■■•■■•■■■■•■••••■•■••■•■••■■■■•■••■■■■•■■■•■■■■■■■■•■■■■•■■•I 

■ ■■•■■■■■■■•■■■I •■••■■>■■■■■■••■■■■) ■•■■■■•■■■■ Ill 

•••••••■•••••■••••••••••••••■■••••••••••••••••••■•••••••••••••••••I 

■ ■■■■•■■■••■■■■•■I •■••• IMIIII 

Ill IMllM • • ■•■■>■■ MM Mill 

■■■■■•■■■■■■■■■•■■•■•■•■■•■■••■•■■■■■■■■•■•■■■■•■•■•••■■■••■■■■■■I 
••■■•■•■■•■■■•■■■■••■■■■•■•■••■•■•■■•■■•■■••■•■■••■■••■■••■•■■■■■I 

■■■•■■■•■■■■•••••■••■■••■•■■■•••■•■•■■•■■••••■■■■•*■■■•■• ■■■■•■•I 
■ ■■••■■■■•■HIM ■ • ■■■■■ 

■ ■•■■•■■■I ■■••■■ •■■■•■■■■■ 

••••• ■ ■••■• •■■ I 

■ •■■■•■■■■■■. IMMMM ■•■■•■■■■■■■■•■■■■•■•■I 

■ • ■■■■■■■■■ • I I MM) •■•■•• 

■ > Ill ■■■■•■■•■ ■■■■■•■■•■••• ■■■•! 

■••■■ • • Illl 

„■ ,■•■■■■■■■■■■■■•■••■•••• ■•■■■■•■■■•■•■■•■•■••■■■I 

• ••■■■ II • • ■ ■ MMMH 

I llfff ■ • • a a a a ■ a • a a a a • a a a • aa a a a a ia a a a a a a a a a a a a a • a a a a a a a • a m • •• ■ a a a a • 



■ •■• 

■ ■■■ 
•■■ aaaa 
■ •• aaaa 

■•■• aaaa 

• ■•• MM 

■ •■•• 

■ ■■• 




■ ••■ 

aaaa 

• •■■a 

■ aaaa 



aaiaa aiaaaaaaaaani I a aa a aa a a a a a a a a a a a a • a a a ■ a a aa a a ■* aal 

■ ■•■■■•■■(■•■■•■•a A. ■• •■•■■■■••■■■■•iiiiiii 

■■■> •■■■■ I aaaaaaaaaaaaaaiaaaaaaaaaai 

• ■■■■•■a t ■■■•■■■•■<■■ mh 

■ ■••■■■■•■a ■■•■■■• 

Hill ■•■•■■■■■■■■i 

•••••••••••••••••* aaaaaaaaaa* 

•Ml aaaaaaa; 







::::;i \\\\\\\\\\ 
I It it I HH it 

: ji f 



14 1 , , , 4 4 , . 



4 4 | , . • 

i ttti;:::::::: 



mi 




MCC-M* 



••• 



; it 





tut iimii » ' i 



I 






(tt'lHtt 

.1.4444444 



! til 






itnmti 



ti« 



III ! 



^!!::t:j.......:.: 

• ••IIHIIHH 



It 



xfllxxHIizIII 




1=71 IT 

, aal I i i 
I'll Illl 
1*1 1 Illl 
aaaa ■•■ill 1 1 i 

■ ■■■ 



M H 



■•Mil I I If 

:;ii! 

iiiii 



";Uii;;;:; 

Hit :l 
:i .1 



■•■••aaaa ••••••• 

••■•■••■■•••■•■••■■■■■•■■■•••aaaa 
••■■••••••••■■•••••••■••■■••■■■I 



■"Itllliti 



II 



IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMl 



« 



■■••■■•■■■■■■■■■■■■■•■■•a ■•■•■•• •••■ifiiiii 
iai» • • ■ l»|i 

■ ■■ a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a ■ a • a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a ■ a a HNlflf 

■ ■■••••■■•■■•■■■•■I •■•••■■•••■■■■•■••••■•Illl 

■•■■■■■■■■••■■■■•■■■■■•■■••■■•■■•■■•■■■■■■■■•■■■■•■•■•■I 

■ ■••■■ • MMIMM I Illl 

■ ■■■MM •■•■■■■ ■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■ 

■ ■■•■■■■■Mi • ■■■■■•■• •■•■■ '"■'"rll'lll!!' 

aa •••••••••■■■•••■••••••••■•■■••••••••• ••••••• •••• mm •••• •• •••••• •••••••••••••III 

anililK ••••••••■• ■■•••••••••■•■■■•■•■■ •■••• ulllll 

■ • ■■ ■MMMMMMHMMMMMMMMMIII ■ MUMMll..... 

It ■■•••••■• ■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■•■■■■■•■■■■■■•••• "'"H 

•••■•• •••■•■■•■•••••■•■•••••■•••••••••••••■•••••■•••••••■•••••••••••■•■ ••••••• aaaa • a aaaa a* ••■■||l 

• Ml ■■•••■■■■ ■■■■■•■■■ ■ ■■■■■■■■■■■ IMMll" 

IMMMMM Mill ■■•■■■ I iMMHMH IIMMMMII 

•■•■■•■■■■•■■■••■■■■•■■■■■■•■•■■■■■■■•••■■••■•■■•■■•■■■••■•••■•■■••■■■■■■■■■■••■■•■■■■■■■■•■••■■•■■•••■I 

III MM IMIMM MM ■■■■! • • ■ ■■■■■ 

• aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaa ■■■aaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaaa a a aaaa a aaaaaaa ■■■■••■••t •■•■■••■■■•■■■■■■•■•■••■■•■•I 



if P P m 

I .1 I II II. Ill 4, 






• ill Itir il \ It- H I II 

f li H • • ' HI 1 lit 

i "" I "it lit] it it 

) 4 4 4 j JLj]L t i I 4 4 4 
4 • 4 1 • • Jill. LI 1 i 4) I'll 

I Illl 



.4 14 4 4 44 4 

tl 

t 4 i >• ' <| '{*} 'ilTT 

• . « ..1 |j '" Ti ri' ' ' 

M H I ■ 11 f llHf' ■• •< 



lliiiialiillltiillSiii 



: I r pptttiitttt 

■ i 



"tiiiiiiii 




■ ■■■•■■■■■■■■■••■•IIIIIIM ■ Ililll I ■•■■■■MM I IMMI •■••■■■■■■HIM 

■ ■•■■■■•■■■I ■■•■•■■■••• •••■■•iiiniMiu • • • ■■■ •■•• iiiiiMiiimiUiiiii* imiI | 

• ••.••••>•••••••••••••••■ ••• ••• ••• ■•••■•••••••••••••••••••••••••• •m.immii. ••••••••aaaaaaa. .•■••••••••••••.••■•••■ •• ••••••• ••••••••• 

■••■■•■■■••■••■••■•••I ■•■•■■■■■•■■ aaaaaaaa ■■•■■■•■ •■•■•••■•••■■■ •••••••••■ ■«•■■••■ ■••■■■■ ■••■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■IIHHii aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 

mi ••■•■•■••••■•■■•■■■•I •■•••■••••••■•■■•■■mi •••• •■•• • • ■■••••■•nil ■■■• ••■■iiiiiiii 

MMMIIM •■IIMMMMMMMIMMIM.M "UHl MIMM.MIM >■■■••■■■■■■■■■■■■ MMMMHIMMMMII Ml 

■ ■•■■•■■•••■••■•■■•■■•■■II ■•■•• •■••■■••••■•■•■•■••I •■••••■••••••••■••••■■••I I ■••••IIHIIIUI ••••••■■■■Ill 

unit •••■■■iu> ■■■■•■••I •■■ ■■•■••ana ••••• mil ••■••••■I ■•■■■•■•■■•••■■•■■■•••••■•••i inn 




■i 



Enterprise in Space 



This "computer" picture was done by hand by John L. Joseph. 
He writes, "I am currently attempting to develop an incremental 
digitizing device, with relatively little success. Could you refer me 
to a source of such information." If readers can help, write John 
Joseph, Honeywell Information Systems, 5250 West Century 
Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90045. 



MAY JUNE 1978 



73 



■reative Computing Programming Techniques. . . 



Tracking Right-Angle Searches 



In Mazes and Games 



Scott Davidson 



This article discusses techniques for searching grid 
structures, to discover or trace a path. As an example, the 
WATCHMAN game by Mac Oglesby is taken from a 
previous issue of Creative. (In WATCHMAN, you try to 
walk on each street of a city, once and only once. 
Obviously, it is permissible to visit the same corner more 
than once.) The ideas presented here also apply to mazes, 
word puzzles, and the like. 



Right-angle searches are used to test the values of 
adjacent horizontal and vertical positions on a grid. In 
contrast to line-by-line searches, indexing is awkward 
despite the apparent simplicity. This is evidenced by 
numerous programs that use separate code for each of the 
four compass directions. We will start here and then 
describe some alternatives. The focus will be on situations 
where we wish to trace a connected horizontal and vertical 
path on a grid. An example is the WATCHMAN program 
(Creative Computing, Sept-Oct 1976, p 74-75). 

If the present position can be on the periphery of the 
grid, an out-of-bounds check is required for each 
direction before a search test can be made. This situation 
can be avoided by expanding both X and Y dimensions by 
two and framing the original grid with a non-search value. 
(Sometimes this frame can be used to enhance the grid 
display.) The routines below assume that this has been 
done. 

/ Clockwise— four IF statements 

5 REM — - PRESENT POSITION IS M(l, J) T = TEST VALUE 



100 IF M(l,J+1)OT THEN 140 'LOOK RIGHT 

110 12=1 

120 J2=J+1 

130 GO TO 400 

140 IF M(l + 1,J)OT THEN 180 LOOK DOWN 



300 REM ••• NO - FIND ACTION 



400 1 = 12 
410 J=J2 
420 GO TO 100 



Scott Davidson, 1452 South 3 St., Louisville. KY 40208 



VILLAGE MAP: 






•1 ^^ ^^ ^^ .^ :Af -^ ^- -^ ^^ '"\ 

X ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ W> * A*.. 


Sample Run 




* 1ST ST. * 






* * 




^Lf ^Tf Jj v^ vi/ '^U ' 'y '^Lr ■ Jy lj> -.Xj '^j ^^ '^^ y^j -^^ Jk .^f .^U ^1 - -A* -^j .^^ 

^ ^ ^ /fi ^ ^V % J) *n 'T '^ 'P ^ ^ ™- -X *• T •* * ■* -T- ^ ^ 


*:l 


2* 2ND ST. *3 


4* 


*s 


N* *R 


T* 


*T 


D* 3RD ST. *D 


H* 


* 


\J^**TTT**TU 


* 


*A 


A* *A 


A* 


*v 


V* *V 


V* 


*E 


E* 4TH ST. *E 


E* 


*N 


"*% ^^ ^^ ^^ .r, ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ /"\ .^ ^^ ^^ .^ ^^ .^ 

JT "f» ^^ '^^ ^^ ^^* ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ \TJ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 


*U 


* 




*E 


5TH ST. * 




^^ ^j \Aj J- ^^ ^f >A/ '^^ \b '^^ "^^ "^^ ^t '^L r "«^ ^^ ^^ 

^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^* ^^^ ^^\ ^^^ ^^^ ^w^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 




START AT WHAT CORNER (1- 8 ) ?3 


ENTER HEADINGS FOR 


ROUTE MAP ( J : : : ^FOOTPRINTS) 


HEADINGS? N==lr S=2> 


E=3r W=4 (MAP^O) 


YOU 


'RE AT CORNER ♦ 3 


HEADING ?4 


YOU 


'RE AT CORNER # 8 


HEADING ?4 


YOU 


'RE AT CORNER # 7 


HEADING ?4 


***ILLEGAL HOVE- -TRY 


AGAIN 


?1 






YOU 


'RE AT CORNER * 5 


HEADING ?1. 


YOU 


'RE AT CORNER # 3 

X ^ * ™ ^ ^ ™ ^ ^ ^ a'.. 

* 1ST ST. * 


HEADING ?0 






* * 


<(** 










:i 


2J 2ND ST. *3 


4* 




:s 


n: *r 


T* 




:t 


D: 3RD ST. *D 


H* 






s .f ^ Jf. sf. >^ ^ Jt> 'r- ^ W^ O 


* 




:a 


a: *a 


A* 




:v 


v: *v 


V* 




: E 


EJ 4TH ST. *E 


E* 




:n 
:u 

IE 


♦ 




• 

5TH ST. : 


E=:3f W=4 (MAP==0) 


} 


headings: h*x$ s=2* 


YOU' 


RE AT CORNER * 3 


HEADING ?3 


YOU ' 


RE AT CORNER # 4 


HEADING ?2 


YOU' 


RE AT CORNER * 6 


HEADING ?4 


♦♦♦YOU'RE TRAPPED AT 


CORNER * 5 ---WANT FINAL 






MAP(Y OR N) ?Y 




-1 -^ ^ ^ ^ ^ J^ W . W. .^ /'\ 

. |. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 4». /f. ^ ^\ A « 






* 1ST ST. * 






* * 






♦ ♦ « 

♦ ♦ * 


» ♦ ■/ ♦ . ♦ ♦ » « * ♦ ♦/»^U/J/^u,%4/ 




l 


2.* 2ND ST. :3 


4* 




s 


n : : r 


T* 




T 


d: 3RD ST. :d 


H* 








♦ 




A 


a: *a 


A* 




V 


u: *v 


V* 




E 


E: 4TH ST. *E 


E* 




N 
U 
E 


. 




5TH ST. : 


PATROL THE WHOLE VILLAGE! 


V 


OU 


WERE SUPPOSED TO 



74 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The no-find action depends on the application. In 
tracing a maze, this can be a backtrack move to the 
previous (stored) position. Generally a tracing search 
terminates when either a specific goal is reached or all 
forward moves are blocked. 



This code averages 2.5 tests for each find, which is un- 
necessarily slow if the path being traced has many for- 
ward moves for each turn. A better strategy is to look next 
in the last successful direction. Even if the path is random, 
this direction is as good as any other and has already been 
computed. One way to do this is to use the search routine 
only to find an initial direction, then follow with a short, 
fast move-until-blocked tracking loop (la): 

100 IF M(l,J+1)OT THEN 140 

110 V1=0 

120 H1=1 

130 GO TO 400 



400 l = l+V1 

410 J=J+H1 

420 IF M (I+V1.J+H1) =T THEN 400 

430 GO TO 100 

Another way is to do the tracking inside the search 
routine (lb). This one "corners" faster than (la), but the 
find action is restricted to moves. 



70 LET D4=1 "INITIAL DIRECTION - SET ONLY ONCE 

80 FORN=1T0 4 

90 ON D4 THEN 100, 140, 180, 220 

100 IF M(I,J+1)<>T THEN 135 

110 LET J=J+1 

120 GO TO 80 

135 LET D4=2 

137 GOTO 260 



250 LET D4=1 
260 NEXT N 

As a further refinement we note that a backward move 
yields no net progress and is usually illegal while forward 
moves or turns are possible. In a clockwise search the 
third look is backward while the last is a turn. The 
following fix reverses this (Ic): 

100 IF M(l,J+1)OT THEN 255 



255 LET D4=D4+N ADD N NOT 1 

256 IF D4<5 THEN 260 

257 LET D4=D4-4 
260 NEXT N 

The lour IFs can be reduced to one by indexing, at the 
sacrifice of speed. The scan increments are treated as 
irregular using DATA arrays. (Kernighan and Plauger 
(1974) do this in their PL/I mouse-in-a-maze program). 



20 MAT READ V(4),H(4) 

30 DATA 0.1, 0, -1. 1, 0, -1, 



100 IF M(l+V(D4),J+H(D4))OT THEN 255 

A second approach to the right-angle search is to do it 
row-by-row. As in the unmodified clockwise search (I), the 
scan order is fixed, hence this is more suitable for finding 
an initial direction. In contrast, however, the code is 
compact and indexes smoothly without DATA arrays: 

MAY JUNE 1978 





New revised edition 

of our most popular book, 

101 Basic Computer Games. 

All you need is a BASIC speaking computer. 



Here are 102 classic computer games, every one in standard 
microcomputer BASIC. Every one is complete with large legible 
listing, sample run and descriptive notes. 

All the classics are here: Super Star Trek (one of the most 
challenging versions anywhere), Football (two versions), Black- 
jack, Lunar Lander (three versions), Tic Tac Toe, Nim, Life and 
Horserace. 

Lots of sports simulations, too, such as Basketball, Bowling, 
Boxing, Golf, Hockey and Darts. Or, have fun at the casino with 
Craps, Poker, Roulette or the Slots. 

If logic games are your thing, try Awari, Bagels, Mastermind, 
Chomp or Qubic. Or, would you rather maneuver through a 
complex simulation of Fur Trading, the Civil War, managing 
ancient Sumeria or the Stock Market? 

Guessing games, matrix games, word games, plotting games, 
card games, educational games— they're all here. And, they'll all 
run on your Altair, Imsai, Radio Shack, SWTPC, Xitan, OSI, Poly, 
Sol, PDP-11 or other micro or mini with extended BASIC. 

The delightful cartoons on every page, coupled with highly 
legible listings, make this revision of 101 BASIC Computer 
Games a real must, even if you own the original. 



Basic 

Computer 

Games 



UH 



Microcomputer Edition 
Edited by David H. AM 




200 pp. softbound $7.50 

from Creative Computing Press 

To order call toll-free 800-631-8112, use the inserted order card 
or write to 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 789-M 

Morristown, NJ. 07960. 



75 




00010 


REM----- SIMPLIFIED "ATChMAN PPUGRAM 


00020 


DIM A(42S),D(23) 


•A(17, 2S)Bl$X23 FRAMED «ItH ZEhOES 


000J0 


REM...-. GOSUB TO PRINT INSTRUCTIONS (OMITTED) 


00040 


LET V»ASCC*) 


'VALUE BOUGHT TO STAY ON ROAD 


00050 


GOSUB 1000 


•READ MAP, COUNT STEPS, LABEL CORNERS 


00060 


PRINT "VILLAGE MAP|" 




00070 


GOSUB 2000 


•PRINT MAP 


00080 


MAT READ B(4) 


•N, ft t, w BEARINGS 


00090 


DATA -25,25,1,-1 




00100 


LET Cl«26 


•COLUMNS*! 


00110 


LET 04*1 


'INITIAL SEARCH DIRECTION 


00120 


PRINT "START AT *HAT CORNER ( 1»-"N« )« | 


00130 


INPUT J 




00140 


LET L"C(J) 




00150 


PRINT "ENTER HEADINGS FOR ROUTE MAP ( 1 1 1 1 "FOOTPRINTS ) " 


00160 


PPINT "HEADIMG8I Nal, Sa2, Imi, *a4 (MAPaO)" 


00170 


GOSUB 500 


•SEARCH FOR U*TROD PATH 


00110 


IF Tao THEN 390 


•NONE FOUND? 


00190 


PRINT "YOU'RE AT CORNER < 


I"A(L)-48"HEADING"» 


00200 


INPUT H 




00210 


IF H>0 THEN 240 




00220 
00230 


GOSUB 2000 
GO TO 160 


Program Listing 


00240 


LET D4"B(H) 




00250 


LET C1*26«8GN(d6) 




00260 


LET Hl*D4 


•SAVE INITIAL HEADING 


00270 


GOSUB 500 




00280 


IF D4«Hl THEN 130 


'no forced turn? 


00290 


PRINT "•••ILLEGAL MOVE— TRY AGAIN" 


00300 


GO TO 200 




00310 


GoSUB 500 


•«aaaa>NEXT STEp 


00320 


IF T«0 THEN 370 


•BLOCKED? 


00330 


LET L«T 


•MOVE F"D OR TURN 


00340 


LET A(L)aASCd) 


•MAKE FOOTPRINT, BLOCK RETRACE STEP 


00350 


LET S»S*1 


•COUNT STEP 


00360 


GO TO 310 


>■■■■■> 


00370 


LET L*L*D4 


•STEP TO CORNER 


00390 


GO TO 170 




00390 


PPINT "♦••YOU'RE TRAPPED 


AT CORNER •"ACL)-48"-**ANT FINAL MAP 


00400 


INPUT A8 


CY OR N)"| 


00410 


ZF A|<>"Y" THEN 430 




00420 


GOSUB 2000 




00430 


IF S«89 THEN 460 


•ALL STEPS TROD? 


00440 


PRINT "YOU WERE SUPPOSED 


TO PATROL THE WHOLE VILLAGE!" 


00450 


GO TO 9999 




00460 


PRINT "CONGRATULATIONS!" 


•WINNER 


00470 


GO TO 9999 




00500 


REM •••SUB*** TRACKING PT-ANGLt SEARCH ON. LINEAR ARRAY 


00510 


FOR 1*1 TO 2 




00520 


FOR J*i TO 2 




005)0 


LET T*L*D4 




00540 


if A(T)ov then sso 




00550 


RETURN 




00560 


LET D4"Cl-D4 




00170 


NEXT J 




00580 


LET D4«Di»-C1 




00590 


LET Ci*-Ci 




00600 


NEXT I 




00610 


LET TaO 




00620 


RETURN 




01000 


REM -SUB- INPUT STREET PLAN 


01010 


LET V0*A8C(0) 




01020 


FOR 1*27 TO 377 STEP 25 




01030 


READ 08 




01040 


CHANGE 08 TO D 




01050 


LET J*0 




01060 


FOR L»I TO 1*22 




01070 


LET J«J*l 




01090 


LET T«D(J) 




01090 


LET A(L)«T 




01100 


IF TOV THEN U20 




OillO 


LET 39*89*1 




01120 


IF TOVO THEN 1160 




01130 


LET N*Ntl 




01140 


LET C(N)aL 




01150 


LET A(L)«N*48 




01160 


NEXT L 




01170 
01190 
01190 


NEXT I 


■ 


DATA • • 1ST ST. • 


■ 


01200 
01210 
01220 


DATA " • • 


n 


DATA -»l 2* 2ND ST, *3 


4*» 


01230 


DATA "*8 N* *R 


T*" 


01240 
01250 


DATA "*T D* 3RD ST, *D 


H*" 

M. 91 


01260 


DATA "*A A* *A 


*3> ■* 

A*" 


01270 


DATA "*V V* *V 


V*" 


01290 
01290 
01300 


DATA "*E E* 4TH ST. *E 


E*« 

'•••• " 


DATA "*U • 


■ 


01310 

01320 
01330 


DATA »»E STH ST. • 


• 


RETURN 


P 


02000 


REM -SUB- PRINT SIREET MAp 


02010 


PRINT 




02020 


FOR 1*27 TO 377 8TEP 25 




02030 


FOR jal TO 1*22 




02040 


PRINT CHR8(A{J)J| 




02050 


NEXT J 




02060 


PRINT 




02070 


NEXT I 




02090 


PRINT 




02090 


RETURN 




09999 


END 





90 LET Z1 

100 FOR R=M TO 1 + 1 

110 FOR OJ-Z1 TO J+Z1 STEP Z1 + 1 

120 IF M(R,G)= TTHEN 400 

130 NEXT C 

140 LET Z1=1-Z1 

150 NEXT R 



400 LET l=R 'OR V1-R-I ETC. (TRACKING LOOP) 
410 LET J-C 
420 GO TO 90 



Linear Array 

A standard programming technique that offers several 
advantages here is to use a linear array to represent the 
grid. Any of the above routines will execute faster if this 
conversion is made. Each move is specif ied by one instead 
of two values. In BASIC, interconversion of string and 
numeric data is simplified. The approach also leads to a 
third scanning sequence in which the desired ahead — 
turn— turn order is inherent. The look backward is always 
last, and if the search fails, the initial search direction is 
automatically restored. The four directions are grouped as 
two complementary pairs of complementary right-angle 
directions if you'll excuse the jargon. Anyway, here is the 
picture: 




(W) -1 



x = You are here 
#p% c - Columns 

' c / +,- = Paired directions 



To illustrate, the WATCHMAN program has been 
recoded to use the tracking right-angle search on a linear 
array as a subroutine. This approach leads to a program 
which is not only much shorter but also essentially 
independent of the street plan. For example, the elegant 
flag array of prime products— used to determine whether 
all streets have been patrolled— can be replaced by a 
simple count comparison of watchman steps with total 
street steps. This will work for any street plan. Similarly, 
the street corners are located and labeled 1--N during 
read-in. (Programming problem: write a subroutine that 
will build a corner location table (ST, AVE) during read-in 
of any street plan. Note that, in general, column (AVE) 
numbers must be reassigned after read-in.) 

At each new corner we test for an untrod path. If the 
watchman is trapped, the patrol is finished. (Purists note: 
this code even works for "Null Village," which has street 
corners but no streets!) The user need only specify an 
initial heading, since the next corner will be found 
automatically regardless of the number of turns in- 
between. (An illegal move is flagged if the first GOSUB 
returns a new heading). The footprints made by the 
watchman are more than decorative; they serve to prevent 
illegal retracing steps. When the next step is to a corner, 
the search fails, but since the initial search direction is 
restored, we simply move the watchman one more step 
ahead and the loop is closed. 

Reference: Kernighan and Plauger, "The Elements of Programming Style." 
McGraw Hill, NY (1974), p 50-51. ■ 



76 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



3rd Annual 
MACC Computerfest 



TM 



June 23 



1978 



Presented by the Midwest Affiliation of Computer Clubs 



Featuring 

* Stupendous Hobbyist Exhibits 

* Tours and Evening Activities 
Club Hospitality Suites 
Special Club Meetings 
Fabulous Programs 
Manufactures Party 

ir Technicial Sessions 

* Giant Flea Market 
ir Free Seminars 

* New Products 

* Exhibits 

Forget everthing you thought you knew about 
a computerfest. Because this is an all new 
computerfest in an all new city. 
Quite simply, Detroit has what it takes to be 
the number 1 convention city in America and 
the MACC is holding the 1978 Comput- 
erfest™ in the Renaissance Center-a $500 
million total environment complex one-third 
larger than Rockefeller Center. On 33 acres of 
landscaped riverfront. Come stay and relax in 
our new Detroit Plaza, which offers a conven- 
tion environment unlike anything else on 
earth. With 70 stories of circular glass walls 
rising 800 feet, 1404 world class guest rooms, 
and special rates for our Computerfest™ guests. 
Secure, covered parking for thousands of 
cars. There is so much action happening 
during the three days of the f est, you'll want to 
bring your walking shoes when covering the 
over 100,000 square feet of convention facili- 
ties. We have provided for your complete 
comfort while at the Computerfest™ '78 with 
the following fantastic facilities indoors at the 
Renaissance Center: 



• Eleven restaurants and lounges 

• World's largest rooftop trilevel revolving 
lounge and restaurant complex 

• Incredible walkways 

• Outstanding recreation facilities 

• Fantastic shops 

There's even an eight story atrium with cock- 
tail pods, hanging gardens and a giant re- 
flecting pool where you can relax after those 
tough night programming sessions! Detroit's 
close to everyone with over 60% of America's 
population just one air hour away. The Detroit 
Plaza's located on the banks of the Detroit 
River. Seconds from Detroit's exotic Windsor 
tunnel. Within walking distance of adjacent 
Cobo Hall, Ford Theater, and the Civic Center. 
Foreign visitors are invited to fly into our ultra 
efficient International Metropolitan airport, 
just 30 minutes from our Computerfest™. For 
special motel/hotel rates and show reserva- 
tion information, write: MACC Computer- 
fest™, Box 9578 - Department LIT, Detroit, 
Michigan 48202 U.S.A. or call our 24 hour 
Computerfest hotline number (313)775-5320. 

Make your 
reservations 

NOW! 



<& 



1978 



%TCH# 



© 1978 South Eastern Michigan Computer Orginization 



CIRCLE 11 6 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



REAL TIME CLOCK 
FOR S-100 BUS 

* 1 MHZ CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR 

* TWO INDEPENDENT INTERRUPTS 

* ONE INTERRUPT USES 16 BIT COUNTER 
IN 10 USEC STEPS 

* OTHER INTERRUPT IS IN DECADE 
STEPS FROM 100 USEC TO 10 SEC 

* BOTH SOFTWARE PROGRAMMABLE 

* BOARD CAN BE SELECTED BY 128 DEVICE CODE PAIRS 

* COMPLETE DOCUMENTATION INCLUDES SOFTWARE 
TO DISPLAY TIME OF DAY 

* DOUBLE SIDED SOLDER MASK 

* SILK SCREEN PARTS LAYOUT 



$30. BARE 



$199. KIT 



$229. ASSEMBLED AND TESTED 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED UNIVERSITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



wmc 



^ ™ WAMECO INC. 

inC. 3107 LANEVIEW DRIVE SAN JOSE CA. 95132 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Tarbell 
Floppy Disc Interface 

Designed for Hobbyists and 
Systems Developers 



vmmmffim mv 






>K 



aTPJ 






il 






• Plugs directly into your IMSAI or ALT AIR* and handles up 
to 4 standard single drives in daisy : chain . 

• Operates at standard 250K bits per second on normal disc 
format capacity of 243K bytes. 

• Works with modified CP/M Operating System and BASIC-E 
Compiler. 

• Hardware includes 4 extra IC slots, built-in phantom boot- 
strap and on-board crystal clock. Uses WD 1771 LSI Chip. 

• 6- month warranty and extensive documentation. 

• PRICE: Kit $190 Assembled $265 

• ALTAIR Is a trademark/ tradename of MITS, INC. 



20620 South Leopwood Avenue, Suite P 
Carson, California 90746 

(213) 538-4251 



peviews . . 



The Home Computer Revolution. led Nelson. The Dis- 
tributors, 702 South Michigan. South Bend, IN 46618. 224 
pages, paperback. $2. 1977. 

Reviewing a book like The Home Computer Revolution is 
not easy. As many readers of Creative know, Ted Nelson is the 
author of the now-classic Computer Lib/ Dream Machines, so it 
would be very convenient to say, "Well, Ted Nelson has done it 
again." In some ways he has, but in other ways The Home 
Computer Revolution has serious flaws. Since The Home 
Computer Revolution was written in a highly subjective style. 
this will be a highly subjective review. 

In some respects. The Home Computer Revolution is like 
Computer Lib. It contains zillions of interesting facts, trivia, and 
anecdotes about personal computing and computing in general. 
(The title is slightly misleading, since the book is actually about 
the state of the art in people-oriented computing, of which the 
home computer is a major part.) So, the book itself should be 
quite interesting to anyone involved with, or just becoming 
acquainted with, personal computing. However, one has a 
sneaking suspicion that a total novice might be dreadfully 
confused after reading The Home Computer Revolution. In one 
portion of the book, Ted Nelson drags out a whole series of his 
cutesy terms relating to an idealized interactive graphics screen: 
menus, menuplexes, panels or windows, areas, prompts, prompt 
areas, command lines, ding-dongs, ding-dong cursors, pop-ins, 
peekaboos, and finally, doorbells. And he has the NERVE io 
complain about JCL! Mumbo-jumbo is mumbo-jumbo, 
whether it is fanciful or serious. And based upon my personal 
experience with JCL, it is indeed much too difficult to learn, but 
it is also a powerful tool in the hands of those who understand it. 
So, The Home Computer Revolution is like Computer Lib in 
that it is an interesting collection of interesting facts and stories, 
told from the Ted Nelson point of view, but brought up to date. 

However in some ways HCR is not like CLj DRaX all. Instead 
of being a nice, freaky, alternative-press type of publication. The 
Home Computer Revolution is a slick paperback with catchy 
buy-me phrases on the front and back covers. (Cut to a scene in 
the local Shop-Rite. Child, to mother: "Mommy, look at what 
just fell out from behind the cling peaches!" Cut back to review.) 

Unfortunately, the author of this book has taken a bit too 
much liberty in describing himself. Example: There is a 
subheading in the book entitled, "The Far Future (Beyond Five 
Years)." Under this, in parenthesis, Ted writes, "Anyone who 
tries to predict beyond five years is crazy." As we all know, it is 
fashionable to be called crazy, because that really means you're 
smart and an extraordinary person. REAL crazy people don't 
act crazy any more; they're locked up and doped up in 
institutions. Example: On page 44, we read, "A personal note. In 
my own speeches from 1965 on, I have rarely failed to point out 
that the real and true market for computers was going to be in 
the home. People were skeptical." Well, Ted was right. So? It's 
OK if other people say you're a genius, or farsighted, or crazy; 
but as soon as you start doing it yourself, it doesn't work. 

What really drives this reviewer ba-na-nas is the way Ted 
Nelson goes after IBM. IBM is accused, in almost as many 
words, of preventing the advent of personal interactive 
computing by the introduction of the System 360 370. Nelson 
says that IBM computers are all wrong, because they can never 
be interactive. Well, IBM didn't make their computers to be 
interactive. Almost all publications dealing with IBM's 
hardware and software philosophy point out that the goal of the 
360/370 is to maximize the efficiency of the computer, not to 
accommodate the user. IBM did not pull away from the 
competition so strongly because it sat around and did nothing. 
or because companies wanted to buy interactive graphics 
systems. IBM is quite into supporting its stuff, which is more 
than can be said for 90% of the companies in the personal 
computing market. Would you want to depend on a company 
staffed by two people out in California to support a computer on 
which you want to write paychecks for thousands of people? Do 
you need dingdongs and doorbells to do mailing lists? OK, 



CIRCLE 120 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



commercial applications arc not the ultimate applications, but 
they are necessary. Just because a Mack Truck isn't a Porsche 
doesn't make it wrong. 

Nelson goes on to suggest that IBM should be quaking in its 
boots because of the personal computing revolution, which 
seems rather unlikely. As a matter of fact, the reviewer and 
another member of the staff of Creative have a running joke 
about the comparison between an Altair 8800 and a 370/ 168 
(and NOT because we'd rather have an Altair.) IBM has no need 
to fear the time when the equivalent of System 370 hardware can 
be had for $9.95. Imagine, if that can be done for $9.95, what a 
few million will buy! Besides, the cost of developing computer 
software will not continue to fall. To date there have been only a 
handful of successfully mass-marketed software products (Tom 
Pittman's Tiny BASIC and the SWTPC 6800 BASICs come to 
mind, but they surely aren't high-powered exotic software 
tools.) In selecting IBM alone of all the big computer companies 
to attack, Ted Nelson is doing the computing community a 
disservice. It is possible to knock anything, regardless of its 
actual worth. I should mention at this point that the reviewer is 
not an IBM freak, though he has come to respect the power and 
flexibility of IBM equipment, as well as its incomprehensibility. 

Ted Nelson also discusses some very nifty software tools, such 
as TRAC, SMALLTALK, LISP, and APL. Too bad you can't 
run down to your local computer store and buy any of those 
languages for any price. Ooops, forgot to tell you, TRAC is a 
registered trademark and servicemark of Rockford Research, 
Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts. Although an 8080 version of 
TRAC is in existence, it isn't available to Joe Computer User, 
though Ted Nelson has one and enjoys it. 

I regret that this has been a bit more of a rebuttal than a 
review, but someone has to speak up. I would certainly 
recommend The Home Computer Revolution to anyone 
involved with personal computing. For all its faults, it is very 
interesting and readable. As a matter of fact, it is the most 
controversial book on personal computing that has come along 
in awhile. 

One hopes that the slick appearance of this book (in contrast 
with Computer Lib) does not indicate that the entire personal 
computing field will turn into a mass marketing phenomenon. 

(Sorry Ted, but they can't all be gems.) 

Steve North 

[Readers who want to judge the book for themselves can order a 
copy from Creative Computing for the unheard-of low price of 
$2.00.] . . ^ 

^Y+ ^X* ^Y* ^^ ^^ 

The First Book of KIM. Jim Butterfield, Stan Ockers, Eric 
Rehnke, editors. ORB, P.O. Box 311, Argonne, IL 60439. 176 
pp., paperback $9.00. 1977. 

The book is "dedicated to the person who just purchased a 
KIM-1 and doesn't know what to do with it..." Much of the 
material in the book has been taken from KIM- 1 16502 User 
Notes. Material is collected under the following titles: 

A Beginners Guide to KIM Programming, which takes a first 
time user through the steps of getting the KIM-1 to respond to 
one's commands. This section is brief but well-written and the 
user finishes with the confidence he shall be the master over the 
computer. This chapter assumes one has the KIM Programming 
Manual to be read as one becomes familiar with the operation of 
the KIM-1. 

Recreational Games is just that, a series of ready to enter 
games, exercises and educational programs. Each program 
consists of an explanation or purpose, an assembled op-code 
listing (well documented) and a hex dump. The experienced user 
has only to sit down, plug in the KIM-1 and begin entering the 
code and in less than 15 minutes will become deeply involved in 
the variety of games in this chapter. 

Diagnostic & Utility Programs consists of a series of 
programs that add flexibility to the K I M- 1 system hardware and 
software system. 

Expansion, Interface and Pot Pourri chapters collect together 
in one place those facts one tends to gather and lose when the 
information is needed. 

The book is well-written, well-documented and highly 
recommended for all KIM-l users, whether beginners or old- 
timers. With some difficulty these programs can be adapted to 
other 6502 systems using a monitor other than KIM. 

John Jackobs 
Cedar Rapids, IA 

MAY JUNE 1978 



2708 
uPD 458 
tms 2716 



PRAMMER 

by xybek 



The Ultimate EPROM Memory Board 
For Your SIOO-Bus Computer 

* Accommodates from 1 k to 30k of the above EPROMS, in 

any combination, each addressable on any 1k (2k for 
2716) boundary within the board's 32k address space. 

* 1 k of scratch-pad RAM. 

* On-board programming for all three EPROM types. 

* Tn-state buffers on all address and data lines. 

* Empty EPROM sockets do not require address space. 

* Assembled, tested, ready to run — only $369.50 

Xybek • P.O. Box 4925 • Stanford, CA 94305 
Telephone: (408) 296-8188 

CIRCLE 148 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



2708/2716 EPROM 
MEMORY BOARD 

* S-100 BUS 

* 1-32 KBYTES USING EITHER 2708 OR 2716 EPROMS 

* HIGH/LOW LIMIT ADDRESS RANGE SELECTION 

* MEMORY BANK SELECT OPTION 

* SOL TM COMPATIBLE MEMORY DISABLE 

* SELECTABLE WAIT STATES 

* FULLY BUFFERED INPUTS AND OUTPUTS 

* DOUBLE SOLDER MASK 

* SILK SCREENED PARTS LAYOUT 

* COMPLETE DOCUMENTATION 



$30. BARE 

$100. KIT (LESS EPROMS) 

TESTED AND ASSEMBLED $130. 
(LESS EPROMS) 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED UNIVERSITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 

W7I7C j„c. WAMECO INC. 3107 LANEVIEW DRIVE SAN JOSE CA 95132 



TM 



79 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Can your computer read and solve this problem by itseff? 

"ON THEIR VACATION, TOM AND DICK VISITED A 
FARM. WHILE THERE, THEY NOTICED A PEN 
CONTAINING CHICKENS AND PIGS. TOM SAID 
THERE WERE 3 TIMES AS MANY CHICKENS AS 
PIGS. DICK SAID HE COUNTED 100 LEGS IN THE 
PEN. HOW MANY CHICKENS WERE IN THE PEN?" 



— — 



withNLOS/1 , i t can! 

N LOS/1 is a cassette- based system requiring a minimum 
of 12K, a serial I/O board and any cassette interface. 
The system comes complete with a fully documented set 
of assembly language source listings. The cost is only 
$50 . 

STOP PROGRAMMING YOUR COMPUTER, 

EDUCATE IT! 
OROER TODAY! 

BERMATE „ 

R.D.#3BOX192A 
NAZARETH PA 18064 

— — w— ■ 

CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




ws... reviews . • . pe vi 



Fun With Computers and Basic. Donald D. Spencer. Camelot 
Publishing Company, P.O. Box 1357, Ormand Beach, Florida 
32074. 96 pp., paper. $6.95. 1 977. 

This book is divided into three main sections. The first 
contains some common uses of computers and an introduction 
to some important computer related terms. The next section 
discusses BASIC. This brief treatment of BASIC includes the 
elementary commands thru FOR-NEXT, subscripted variables, 
and the library functions. The final part of the book consists of 
64 pages of games, simulations, puzzles, and topics from 
number theory. Each problem is explained well, and over half 
are accompanied by the resulting program. 

The author suggests that the book could be used by two main 
groups of people. The first includes personal-computer users or 
students who must learn BASIC on their own. The second group 
consists of teachers, students, programmers, and others who 
enjoy computerized game playing. I feel that the book lends 
itself nicely to use by the second group, but would miss the mark 
as a self-teaching text. I don't feel that a thirteen-page treatment 
of BASIC is quite enough. The explanation of some of the 
commands and functions is sketchy. For instance, the greatest 
integer function is explained as follows: "The INT function is 
used to 'chop-off the fractional part of a value, resulting in an 
integer value." The example shown was INT(239.52) = 239. 
Won't the reader be surprised when he finds the value of 
INT(-8.29)? 

Although the book is a paperback, the pages are sewn in and it 
appears to be of excellent quality. The type is large and very 
readable. Almost every page contains a diagram or cartoon 
related to the material being presented. 

I would highly recommend this book as a source of fine 
problems for a high-school course in computer programming. It 
should be included in a teacher's personal library; it would be an 
asset to the school library; and it would make a great gift to a 
student who has already been exposed to BASIC. 

Bruce De Young 
West Milford, NJ 



+1* ^» «^» %^ ^r^ 




PERSONAL 
COMPUTERS 

For the Home 
For Fun 
For Business 



Discover the excitement of personal computers. Come in 
and see how you can use these low cost computers at 
home, for fun, or in your business. We stock all major lines 
of personal computers. 

THE CDIYIPJTEH IVIflHT 

633 West Katella Orange (714) 633-1222 

M (Between Newport and Santa Ana Fwys.) ^^^ m 
Hours: Mon.-Fri. 10:00-8:00 Sat. 10:00-5:30 
100% financing and leasing available Ml 
At The Computer Mart, We Do More Than Just Sell Computers 



CIRCLE 137 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Data Processing for Business, Second Edition. Gerald A. Silver 
and Joan B. Silver. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., New 
York, NY. 596 pages. Hardbound. 1977. 

A contemporary view of computer technology and computer 
languages is presented, moving from simple to complex in 
concepts, terminology, and theory. As in the previous edition, 
cartoons and anecdotes are used to present ideas, thoughts, and 
commentaries of people with a broad base of the computer as a 
social tool. Materials have been revised and updated to include 
such items as: point-of-sale terminals, electronic funds transfer 
system, floppy disks, microprocessors, and legislation on social 
implications of the computer. 

The book is divided into 23 chapters organized into seven 
parts with four appendices, glossary, and index. Part l (chapters 
l and 2) gives an overview of data processing with terminology 
and trends in hardware and software. Part 2 (chapters 3 and 4) 
covers the concepts of the punched card and unit record 
machines. This area has been condensed from the previous 
edition. Part 3 (chapters 5-10) considers the hardware area with 
input, data representation (numbering systems), central 
processing unit, storage, and output. Part 4 (chapters 11-13) 
deals with the solving of problems with a computer; thus going 
through program planning, flowcharting, and processing 
methods. Part 5 (chapter 14- 1 8) deals with software individual 
chapters on operating systems, COBOL, BASIC, and FOR- 
TRAN and a combination chapter touching on assembler, 
PL/1, RPG, APL, and ATS. The chapter on the BASIC 
language is new to the second edition, expanding from just 
three pages (overview) to a 19-page chapter. Part 6 (chapters 
19-22) explores the areas of business systems, performance 
evaluation of systems, teleprocessing, and a new chapter on 
information systems. Part 7 consists of just chapter 23 but 
probably brings out the most important aspect — the computer 



80 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



in society: impact on society. Topics covered in the chapter 
include; employment, industrial computer monopolies, new 
crimes, cashless society, and impact of data banks. This 
chapter probably should be placed in front of the book for 
more impact. The appendices list employment opportunities 
and job descriptions in data processing, conversion tables for 
numbering systems, keypunching procedures, and case 
problems. The case problems are excellent for class discussion 
to lead the student through applications with background 
information, problem, solution, and benefits. 

The book is loaded with illustrations, cartoons, and stories 
which should help a novice understand data processing and its 
implications. Key words are printed in green to aid the reader 
know which words are important. Exercises at the end of the 
chapters help reinforce materials covered. A Study Guide to 
Accompany Data Processing for Business is available, covering 
each chapter with terms needed (repeat of textbook) and self- 
tests to measure comprehension. The tests consist of true/ false, 
matching, and multiplechoice questions, and also included are 
several essay questions designed to guide the reader in 
synthesizing important concepts. 

In comparison with the first edition, the second edition adds 
much and covers again historical to future concepts of data 
processing. Since the broad coverage of central topics excludes 
excessive details, the place for the book has to be a light 
approach to data-processing concepts. This fits the authors' 
design for use in a beginning course in data processing. 

John F. Schrage 
Fort Wayne, IN 

^^^ ^^* ^^^ ^^* ^^* 



Electronics Sourcebook. Bill Prudhomme. Technical 
Publications, 1405 Richland Ave., Metarie LA 70001. 78 pp, 
paper. $3.50 (25c postage). 1977. 

This little book tells how to get information and samples from 
electronics suppliers. Written in a gee-whiz style, it makes some 
straightforward suggestions about how to ask (type on 
letterhead rather than scribbling on lined paper and things like 
that), and gives a short bibliography of places to write. For those 
new to the electronics and computer field who are unaware of 
the considerable variety of information available mostly for 
free, this could be a useful introduction. 

John Levine 
New Haven, CT 



*«^^ ^x ** vX^ ^X^ ^X^ 
^^* ^^* ^^* ^^* ^^* 



Stimulating Simulations. C.W. Engel, 64 pp. paper, $5. C.W. 
Engel, Box 16612, Tampa, Florida 33687. 

Stimulating Simulations is a book containing ten "simulation 
programs," which are really game programs, though a few are 
also simulations. The programs were done in BASIC, 
apparently M ITS/ Microsoft 8080 BASIC, but conversion to 
other BASICs would be simple enough. Each of the programs is 
presented with a listing, sample run, instructions, and program 
documentation, including a flowchart and ideas for improve- 
ment. The programs are well written and are not rehashes of old 
programs. The following programs are in the book: Art 
Auction, Monster Chase, Lost Treasure, Gone Fishing, Space 
Flight, Forest Fire, Nautical Navigation, Business Manage- 
ment, Rare Birds, and Diamond Thief. The programs tend to be 
on the short side (under 100 lines). 

Many of the games/simulations also have potential 
educational application, such as the programs involving 
navigation which help teach the use of Cartesian coordinates, 
trigonometric principles, etc. Although the programs aren't too 
complicated, the excellent documentation would make it easy to 
modify the games yourself. And, as mentioned before, the 
programs in this book are original, so the book is quite 
worthwhile. The price of the book does seem rather high ($5) 
especially in comparison with other game books such as 
Creative's BASIC Games, or PCCs What to Do After You Hit 
Return. This is partially because Stimulating Simulations is a 
homebrew-type effort. Anyway, how many different versions of 
Star Trek do you want? 

Steve North 




Youll wonder now you 
ever did business 

without it! 

The Cromemco System III - 
designed with the businessman 
in mind. A microcomputer with 
all the features you need and 
want. The fast and reliable 
Z-80A, with industry standard 
bus; expandable RAM memory to 
512K, and disk storage capacity to 
1.2M-bytes; a high-speed printer that handles 
everything from mailing labels to 6-part business 
forms in a breeze; and one of the smoothest 
CRT's available today. Custom-programmed to 
fit your company's needs. And, we provide all 
service and maintenance on everything we sell. All 
at a price that makes our competition cringe. Call 
or write us today for full details. Find out why we 
say "You'll wonder how you ever did business 
without us!" 

Corson Computer Corp., Inc. 

3834 Main Street 

Buffalo, New York 14226 

Telephone: 716-832-0662 

We do a company-size job 
in SUCH a nice little package. 

CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MICROCOMPUTER 
JOINT VENTURE DEAL 

National marketing company with ability to move six to a 
thousand business configurations first year wants to get in 
touch with a company that can supply hardware, software 
and know-how/ We are interested in listening to any 
proposition and wilt be able to make an investment. Call Mr. 
Eaton toll free at 800/621-1016. 




MAY JUNE 1 978 



81 



The building-block 
approach to 3D 
computer graphics 



Larry El in 




Pictured here are ten primitives used as building blocks in the SynthaVision 
process. From left to right they are: sphere, box, cone, cylinder, wedge, 
elliptical cone, solid torus, torus, arbitrary polyhedron, and ellipsoid. 



SynthaVision is a computer anima- 
tion process that allows the 
producer/animator a great deal of 
flexibility and control in creating im- 
ages of fully-shaded, three- 
dimensional objects. In a short time, 
the animator can describe very com- 
plex objects to the computer, input 
movement commands and colors, and 
leave the dog work to the computer. 

The computer, in our case an IBM 
360/75, spends an average of three 
minutes generating an image. This is a 
short time compared to traditional 



Larry Elin, Mathematical Applications Group, Inc., 
3 Westchester Plaza, Elmsford, NY 10523 



hand animation, but a long time as 
computer imaging systems go. 

Purists would argue that computer 
animation systems should be "real 
time," avoiding a definition of "real 
time" but noting that three minutes per 
frame is too long. What they fail to 
realize is that for the animator and film 
maker in general, there never has been 
real time. Nor has there ever been a 
need for the immediacy implied by the 
term. Let's face it, for the video people, 
real time is instantly; for those of us 
who astral-project, it's even sooner 
than that; and for the home 
photographer, the closest thing to real 
time is the photomat store. It's all 
relative. 




In this series of photos you see first a complete 
ball-bearing assembly, then the assembly with a 
box subtracted from one section to create a cross- 
sectional view, then the components separated to 
create an "exploded" view. 



82 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



All computer animation systems that 
attempt to generate fully-shaded, 
three-dimensional images have to deal 
with the problem of describing sur- 
faces to the computer. Most existing 
systems rely heavily on inputting a 
large number of point locations (x,y,z) 
that lie on the surface of the object they 
are describing. The computer then 
connects these points with polygon 
patches, other subroutines do 
smoothing and shading, and the 
resulting image resembles the object 
described. 

The SynthaVision approach is quite 
different. Certain three-dimensional 
primitive shapes are already 
programmed into the computer. These 
shapes are solid volumes such as box, 
sphere, cone, ellipsoid, elliptical cone, 
wedge, torus (both with and without a 
hole) and cylinder. These shapes are 
added to or subtracted from one 
another to form a more complex shape. 

Virtually, anything man-made can be 
described using these simple shapes 
as building blocks. In fact, the process 
of using primitives to build complex 
objects is not unlike the thinking 
process that a design engineer goes 
through when he or she conceptualizes 
a part for a car or a machine. The chief 
advantage of the SynthaVision process 
is that you don't have to have the real 
object on hand in order to describe it. 
You can, in effect, make one up! 

For example, if you want to describe 
a simple ashtray, you would need at 
least two geometric primitives, both of 
them cylinders. The first step is to 
describe the cylinder that will be the 
solid bottom and sides of the ashtray. 
You decide what its dimensions will 
be, and input them thus: 




Here you see an 18-mm spindle for the wheel of a car which, once described, can be rotated about a 
central axis to show other angles. In this case, the spindle was rotated 70 degrees* for each picture 



RCC 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 2. 0. 
5. 

This data would be interpreted by the 
computer as meaning Right Circular 
Cylinder #1 is located at X0, Y0, and 
Z0; it is 2 units high in the Y direction 
and has a radius of 5. units. Then you 
would describe another cylinder 
whose location and dimensions are: 



RCC 2. 1. 2. 
4. 



This puts RCC 2 a little higher and a 
little smaHer than RCC 1: 



If you then subtract #2 from #1, you 
would wind up with: 





Naturally, this is a very simple 
example, but you get the idea. The 
addition and subtraction can go on and 
on until you have a very complex 
object. 

Simple English-language instruc- 
tions are used to animate the object 
once it is described. A typical com- 
mand is: 



1 50 Move TRAY 



2. 0. 0. 



This command means: from frames 1 to 
50, move the object named "tray" 2 
units in the x direction, units in the y 
and units in the z. 

The computer calculates what that 
object would look like if it moved 2. 



units in each frame, and outputs each 
picture on a Cathode Ray Tube. A 
movie camera pointed at the CRT 
photographs the image as it is dis- 
played. 

So far, SynthaVision has been used 
to produce over 200 commercials, 
educational and industrial films. It is 
especially useful for describing how 
something works. After trying to write 
this article, I'm convinced we should 
use it to make a film showing how 
SynthaVision works!! ■ 



M0VIN6 PICTURE MACHINES 

Films. w tereoptironM, Views. 

If you contemplate go- 
ing into the public en- 
tertainment business, 
write for cstalosrue No. 
9. which gives detailed 
informal Ion and prices 
of Movinsr Picture Ma- 
chines. Films, Stereopti 
f*ons and Views. We offer 
dependable apparatus 
and views only, no sec- 
ond-hand goods for sale. 
Responsible parties 
using our machines can 
rent moving picture 
bliu» ior one night's use. 

KLEINE OPTICAL CO. 

58 State Street. Chicago, III. 




MAY/JUNE 1978 



83 



Creating 
Computer Art 




DIFFUSED KENNEDY 



Russ Walter 



SHOT KENNEDY 



KENNEDY IN A DOG 



CREATING ART 

Every black-and-white photograph 
can be expressed as a table of 
numbers. Each number in the table 
represents the darkness of a different 
point— the higher the number the 
darker the point. The "darkness 
numbers" are called gray levels. To 
feed a picture into the computer, type 
in the table of gray levels. Or aim a 
special camera (called an optical 
scanner) at the object you want pic- 
tured; the scanner will automatically 
compute the gray levels and send them 
to the computer via a wire. 

You can program the computer to 
change the gray levels in any weird way 
you wish, and draw the result. Here's 
what the Computer Technique Group 
of Japan did to an ordinary 
photograph of John Kennedy: 



Reprinted with permission from The Secret 
Guide to Computers, Part 2 (Applications). 
Copyright © 1977 by Russ Walter. 

The Secret Guide to Computers is a fascinating 
set of books. The four books are: Part 1 (BASIC) 
$175, Part 2 (Applications) $2.50, Part 3 
(Languages) $3.50, and Part 4 (Systems) $2.75. A 
commentary is also available for $4.75. Send 
payment with order to Russ Walter, 92 St. Botolph 
Street, Boston, MA 02116 or call (617) 266-8128. 





Here's what the group did to a 
photograph of Marilyn Monroe: 

MONROE IN THE NET 



Csuri & Shaffer fed the computer a 
realistic line drawing of an old man; 
here's what came out: 

RANDOM LIGHT AND SHADOW 



............. »>.<trrr 



mmm 



I l lll ll Hll l l 






■•■■■•■••••■••■■■■■■■••«»••■■■■■■•■■■■■■■■ 

•»«•••■ Vla'aafaaaaaaa 

• .••••a,**.aaaaa>< .••••<•*,*>..••••••••••■ ...,, am .. ........ 

■ •••••••■•■•■|>t«i*l. i >'<atii •■•■«lii««.iiainiii 

• •■■••■■■•■■••If mm m ► 'HaV*,*- •*■•■■■■•■■■•■■■■■■. * v aaaaa 



--.----^.i. „.. )«».%v ••■••■■■•■■»<■•••• 

• ■•«••••». •■^•■••••■'•••••■((••••••••••. ■•■■■■ iiiiiii 

■--•■■•■■■■•»««««l». ■■•!■••»• ••••• ■!•-<••• •••••••••••> ■•• 

• ■*»'•»#•••■ r«*», «» .iiia'>>-( 2..'* •••■• 

a »y ■*.!■• « •••• as •• <», ;•. — .•«»»•••- : .wtia *« ■» ■■-••■•• •■■•■••• 

» 4 ». -••■■••«. .■•••... *|)taa#i:. ••••••■• • ..•>*>. ■••••• 

■ • -••• • • ■■■■■••,■•••«,. -■ 

• >«. .•->•••••<•••••••••••••••••••••••••••..•., •--.••••-.•'•• 

••»\»;*"«»;»» ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••< «•■•■■'- ■»»• 

• •- 4><r>'/<>"« ■••■■■••i.iiii "tinmiliKfi 

•••»\»»j. «••••■•■•■••■••■•■••••••••••••••■.•■.. 

■ a. *a/ ?■■'*» *f»aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ■■■•■■■■■•■ ■_*■__ 
a a • • . a» « a •! a* - ■•■■••■•••••■•••••■■•••■■•■•■••>••'••••■■«■• 

• a ■ • » » % ' • • * ••!•• •■■••••■••■■■■■■■••••■•llliilli - • 

• ••••>.>Ol>'""> • ■••■•••Ili">, a -'»•••••• 

• •a.l>ia.iw <•••••••••••••••••••••■■•■••••••■•••■ v , i«/ •'•••>, 

5."-«l» - '«.-•••» I '.; ••■■■■•• _-,iBa««a«r'**aa."->a'iiai- 

'*>•>. B'SS** -V,~aftaaaaaaaak~ < «\ta>*:'.*'<j. a r«aaaa>-«>««»>.:'. .ft 



ms^smm 



»».►-*». 



• •— •»»»«i» -•••••••». •••■»/! ••••••••••• ..ir ■»»/»*• "•**.%» »■ 

• •••■»•;. .•Wj. ■■■■■-- it». v «>a, «■■■■ aaaa.l" ^. ■■'.••••• •., *.- 

aaaaaQt^aatiajaaaaalff . ., - «<.••■• ■flti><«.iiii|c.k>|i 



r.-.tf.* 4 ? 






»4 «•*•■••' 



■ ■mif%. tflfAitmir'ai*' «-*••••■■■•#■»*'«••■»•'-•••»■>,••• 
aaaaaaa- '•■> ■■ii» ,,<», • t«> v\ *«»•••••••-«•• a.t -•••> r *i' • - •■••■ 

■ aaaaaaij* •••••■•Jfc" -*■••»» >«i •■•• .;..»• .*. aaaaaa 



•••SiM%«#jZ 



• ■•>> ■■>&•■••>' ■.«•••••••• 



■ ■■»■■•»«.- »; 

«,, ••■>!(' • •»■ .«,< 

>aifc ^- ••••■.••^••^■•■••■■•••|. ««,^. «%■*'■••■ 

• •■••■■■■••«• •>-■•■■■• •«■■■■■■■■••••■.. aJ'.a^, ■-*•'-■•••••••■• 

• ••■••«■■■'••-<•*«••■■■«■■•••■•••• ..--«■». a<fc(|.... ••■••• 

-•■■••• lull. *# a , •■■•■■■•■•■•■■ ••i»'l|a l |. •■■■■• •■■■■••••• 
• ••■•■•• ■•■«4>. ^■■■a ■■•■■•■■ a — . - «a\. — ' a a a ■ ■ a % . a . a ■ . . . • 

■ •••■ la '•!« xk/'llil^a -- 

t«....fi<k ■?•■ 




Tl IV 



niitiitiiii 



84 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






I did this with the help of a computer 



PIN-UP 




$$$$$$$$ 
$$$$$$$$$$$ 

$$$$$$$$$*$$$ 

$$$$$$$$*$$$$ 

$$$$.$$ $$.$$ 

$$$$...$ .$$ 
$$$$$.$$$ .$$$. 

$$$$$ $$$. 

$$$$$$ $$ $*$$$ 
$$$$$$ .. **$$$ 



* 

$*. 

$*. 
$** 



*** 

*** 
**** 
**** 
*** 

* 

• 

** 
** 
** 
** 
*$** 

* m * $*** 
* , ***$*** * 

*.******$** * 

* t *******$ $** 

* *** 

• • • • • • • 

* **** 

• • • • • • • 

* ***** 

• • • • • 

* ***** 

• • ■ • 

* ***** 
*** *** 



$$$*** $$ $ 
$ ** *$$ $$ 

. * *$ $ 
* * 
* * 
* * 
* * * . * 



$****** ***. 



$* 

$ 
* 

* 



* 

*. 

* . 

* 
* 
* 
* 
$* * 

$$ 



*** 
* *** 

• • • 

* **** 
**** ** 



******** *** 

*********** *** 

• •••• •• • 

* * *********** ** 

* * ********* 
*************** ****** 
* ** ** ****** 

** * * ***** 

* *********** ***** 

* ** $* , **** . 
*$ ** ***c *** t * 
* $* ****$..$$.** 

********** **c ** 

* ** ****c** < * 

* ** ** , **$ ** , * 

*j'i ******* > *<l > * 



* 
* 



* 
** 

* 

* 

* 
** 
* 
* 



$***$* , ** 

$$$ $*. * 

$ $*.*. 

$**. . 

$*. . 
$* . 

$$** 

$$ 



*** 
** 

* 

** *** 

* * 

* ** 
** 

* 

* 

** 

** 

** 



The Pin-Up has these speci- 
fications.. . . 



scene: a scantily clad girl sitting on a 
stool - 4 different gray levels - 4 
different symbols (1 for each gray 
level): a blank, a period, an asterisk, 
and $. 1537 symbols altogether (53 
rows x 29 columns) 



In the specifications, the numbers are 
small, yet the picture is clear. The 
clarity was obtained by non- 
computerized fanagling. 



At Bell Telephone Laboratories, 
Knowlton & Harmon produced a pic- 
ture with much larger specifications. 



Vb:°owS<i 



scene: two seagulls flying intheclouds 
- 16 different gray levels - 141 different 
symbols (for each gray level there are 
several symbols; the computer 
chooses among them at random). 
11616 symbols altogether (88 rows x 
132 columns) 



. . * s v » *©*■»<>■**** 
, . • v « t 9 ::-*v/3«vvjjwf r«sf 



t ♦•*•-• - 

*<** >t*J3JJ . 

• V* . 

.*. T «>■**• ■"■« 

I 



Instead of using blanks, periods, 
asterisks, and $, they used cats, 
battleships, swastikas, and other weird 
shapes. Here are the 141, listed from 
lightest to darkest, with some 
repetitions: 



GULLS 

The picture is 
several feet 
long. Seen 
from a distance, 
it looks like this: 




Here's a close-up view of part of one of the gull's wings: 




Here's how to make an L slowly 
become a V. Notice that the letters L 
and V are both made by connecting 
three points: 



The process can be extended further: 

Ll/VV 



1' 



-3 




3' 



2' 



Let 1" be the point halfway between 1 
and 1 '; let 2" be halfway between 2 and 
2'; and let 3" be halfway between 3 and 
3'. Then 1", 2", and 3" form a shape 
that's halfway between an L and a V: 



1 ii -it 



3' 




MAY JUNE 1 978 



85 



Using that method, the Computer 
Technique Group gradually turned a 
running man into a Coke bottle, and 
then into Africa: 



RUNNING COLA IS AFRICA 



The group turned this head into a 
square: 

RETURN TO A SQUARE 






The head on the left returns to a square 
by using arithmetic progression: the 
lines are equally spaced. The one on 
the right uses geometric progression 
instead: the lines are close together 
near the inside square, but further 
apart as they expand outward. 



Csuri & Shaffer exploded a hummingbird: 



CHAOS TO ORDER 




The hummingbird at the far right was 
obtained from the one at the far left, by 
moving each line a random distance 
and in a random direction (between 
45° and -45°). 

Computer artists are starting to 
believe that art is a tension between 
order and disorder. Too much order, or 
too much disorder, is boring. For 
example, in Chaos to Order, the 
hummingbird on the left is too orderly 
to be art. The hummingbird on the right 
is more interesting. 

Consider Gulls (page 85) . Seen from 
a distance, it is an orderly picture of 
gulls. Seen up close, it is an orderly 
picture of a cat or a battleship or a 
swastika. But from a middling distance, 
it looks like disorderly wallpaper— the 
symbols repeat, but not in any obvious 
cycle. That element of disorder is what 
makes the picture interesting. 

At first glance, Pin-Up (page 85) is 
just a disorderly array of periods, 
asterisks, and dollar signs. At second 
glance, you see order: a girl. Art is the 
formation of order from disorder. 

A first glance at Monroe in the Net 
(page 84) shows order: a piece of graph 
paper. A second glance shows dis- 



order: some of the graph's lines are 
inexplicably bent. A third glance shows 
order: Marilyn Monroe's face pops out 
at you. Her orderly face is formed from 
the disorder of bent lines. 

Return to a Square (page 86) uses 
arithmetic progression and geometric 
progression to create an over-all sense 
of order, but the basic elements are 
disorderly: a head that's bumpy, and a 
panorama of weird shapes that lie 
uncomfortably between being heads 
and squares but are neither. 

Many programs create disorder by 
random numbers. Chaos to Order uses 
random numbers to explode the hum- 
mingbird. Gulls uses random numbers 
to help choose among the 141 symbols. 
An amazing example of random 
numbers is this picture by Julesz & 
Bosche: 

To your eyes, the picture seems quite 
ordered. Actually, it is quite dis- 
ordered. One pie-shaped eighth of it is 
entirely random; the other seven 
eighths are copies of it. The copying is 
the only element of order, but very 
powerful. Try this experiment: cover 
seven eighths of the picture. You'll see 




that the remaining eighth is totally 
disordered, hence boring. ■ 







C *K& . M** 



86 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



OSBORNE & ASSOCIATES , INC. 

The World Leaders In Microprocessor Books 



If you want information on microprocessors, begin with 
the Osborne books. 



PROGRAM BOOKS WRITTEN IN BASIC 



Payroll With Cost Accounting 
Accounts Payable And Accounts 

Receivable 
General Ledger 

These books may be used independently, or 
implemented together as a complete ac- 
counting system. Each contains program 
listings, user's manual and thorough docu- 
mentation. Written in an extended version 
of BASIC. 
#22002 (400 pages), #23002* #24002* 

Some Common BASIC Programs 

76 short practical programs, most of which 
can be used on any microcomputer with any 
version of BASIC. Complete with program 
descriptions, listings, remarks and exam- 
ples. 
#21002 (200 pages) 



rAYHOLL WITH COST HCCOUNTINC 
m BASK - 




ion rootc 
tM*r mcma 




ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING 
8080A/8085 Assembly Language Programming 
6800 Assembly Language Programming 



These books describe how to program a 
microcomputer using assembly language. 
They discuss classical programming techni- 
ques, and contain simplified programming 
examples relevant to today's microcom- 
puter applications. 
#31003, 32003 (400 pages each) 




AN INTRODUCTION TO MICROCOMPUTERS 

Volume - The Beginner's Book 

If you know nothing about computers, then 
this is the book for you. It introduces com- 
puter logic and terminology in language a 
beginner can understand. Computer soft- 
ware, hardware and component parts are 
described, and simple explanations are given 
for how they work. Text is supplemented 
with creative illustrations and numerous 
photographs. Volume prepares the novice 
for Volume I. 
#6001 (300 pages) 






Volume I — Basic Concepts 

This best selling text describes hardware 
and programming concepts common to all 
microprocessors. These concepts are ex- 
plained clearly and thoroughly, beginning at 
an elementary level. Worldwide, Volume I 
has a greater yearly sales volume than any 
other computer text. 
#2001 (350 pages) 

Volume II — Some Real Products 
(revised June 1977) 

Every common microprocessor and all sup- 
port devices are described. Only data sheets 
are copied from manufacturers. Major chip 
slice products are also discussed. 
#3001 A (1250 pages) 




PROGRAMMING FOR LOGIC DESIGN 

8080 Programming For Logic Design 
6800 Programming For Logic Design 
Z80 Programming For Logic Design 

These books describe the meeting ground 
of programmers and logic designers; written 
for both, they provide detailed examples to 
illustrate effective usage of microprocessors 
in traditional digital applications. 
#4001, #5001, #7001 (300 pages each) 



OSBORNE & ASSOCIATES, INC. • P.O. Box 2036 • DEPT. L3 • Berkeley, California 94702 • 



Price applies to orders received by June 30. 1978* • PRICE 



6001 Volume — The Beginner's Book 



2001 Volume I — Basic Concepts 



3001 A Volume II — Some Real Products (1977 edition) 



4001 8080 Programming For Logic Design 



5001 6800 Programming For Logic Design 



7001 Z80 Programming For Logic Design 



31003 8080A/8085 Assembly Language Programming 



32003 6800 Assembly Language Programming 



21002 Some Common BASIC Programs 



22002 Payroll With Cost Accounting 



$ 7.50 



7.50 



15.00 



7.50 



7.50 



7.50 



750 



7.50 



7.50 



12.50 



QTY 



• 6-1/2%. SF Bay Area residents only 

• 6%, California residents outside SF Bay Area 

• Payment must be enclosed for orders of 

10 books or less. 

• I have enclosed: 

□ check □money order TOTAL AMOUNT OF PURCHASE 



TOTAL 

Sales Tax (Calif residents only) 
Shipping Charges 



AMT 



(415) 548-2805 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST 
TWX 910-366-7277 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY STATE ZIP PHONE 

SHIPPING CHARGES Shipping charges for bulk orders to be arranged. 

D 4th class (no charge, allow 3-4 weeks within USA, not applicable to discounted orders) 

□ $.50 per book. UPS (allow 10 days) in the U.S. 

D $1.50 per book, special rush shipment by air in the U.S. 



□ All foreign orders, $3.00 per book, for air shipment 
*These books are scheduled to be published during 1978. 

Please notify me when they are available: 

□ 23002 Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable 
D 24002 General Ledger 

Price increase scheduled for July 1, 1978 



Please send information on: 

□ pricing, ordering, and titles 

available after 6/30/78 
D initial dealer consignments 
D dealer and school discounts 
D foreign distributors pa 



CIRCLE 118 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Computer animation: 
Out of the lab and 
onto the tv screen 



BY ARTHUR BELLAIRE 

Are television commercials looking and 
sounding more and more alike? Or does 
it just seem that way? 

From a technique standpoint, how 
many party situations, cookouts, fun on 
the beach, quick cuts to happy faces, 
slices-of-life, pitchpeople can a viewer 
absorb in a single evening? Individually, 
many are right on and, without a doubt, 
highly effective. But once they leave the 
clients' screening rooms and mix into the 
swirl and clutter of the real world, how 
many others become blurred and forgot- 
ten before the next station break? Even 
many spots in the new bury-your-com- 
petitor school of comparison and adver- 
tising risk losing more in confusion and 
sameness of look than gaining in persua- 
sion. 

We once considered technique second- 
ary to basic message — still a healthy way 
to think. But what good is a basic mes- 
sage if some kind of distinctive vehicle 
doesn't drive it deeply and firmly into the 
viewer's mixed-up brain? With heavily 
advertised products such as foods, bev- 
erages, drugs and toiletries, how you show 
it and say it on television has to border 
on basic, because here is the tap on the 
shoulder that determines whether or not 
your commercial will be noticed at all, 
let alone absorbed. 

Which leads to Question No. 2: To 
what extent, then, is the success of a 
product advertised on tv due to sheer 
weight of media dollars as compared with 
message and technique? We may never 
know. 

Computers Can Solve Creative Problems 

What we do know is that in television 
we have a medium of limitless technolog- 
ical possibilities to depict every kind of 
scene and symbol the human mind can 
possibly comprehend. The question is, 
after this first quarter-century of using 
the medium to move products and ser- 
vices, how far beyond the obvious have 
we really explored into the myriad hidden 
opportunities which may help us moti- 
vate with pictures? This piece concerns 
one such possibility which has recently 
come of age — computer animation. Never 
to be considered a replacement for solid 
and proven live action, computer anima- 
tion is nevertheless perfect and available 



for those special times when an unusual 
creative problem may demand an un- 
usual solution. Or when a going, success- 
ful campaign needs a change-of-pace 
variation to sustain interest. 

Allan Stanley, president of Dolphin 
Productions, biggest and busiest of the 
computer animation firms and a company 
that has helped advance this incredible 
technique to sophisticated proportions, 
prefers to call the process electronically- 
generated animation, which in no way 
replaces conventional eel animation, but 
carries its range of graphics forms into 
unlimited dimensions. 

For the technically oriented, the Dol- 
phin system offers the unique capability 
of animation in real time. The output is 
in standard color video available for im- 
mediate use and /or integration into other 
color video material. The process is com- 
pletely interactive, permitting constant 
esthetic evaluation and direction while 
the motion and sequence dynamics are 
being set. The input is artist-prepared 
graphics, drawings, charts, etc. Because 
the system is "real time," it can be in- 
stantaneously mixed with standard color 
video signals, including live action, com- 



ing from studio color cameras, pre-re- 
corded videotape and a duplicate anima- 
tion system. 

■ Or for the layman like me, what hap- 
pens on the screen is figures twist, 
squeeze, stretch, zoom in or out, strobe 
against three-dimensional fields. "We 
have the ability," adds Mr. Stanley, "to 
create motion on any element of a picture 
independently, even to colorize any of 
these elements while in motion indepen- 
dently." The motion can happen at any 
speed. Backgrounds can be bursting stars, 
explosions of dots — you name it. An ex- 
pensive, Hollywood-type set can be sim- 
ulated through keying behind a live sing- 
er. All this happening as experts at the 
15-ft.-long console push the right but- 
tons and plug in and unplug the right 
lines. And it all comes out either on two- 
inch videotape or 35mm film. Your choice. 
Many of these effects, if attempted op- 
tically and with eel animation, would be 
prohibitive in price. Yet Dolphin delivers 
the final commercial within two days (if 
on tape) at a cost to the advertiser, they 
say, about one-half the price of the av- 
erage commercial. 

Wild Graphics Teach Children to Count 

Fifty per cent of the studio's output re- 
lates to commercials. The remainder goes 
to networks and stations for the advertis- 
ing of programs, program titles, station 
ID packages, in-company training films 
and pr presentations, sales and motiva- 
tional shows. It recently contracted with 
a state educational department for teach- 
ing the new metric system. And, for Chil- 
dren's Television Workshop, here's where 
most of those wild and intriguing graphics 
come from in teaching our kids how to 




u 



Mame" ad uses rhythmic interplay of computer-animated artwork and musical score. 



88 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





Different parts of new Granada join together in seconds. 



Computer animation brings vitality to ABC Sports logo. 



count and spell. For these various contri- 
butions, the studio is already sporting 27 
national and international awards. 

A Dolphin commercial for Ford Gra- 
nada, through J. Walter Thompson, fea- 
tures the engineering design of the new 
car, with different parts of the car joining 
together into the complete unit within 
seconds — all from a single piece of art- 
work — and positions the car against a 
glamorous background. 

The studio worked entirely from Bob 
Peak's print ad artwork to bring into mo- 
tion spectacular computer-animated com- 
mercials for the movie version of "Mame." 
Working against the "Mame" musical 
track, the various still elements inter- 
played rhythmically, catching a degree of 
excitement more conventional methods 
could not have matched. 

Dolphin's computer animation has also 
brought new meaning and life to once- 
static corporate identities such as logos 
and slogans, zooming them into motion, 
often swirling behind, in front of, and 
around them intriguing symbols to impart 
consciously or subconsciously positive 
new moods and impressions. And when 
we notice sadly the too-quick handling 
so many packages receive in the final 
three seconds of so many product com- 
mercials these days, it's interesting to 
imagine whether any added sales may 
have resulted had the package been al- 
lowed, say, six seconds at the end in 
which to build, to move, and suddenly 
(while remaining literal) to become part 
of a totally different kind of scene. For 
Eveready batteries (William Esty /Film- 
Fair) a series of flashing, electric-like 
symbols fashioned through the computer 
animation technique suggested far more 
than just a battery with a name on it. 

Dolphin's five-story townhouse head- 
quarters on New York's upper east side 
contains just about every kind of video 
equipment you'll ever see in one town- 
house. "But any company can buy equip- 
ment," says Stanley. "What's important 
are the people. We can prepare original 
artwork and have our creative staff take 



it from initial concept and storyboard to 
completion and delivery. We also welcome 
the creative input of agencies where, 
working together, we can program the 
various images into a sequence of motion 
that can be endlessly repeated and refined 
until complete satisfaction is attained be- 
fore it is stored. As one of the agency 
people put it, 'It's discovering and partic- 
ipating in a new level of creative expres- 



» >» 



sion 

Fun or not, from the standpoint of pure, 
no-nonsense advertising value, is there 
more here than meets the senses? Are 
such fantastic mixtures of symbols with 
still photos, artwork and/or live action 
(or just the symbols by themselves) one 
answer — even when used on an intermit- 
tent, change-of-pace basis — to the prob- 
lem of sameness and boredom? 

Symbols vs. Literal Presentation 

More important, is it possible that the 
right combination of symbols, whatever 
they may be, integrated into the selling 
act within a commercial, could stimulate 
the viewer into accepting more of a sell- 
ing proposition than through live action 
alone, which spares her the chore of 
thinking? Why isn't it logical that at least 
a temporary injection of the symbolic may 
even heighten the motivating powers of 
the commercial over the literal presenta- 



tion? Could be we worry too much about 
sparing our viewer the need to concen- 
trate, and even help her mind go stale, 
when the more challenging mental exer- 
cise which the symbolic approach demands 
may be the very thing she is waiting for. 

This is obviously beginning to get too 
deep for me, but there are a number of 
research geniuses making it big in this 
business grinding out scores on total com- 
mercial performance whose time may be 
more profitably occupied taking us all 
back to "go" and explaining, one more 
time, how the customer's mind really 
works. 

The point is, no amount of enthusiasm 
for computer animation or any other off- 
beat graphic idea is intended to suggest 
the technique as a steady substitute for 
what we know is working — straightfor- 
ward, down-to-earth, nose-to-nose, live- 
action commercials for live-action view- 
ers. Yet here and there, from time to 
time, now and then, occasionally, why 
shouldn't a willingness to reach out and 
try unusual approaches be a constructive 
way to freshen up the commercial look? 
Perhaps we can learn something in the 
bargain about this dynamic advertising 
medium we may never fully understand. 

Reprinted with permission from Advertising Age, June 2, 1975. 




Flashing, electric symbols say Eveready better than ever. 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



89 



The Goodyear blimp — that charming reminder of a bygone era — has joined the ranks of the electronic media. 




w 





W V 





WW 





By Marc Treib 



You don't see many blimps around any- 
more. Actually, you never did. Although 
lighter-than-air-craft date to the Montgolfier 
brothers' balloon of 1 783 and perhaps back 
even further, they reached their apogee in 
the twenties and thirties when huge dirigi- 
bles like the rigid-frame Hindenburg plied 
the skies of the Atlantic on trans-world jour- 
neys. But the explosion of the Hindenburg 
in 1937 at Lakehurst, N.J., brought the his- 
tory of these airships to a resounding close. 
Almost. During the Second World War, a 
new breed of airship, the blimp, served and 
served well for escorting convoys and 
maintaining submarine surveillance. 
Lighter than air, with no rigid frame, filled 
with helium (instead of the explosive hy- 
drogen of the dirigible era), it could travel 
relatively quietly, had a great range, and 
could hover. After the war, however, not too 
much was heard of or about even the 
blimps. 

Today, according to Tom Riley, who 
travels with the 22-person Goodyear- 
Columbia blimp crew, there are six blimps 
operating in the world. Four of these, the 
"aerial ambassadors," are the products of 
the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company of 
Akron, Ohio, and serve primarily as public 
relations vehicles both in their commanding 
form and the messages they broadcast. 
One of the remaining two is located in West 
Germany where it serves as promotion ve- 
hicle for a beer company, and the last is in 
Japan. The difference in purpose is worth 
noting. 

The first promotion or advertising that the 
blimps displayed almost 45 years ago was 
the lettering and winged foot of the 
Goodyear logo. Later on, came banners up 
to 200 feet long, trailing behind the blimp 
like those behind biplanes which still fre- 
quent beaches inducing watchers to use 

Forties blimp had frames consisting of 
individual bulbs in the manner of Trans-Lux 
news signs. 



certain suntan lotions or go see a certain 
attraction. In a press release, Goodyear 
even mentions that in "the 1930s a loud- 
speaker was attached to the airship to per- 
mit voice contact with persons on the 
ground. The practice was short-lived, how- 
ever, because people didn't like the 'voice 

from the sky.' " 

Later on, neon tubing was used, carried 
by special lightweight metal frames and 
fixed to the sides of the blimp. "Known as 
' Neon-o-gram,' this sign had the neon tub- 
ing shaped in such a manner as to permit 
the formation of any number or letter. Each 
sign consisted of ten individual frames." 
These sight-boards were used until the 
Second World War. After the war, frames 
consisting of individual bulbs, in the manner 
of the Trans-Lux news sign devices, were 
used. The color was limited to one — 
white — while the image was limited to 
basic messages. It was a major jump to the 
"skytacular" signs of today. 

In the mid-sixties, under the instigation of 



Goodyear's vice president of public rela- 
tions, Robert H. Lane, the new program for 
the "skytacular" and "super-skytacular 
night-signs" was developed. The "skytacu- 
lar" was to be a system by which a light 
board could produce and broadcast mes- 
sages in color and animation, freed from 
the restrictions of monochrome and text. 
The first version was installed on the former 
Mayflower in 1966. 

The "super-skytacular night-sign" fea- 
tured on the Columbia is the most elaborate 
version of the concept. It features some 
7,560. 1 75-miliamp bulbs operating under a 
28-volt system. The electricity is produced 
by a special jet turbine engine mounted in 
its own pod behind the cabin which pro- 
duces the 500-amp 28 volts required for 
operating the sign. All the electronic 
equipment for running the messages is 
housed within the small gondola % of the 
blimp itself, although it only broadcasts 

Thirties blimp with neon tubing. Sign was called 
"Neon-o-gram." 



'**&& 



m 




< J ?WX^'v!v.v!v'v';! X-X X*C*'v>23yv&"' 



: >x : x : x : : : : ; : : : : : : : : : : : : : : x : : : : : : : x : x : x : : : x:x'x^x:x:x:::x 

&%%#■';. ■■■ W. ..■■:{.::.■.• ■. ;-, 


iiillimrnnnnnnnnnnnDDiL 


X<*£vX;X;X;X;X;X;XXXXX;*XXXvX'>SX-Xv^ 

wHEKvX-X-X'X-X*; 
xm&x&y'ysysyr *•••*• •-•.^r. 













90 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



pre-recorded tapes. The light bulbs are 
fixed directly to the sides of the blimp and 
measure approximately 25" high by 105" 
long. The lamps are mounted within a spe- 
cial reflector and have either a red, blue, 
yellow, or green filter to control the color, 
and are connected by almost 80 miles of 
wiring. The variability of the image is virtu- 
ally limitless. 

The Columbia is capable of carrying such 
animation as "a golfer driving his ball to- 
ward the green, then putting the final dis- 
tance to the hole ... a game of table 
tennis ... a football player making good on 
a field goal . . . a sharp-shooting basketball 
player scoring on a foul shot and a long field 
goal attempt ... a baseball player rapping 
a solid line drive, and almost taking off the 
pitchers head in the process." 

Special animated messages in color 
have been developed for the holidays. 
"Santa, his sleigh and reindeer flash across 
the Yuletide skies and the Magi and their 
camels follow the Star of Bethlehem ... a 
turkey runs to escape an ax-wielding man 
intent on securing Thanksgiving dinner 
... a youngster lights a giant Fourth of 
July firecracker which explodes to form 
an American flag." 

All the tapes which operate the signs are 
produced by the Night Sign Laboratory in 
Akron, home of the Goodyear company. A 
light pen is used to trace the designs on a 
cathode ray tube; the designs are then 
processed by the computer and re- 
corded on magnetic data tape. 

A typical six-minute tape consists of 
40 million pieces or bits of "on-off" informa- 
tion which, when run through special solid- 
state electronic readers aboard the airship, 
control lamp and color selection and the 
speed at which messages are run. 

These tapes are sent to the blimps for 
broadcasting. Although there is a Local 
Control Unit with each blimp, it is rarely 
used, except to produce limited local copy. 




Night Sign Laboratory at Goodyear headquarters 
in Akron. A light pen traces night- sign designs 
on cathode ray tube. Designs are then processed 
by computer and recorded on magnetic data tape. 




mvmm 





II 



Typical night-signs. 




For the most part, the word (and image) is 
delivered from Akron unto the blimp. 

Although the possibilities for advertising 
via the blimp are almost limitless, about 
three-quarters of its messages are given 
over to public-service messages. Each 

year, the blimp is besieged by requests for 
blimpcasts ranging from appeals for Easter 
Seals, the Heart Fund and the Cancer So- 
ciety, to birthday greeting requests. For the 
most part, broadcasts are limited to such 
messages as "Buckle seat belts," "Drive 
safely," and "Prevent forest fires." The 
remaining one-fourth of the time is 
reserved for advertising Goodyear prod- 
ucts. But even then it's soft-sell. 

The Columbia, which flies the West 
Coast/ divides its year in half. For six 
months it flies in the Los Angeles area or 
undergoes maintenance at a service facility 
in Santa Anna, where it is painted, the night- 
sign repaired, bulbs replaced, engines 
overhauled, etc. (A blimp's bag with no in- 
terior frame is replaced every five to seven 
years.) For the remaining six months, it 
takes to different skies. This year's tour, 
from June to November, included San 
Francisco, Portland, Spokane (for Expo 
74), Seattle, and back to the San Francisco 
Bay Area in time to broadcast aerial views 
of football games during the fall season. 

Have there been any complaints about 
violation of privacy from the skies? Surpris- 
ingly few, aocording to Tom Riley, And 
these are usually when the blimp is hover- 
ing for a game or special occasion. Much 
quieter, and less annoying, than helicop- 
ters, the blimp is usually regarded as a wel- 
come and fascinating addition to the eve- 
ning skies. 



Reprinted from Print. Copyright 1 975 by RC Publications, 
New York. NY 



*The three- other Goodyear blimps are the America, based in 
Houston, the Mayflower in Miami, and the Europa in Italy. 



MAY JUNE 1978 



91 



Color 
Graphics 

with a 
Light-Pen 



Tom Dwyer 
Margot Critchfield 




One of the most popular exhibits at 
the 1977 Personal Computing Con- 
ference in Atlantic City was the color 
display demonstrated by the Computer 
Mart of New Jersey. It featured a 
"menu-selecting" program written by 
Bob Lindley for the Compucolor 8051 
personal computer. 

Fig. 1 shows a picture of output from 
the first part of Bob's program. The 
picture on the screen explains how to 
use a light-pen to input information to 
the computer program (written in 
BASIC). Fig. 2 shows a later part in the 
demo where the light-pen has been 
used to select both the colors (white, 
green, and red) and a drawing mode 
(continuous lines) to create a zig-zag 
"doodle." In Fig. 3, the "box" mode has 
been selected to create a more struc- 
tured pattern consisting of rectangles 
of various dimensions. 

Both colors and drawing modes are 
selected by pointing the light-pen to 
various "menu" positions around the 
border of the graphic drawing area. By 
picking up the X-Y coordinates of the 
pen, the program "knows" what part of 



Tom Dwyer, Margot Critchfield, University of 
Pittsburgh, PA 15260. 



the menu was selected. 

Bob's program is rather long, and 
interested readers are advised to 
contact him at the Computer Mart. The 
principles behind use of the light-pen 
can be explained with a simpler 
program, however. We'll give one here, 
taken from the book BASIC and the 
Personal Computer (Addison -Wesley 
Co., Reading, MA 01867). Additional 
details about programming color 
graphics of this kind can be found in 
Chapter 10 of the book. 



Using Light-Pens as Input Devices 

A light-pen is a cigar-shaped device 
with a photo-cell at the tip, and a wired 
connection to the computer. When the 
photo-cell is held against the face of 
the CRT graphics display, the cell 
detects the light coming from a special 
"position-reporting pattern" on the 
screen. The X and Y coordinates of the 
position, being touched by the pen, are 
then sent to the computer. Fig. 4 il- 
lustrates the setup. 




92 



Figure 4 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Examples of Color Graphics with a Light Pen 






- 










Figure 1 Instructions foi using light pen is showi 
beginning of the pr< igram 



In drawing mode, the light pen can be usee 
select colors and draw a doodle iny other figun 





Figure 3. The "box " mode can be used to r - I patt( 

of squares or rectangles 



Figure 7 An infinite loop can be used to generate an 

ellipse or other snap- 




«-r- 


Til 




&V» * 




""^ 




m> 




/f* 







fc.v 



f if ji if i • 8 Anothei example ol a 
a diff( ■'« 'fit ellipse 



f igure ( ) rhis bouquet of flowei a i Ii iwn using the 
light pen as an electronic paint brush 




This gives the user a very human- 
oriented way of providing X-Y input 
data to a program. To illustrate how 
this works, let's look at a BASIC 
program that uses the light-pen on the 
Compucolor computer. The pen is 
used to input the values of X1 and Y1 . A 
vector is drawn from XO, YO, to X1, Y1, 
where XO and YO are values calculated 
within the program. As long as the pen 
is activated, the program continues to 
draw vectors from successively chang- 
ing values of XO and YO to whatever X1 , 
Y1 is sent from the pen. If the pen is not 
activated, no new values of X1, Y1 are 
picked up from the pen and no values 
of XO, YO are calculated— the user can 
sit and think. Fig. 5 shows an example 
of output from the program. 




X1, Y1 points 
input with 
light-pen 
(line 130) 



Figure 5 



Figure 6 



Touching or not touching the 
forward portion of the Compucolor pen 
can be programmed to activate it, that 
is, either the "finger up" or the "finger 
down" position can mean "draw." The 
motion of the finger need not be very 
large, as shown in Fig. 6. How this 
finger action is detected by a program 
will be made clearer by looking at the 
listing of our program. Here's the 
listing followed by a line-by-line ex- 
planation. 



XO, YO points 
calculated in 
program, (lines 
305-315) 



Listing of Light-Pen Crayon (with Ellipse) 

10 PRINT"LIGHT-PEN CRAYON— DRAWS ON FINGER DOWN" 

20 PRINT"KEY IN BACKGROUND COLOR"; :PLOT30:INPUT DSPLOT12 

30 REM DRAW BORDER 

40 PLOT30:PLOT16:PLOT29:PLOT23 

50 PLOT2:PLOT0:PLOT0:PLOT242:PLOT159:PLOT0:PLOT159:PLOT191 

60 PLOT0:PLOT1 91 :PLOT0:PLOT0:PLOT255 

70 F=0 

80 REM IS FINGER UP? 

90 A=INP(251) AND 192 
100 IF A=192THEN 90 

110 REM FINGER IS NOW DOWN, GET PEN XY 

120 FOR Q=1 TO 100:NEXT Q 
130 X1-INP(252):Y1=INP(253) 
150 IF X1>157THEN X1=157 
160 IF XK2THEN X1=2 
170 IF Y1>187THEN Y1=187 
180 IF YK4 THEN Y1=4 
190 XC=INT(X1/2):YC=INT(Y1/4) 
200 Y1=191-Y1 

210 REM DRAW VECTOR 

220 IF FO0 THEN 250 

230 X0=X1:Y0=Y1 

250 PLOT3:PLOTXC:PLOTYC 

260 PLOT2:PLOTX0:PLOTY0 

270 PLOT242:PLOTX1 :PLOTY1 :PLOT255 

300 F=1 

305 R=R+.1 

310 X0=70*SIN(R)+80 

315 Y0=86*COS(R)+96 

400 GOTO 90 



Explanation of the Program 

Line Number Explanation 



20 



40 




50-60 

70 

90-100 



PLOT 30 means "the next plot code will determine a new 
background color." INPUT D$ is a "dummy": this 
statement just stops and lets you use the keyboard to 
specify the color without generating a syntax error in 
BASIC. PLOT 12 means "erase the page." What this 
actually does is fill the screen with blanks of the new 
background color. 

Sets up a background and foreground color so that the 
border will always be white on black. PLOT 29 means "next 
plot code will be a foreground color." Once the program is 
running, the user can change the colors of vectors by 
pressing special color select buttons on the keyboard. 
Border is drawn all around the edges using vector mode. 
First time flag (see line 220). 

Finds out if pen is activated or not: "let A = the contents of 
input port #251 logically ANDed with the number 192." 
Explanation: First you have to know that input port #251 
looks like this when the finger is up, 

FINGER UP MODE 



11 XX xxxx 




and like this when the finger is down, 



FINGER DOWN MODE 



01 xx xxxx 



« • # 




Note: x means either or 1 , that is, it's not important for our 
purposes at this point— these are "don't care" bits. 
Secondly, logical ANDing does the following: 



94 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



120 



130 

150,160, 

170,180 



190 



200 



220,230 



250 



260,270 
305-315 



400 




AND 0-0 

AND 1 = 

1 ANDO - 
1 AND 1 = 1 
(no carries) 

To examine just the first two bits, we do the AND (also 
called a "bit-wise AND") between the bits in port #251 and 
the pattern 11000000 (which is the binary equivalent of 
decimal 192). 

Hxxxxxx = Port 251 when finger is up 
AND 11000000 = 192 decimal 



11000000 = 192 decimal 

Olxxxxxx = Port 251 when finger is down 
AND 11000000 = 192 decimal 



01000000 = 192 

The test in line 100 therefore means "if finger is up, keep 
looping back to 90, that is do not proceed with the 
program." 

Means "do nothing 1 00 times." This empty loop allows time 
for data to transfer; otherwise "stale" values may be 
collected from the input ports holding X-Y values from the 
light pen. 

Get X1 and Y1 from input ports #252 and #253 (pen). 
If pen is pointed outside the screen area it will send values 
outside the proper range (0-159, 0-191) causing wrap- 
around effects and other confusing errors. These IF 
statements "push" the values into a slightly smaller range 
(2-157, 4-187) so vectors will not be drawn over the border. 
XC and YC are calculated to give a character "cursor" 
position corresponding to the light-pen coordinates X1 and 
Y1 (see line 250). 

The Y coordinates from the light-pen are designated 0-191 
starting at the upper left of the screen. Y coordinates for 
vectors must be designated 0-191 starting at the lower left. 
This calculation translates the Y values from the light-pen 
to proper plotting values for Y. 

F = only for the first vector to be drawn. At that point X0 
and Y0 are not calculated yet, and they = 0. This would 
cause the first vector to always be drawn from the lower-left 
corner (coordinates 0,0) to the light-pen point. Line 230 
causes the first vector to be drawn as a point at the light-pen 
X,Y. 

PLOT 3 means "move the cursor to the following values." 
The next two plot codes must designate X and Y values 
suitable for characters; that is, 0-79 and 0-47. 
Draw vector from X0,Y0 to X1, Y1. 

Calculate new values for X0, Y0. In this version, X0 and Y0 
define an ellipse. Any curve or line can be substituted to 
create variations. Note: Simply making X0 = X1 and Y0 =Y1 
at this point will give a completely user-defined continuous 
line following the light pen. 

Go back and check if pen is activated before drawing next 
vector. 



Baltimore 
& 

Washington 



& 



<z 



^ 



'A 



For Friendly 

Help and 

Advice 



ETC> 



1 3 A Allegheny Ave., Towson, Md. 

(301)296-0520 

9330 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, Md. 

(301)588-3748 

OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK 



CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




IT'S A GtlAT KG COMPUTE! WOttO 

THE 
COMPUTER CORNER 



mm 



• SOL - A N«w Oawn la Moral 
• IMSAJ B0S0 
• POLY -M 
• TDL Z40 

• Mamoriaa b I/O 



This program contains an infinite loop. 
It can be easily halted on the Com- 
pucolor by pressing the break key, or 
terminated by pressing the line feed 
key. Examples of output produced by 
this program are shown in Fig. 7 and 8. 
You can see the outline of the ellipse 
generated by the program, and the 
modifications made by the light-pen. 
The ellipse-generating feature can be 
removed from the program as explain- 
ed in the "Note" after the line 305-315 
explanation. This makes the light-pen 
act as an electronic "paint brush." Fig. 



9 shows an example of a bouquet of 
flowers drawn in this way. 

The Compucolor is an ingenious 
machine, with features that make it one 
of the most fascinating personal com- 
puters developed to date. The BASIC is 
also very good (it has real string arrays, 
for example), and it's permanently 
stored in ROM. A user group was 
recently announced in this magazine, 
so new and better ideas on computing 
in "glorious color" will undoubtedly be 
coming along. Keep your eye peeled 
for the rainbow. ■ 



• Computer Book Sorvtca 
• Magnetic Tapaa ft Diafca 
• Ful Una of Magaxinaa 
• Brain Gamaa b f»ui 

aWorfcanooa Cr Club Information 



Vwt THE COMPUTER CORNER for al your 
compuiar naaoa. Stop in and browvaa - you'd Nka our 

poraonali 



^ 



THE COMPUTER CORNER 

White Plaint Mall - Upper Level 

200 Hamilton Avenue 
White Plaint. New York 10601 

Tel: (914) WHY -DATA 

Amplo Parking 

10-6 Dairy h Saturday 

104 Thursday 



>k 



r* w-e i nursee U <^- 1 



CIRCLE 133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



95 



An Interview With 
Star Wars Animator Larry Cuba 



















l 






A 




















j? 



' - ■ V: 



■• * 


















First appeared in Starlog magazine, Number 
12, March 1978. 



By DAVID HUTCHISON 

On the shifting 
sands of Tatooine nestles the small cot- 
tage of "Old Ben" Kenobi. Inside, Luke 
Skywalker and Ben listen to Princess 
Leia's plea for help via a holographic 
recording implanted in R2-D2. Also 
within the feisty 'droid's memory banks 
are the technical read-outs of the battle 
station Death Star. These plans may 
sway the balance of survival for Prin- 
cess Leia's people in the fight against 
the Empire! 

The man responsible for the physical 
creation of the little 'droid's memory 
readout is Larry Cuba. The sequence in 
the briefing room in which the sche- 
matic view of the Death Star appears on 
a huge electronic screen, displaying a 
simulated point of view of a pilot 
maneuvering straight down a trench on 
the surface of the Death Star to a two- 
meter wide thermal exhaust port, was 
accomplished by means of computer 
animation. 

Computer animation is a process 
whereby the illusion of movement is 
bestowed upon inanimate objects by 
electronic means. In eel animtion, an 
artist must draw each frame of film by 
hand. Here the computer creates each 
frame which is then photographed and 
projected. (Or videotaped and tele- 
vised.) 

With Star Wars already in produc- 
tion, George Lucas issued a call for bids 
from companies and individuals to pro- 
duce various bits of instrumentation 
animation — in particular the briefing 
room sequence. A number of computer 
artists and eel animators responded. 

Some of the computer people had 
very sophisticated equipment capable of 
producing colored and shaded planes 
and forms. One computer artist even 
wanted to do most of the model se- 
quences entirely on computers. George 
spoke with each of the artists and 
viewed their work, but Larry seemed to 
understand the kind of look that George 
wanted for the film. 

When Larry was assigned the com- 
puter realization of the Death Star plans 
for the briefing room scene, he was 
asked to have the sequence photo- 
graphed on 35mm film so the plans 
could be rear-projected during the film- 
ing of the briefing room scene with the 
rebel pilots. At UICC Larry would be 
using the Vector General 3D3I display 
and a PDP 1145 minicomputer. The se- 

Scene 135 from Star Wars with the rebel 
starpilots and navigators viewing the com- 
puter readout of the Death Star plans. The 
success of the rebellion depends on some 
small weakness in the Death Star's design. 



quence would be filmed off of the Vec- 
tor General screen with a standard 
Mitchell 35mm camera rigged with an 
animation motor. The only thing lack- 
ing was the trench. John Dykstra's crew 
had not yet gotten around to building it. 

John Dykstra and his team of model- 
makers at Industrial Light & Magic 
(ILM) had begun to assemble the basic 
modular molds from which they would 
construct the model of the trench. The 
basic molds were constructed about two 
feet square in six different types. From 
these molds hundreds of casts were 
made in polyurethane foam. These 
modular sections were then cut up and 
assembled in a variety of basically ran- 
dom configurations to establish the 
sides and bottom of the trench as well as 
part of the Death Star's surface area. 

Larry took samples of each of the six 
to Chicago to construct his own com- 
puter trench. "There was no reason to 
have the computer sequence match the 
actual model precisely, since the au- 
dience would perceive the trench more 
in terms of a texture rather than an ab- 
solute configuraton," Larry explains. 
"ILM was chopping up the modular 
pieces to assemble the trench, so I did 
the same thing— building up the trench 
in the computer memory just like they 
were doing with the real thing. 

"I photographed the six modules and 
traced them onto the Vector General 
data tablet with its electronic pen. By 
pressing the pen to the various points on 
the photographs, the modules were digi- 
tized — their x and y components entered 
into the computer." (The x component 
refers to the horizontal axis and the y to 
the vertical axis.) The z coordinate was 
entered manually. 

The z coordinate (depth) was limited 
to about four or five different levels, so 
when entering the x and y components 
on the electronic tablet, Larry punched 
one of five buttons that he had pro- 
grammed to represent the z coordinate 
at various levels. 

"Then a program was written so that 
I could call up (from the computer's 
memory) the raw sections and combine 
them into the trench." The computer 
trench consisted of about fifty U-shaped 
sections (the two sides and bottom of 
the trench make a U). Larry called up 
sections of the modules, stretched or 
moved them around to build up the 
trench bit by bit. "The trench informa- 
tion was stored away and another pro- 
gram written that would call up the sec- 
tions sequentially, in the perspective of 
a pilot flying down the trench, and cue 
the camera to photograph a frame. I 
managed to get about thirty frames an 
hour into the camera once the program 
was running smoothly." 



CO 

w. 

o 
o 



(A 

c 



o 
o 



On the screen the Star Wars audience 
sees the computer realization of the 
trench sequence in the form of a "wire- 
cage" model rather than as a series of 
solid forms and planes. One of the early 
problems in computer graphics was the 
wire cage versus solid form display. At 
first computer programs could only call 
up figures in wire cage format. It was 
only a few years ago that programs were 
devised to remove the "hidden lines;" 
the program had to determine which 
lines would be "hidden" by a front sur- 
face or plane and remove those lines. 

"When George Lucas specified the 
kind of animation he wanted for the 
scene, he knew enough about computer 
animation to ask for a true perspective 
without the 'hidden lines' removed. He 
wanted the trench and the Death Star to 
appear as wire cage figures with all lines 
and vertices visible. George thought that 
this sort of image would suggest 'com- 
puter animation' by having a very me- 
chanical look." 




The Vector General Series 3's capabilities 
range from a simple two-dimensional graphics 
display to complex 3D transformations inclu- 
ding scale, rotation about all three axes 
and variable intensity for depth cuing. 

Science fiction as a genre often pro- 
jects into the world of future technol- 
ogy. Larry Cuba suggests that in the 
future computers will be able to 
generate pictures of such quality that 
they will look as though they had been 
photographed by a camera. In the case 
of Star Wars, it was thought that such 
photographic realism might be confus- 
ing to the audience, so a wire cage 
model was specified so that the audience 
would readily understand that the 
images were to have been created by a 
machine. 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



97 




From start to finish, 'he entire se- 
quence lasts only about 40 seconds on 
the screen. It took Larry and his two 
assistants T.J. O'Donnell and Tom 
Chomicz about two months to supply 
two minutes of animation. 

The enormous number of points and 
lines on the wire cage figures that make 
up the representation of trench seem to 
flow with almost simultaneous preci- 
sion. The computer doesn't handle all 
of these points simultaneously, but 
rather sequentially. It happens very fast, 
certainly, and it can appear to the eye to 
be happening all at the same time, which 
would be the case while observing a real- 
time system. A real-time system means 
that the computer is drawing successive 
frames as fast as thirty-per -second, 
which is what is needed to see the thing 
move smoothly on a TV screen. "There 
is a limit to how many of those points a 
computer can draw in a thirtieth of a 
second and in the case of the Star Wars 
animation with its true perspective im- 




Larry Cuba's setup for the Star Wars computer animation, with the PDP 
1145 racked in the rear, the Vector General screen and Mitchell camera. 




Dolphin Productions in New York is the home 
of many award-winning TV spots including a 
first place Gold Award in animation at the 
International Film and Television Festival. 

age as opposed to parallel projection 
(one without depth cuing), I went way 
beyond that limit. Consequently, you 
take longer than a thirtieth of a second 
to put an image on a frame of film. 
Since the Star Wars sequence was being 
filmed it didn't need to exist in real time 
anyway. In this case it took about two 
minutes to complete each frame. M 

There are, of course, displays more 
sophisticated than the Vector General, 
that could have computed the perspec- 
tive more readily and probably done the 
flight down the trench in real time; the 
perspective transformation would be 
wired into the hardware itself, rather 
than generated by a separate program. 

There are systems today that can 
generate shaded color planes in real 
time. One such system was developed by 
General Electric and built at a cost of 
$2,000,000 to train astronauts to land 
on the Moon. Similar systems are used 
to train airline pilots to land under a 
variety of emergency conditions. 

Basically, Larry's system consisted of 
a $50,000 Vector General 3D3I graphics 



terminal with its dials and electronic 
data tablet, a $30,000 PDP 1145 mini- 
computer and standard alpha-numeric 
keyboard. "I set up a Mitchell 35mm 
camera with an animation motor in 
front of the screen and connected it to 
the computer so that a signal from the 
program could trigger the animation 
motor when the image was complete. 

"The full length of the trench con- 
sisted of about fifty of these U-shaped 
sections. Well, you couldn't bring all 
fifty of these sections up on the screen at 
the same time. The computer brought 
up five sections at a time and it would 
take about 24 frames (one second) to go 
through one U-shaped section of the 
trench. 

"So it was this continual shuffle of 
sections; never having more than five on 
at any one time. Now, of course, this 
means that ones at the back just sort of 
pop on. I had hoped to be able to just 
fade them in, bit by bit, by manipula- 
ting the intensity control to make them 
appear more slowly. But there wasn't 
enough time. 

'The entire sequence was shot once, 
and that was it. Early on, I had a 
deadline of June first, but in early April 
the deadline was moved up to May fifth 
— lopping off three weeks. I had antici- 
pated another six. I suggested that they 
wait and shoot the sequence in England 
blue screen; they could print the com- 
puter effects in later and have the thing 
perfect. But no, they wanted to rear pro- 
ject it so that the guys in the briefing 
room would play to the images while 
they were talking. Well, my first take 
worked. There were a couple of prob- 
lems, but they edited around them." 

The briefing room sequence is the 
only scene in Star Wars in which digital 
computer animation was used — other 
than for occasional background 
displays as part of the Death Star set. 
The effect was programmed in Tom 



Defanti's GRASS language. GRASS 
(GRAphics Symbiosis System) was writ- 
ten by Tom as part of his doctoral thesis 
for Ohio State. "It takes advantage of 
all the things that the Vector General 
does. The Vector General has a lot of 
image transformation hardware built 
into it, which allows you to do a lot of 
things in real time (with no processing 
delay). The language is designed for 
non-computer people. GRASS consists 
of very simple, straight forward com- 
mands which allow the students to work 
with the Vector General 3DI directly 
and manipulate the image by means of 
various dials and buttons. 

"GRASS as a language makes it 
super easy for an educator or student to 
come in and call up a stored image (a 
crystal, molecule, etc.) and by means of 
the language manipulate the image, say 
rotation by a single dial, programmed in 
GRASS. 

Suppose it is necessary to look at a 
particular molecule, a simple sugar for 
example, which has been named 
SUGAR. The molecule must be called 
up from the memory disk, shown on the 
screen, made larger or smaller and 
rotated for study. The commands would 
be typed out on the alpha-numeric 
keyboard in GRASS: 
GET DISK SUGAR 
SCALE SUGAR, DO 
ROTATE SUGAR, X, Dl 

By means of these three commands 
the required molecule appears on the 
screen, its size can be changed by turn- 
ing dial number "O," and it can be 
rotated around the x-axis (horizontal) 
by means of dial number " 1 . " 

Sounds easy? It is. And what fun it 
must be to sit there and play with shapes 
and movement! 

"The display can then be handled by 
an image processor — colored, mixed 
and recorded on standard videotape,3/4 
inch cassette or what have you." The 



98 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



"J 



isvwia* hi 



^iwuuvvu lupvo 111 vuviiiuil J t 



piuuvJ 



AAA IVpiUVV OUlliV V/A HIV 1U111V1 



IJKS A A. W 



mathematics, medicine and computer 
programs. 

Additionally, since the system oper- 
ates in real time, it has been used in per- 
formance in a live concert. Various 
monitors were spotted around the con- 
cert hall and one large Advent Video 
projector rigged. There are three per- 
formers. One performer programs the 
computer and operates the dials of the 
Vector General, creating the original 
image. The second manipulates the 
image processor and colorizes the image 
and the third performer creates music 
on an audio synthesizer to complete the 
video picture. A number of tapes have 
been made of these concerts and are 
generally available. PBS has broadcast 
a number of them. 

But is it art? Mr. Cuba maintains that 
the computer and its peripherals are 
tools, like brushes and pigments to a 
painter. That the manipulation of these 
tools is by the mind of man and just as 



A , 




boo 




& 


fc, ' 




ML 



tllllllllllllllll ■■■SSI ■ ■■ 



° 



!'5 

a 

o 



» » 



Digital's PDP 1 145 introduced in 1972 as a 
large "minicomputer," has an internal mem- 
ory of 262,144 characters and can handle 3.3 
million mathematical calculations per second. 
The programmer's panel is shown in close-up. 

selectively controlled as any other fine 
art. "The computer as a tool gives us a 
new way to explore motion, movement 
and the kind of imagery that we have 
never really had the power to explore . 

Will we see more computer animation 
in motion picture making? So far it has 
had a very limited use. There was a se- 
quence in UFO: Target Earth and 
Futureworld. All of the visuals aboard 
the ships in 2001 were eel animation 
masquerading as computer graphics. 
There were some in Demon Seed — one 
of the background display monitors 
ran a computer-generated model of an 
earthquake. 

Ultimately, there is the possibility 
that the technology of producing curved 
surfaces, details, colored and shaded 

MAY JUNE 1978 



complicated special effects that can be 
created only by photography and opti- 
cal effects. 

Already computer controlled cameras 
could usher in the era of setless cine- 
matography, in which the actors will 
work on giant blue-screen sets with all 
of the details added by computer (see 
Magicam in STARLOG # 9). 

Computer video technology has 
found its way into commercial televi- 
sion.* Numerous commercials and logos 
have made use of sophisticated video 
synthesizers to create, without the pho- 
tographic camera or lengthy eel anima- 
tion, the images required. 

In New York City, Dolphin Produc- 
tions uses the Scanimate video syn- 
thesizer to produce a good many of 
Madison Avenue's television commer- 
cials. 

There are only five such machines in 
the world — originally built by Com- 
puter Image Corp', in Denver. The 
essence of the machine is that you can 
put down any picture or image and 
move it, transform it, distort it, flip it, 
color it right in front of your eyes and 
record the result on video tape. 

The images can be saved, mixed or 
composited with other images and 
backgrounds so that little by little a 
completed sequence can be built up. 
Much of the credit must go to the enor- 
mous advances in recent years of com- 
puter controlled video tape editing. 
With the Scanimate equipment and the 
IVC 9000 video editing equipment a 
complete thirty second commercial may 
be produced in eight hours. The going 
rate, however, is $8,000 a day and up. 

The process starts with an image, 
either a Kodalith on a light box scanned 
by a TV camera or a TV studio camera 
image. The image is then transformed in 



into a ball, colored and positioned on 
the screen. 

Then the image can be moved and 
rolled in any manner around the screen. 
The Scanimate is operated by patching 
the video signal through various 
transforming modules in much the man- 
ner as an audio synthesizer. The 
movements are watched and tested at 
various settings until the client sees what 
he likes. Then it is recorded. Eventually 
a foreground and background reel is 
generated. At the end of the day the 
reels are composited, a sound track laid 
in and the client goes way with a com- 
plete TV spot tucked under his arm. 

The advantage of the system is that 
the client can immediately see what he is 
getting without waiting for various 
laboratories and optical houses to pro- 
cess film and create effects. 

Dolphin's use of the Scanimate equip- 
ment allows them to have almost any 
job out in two days at half the cost of 
the average commercial. Certainly if the 
effects of figures twisting, stretching, 
zooming, strobing, or squeezing against 
a "three-dimensional" background 
were attempted with eel animation, the 
cost would be prohibitive. 

The Scanimate, however, isn't intend- 
ed to compete with eel animation, but to 
produce visually effective animation on 
the spot, with the client watching. 

Certainly the potentials of computer 
animation have only been suggested. 
Much is still unrealized, waiting for the 
man with the ideas and visions to use 
these new tools. ■ 



Dolphin's famous Pepto-Bismol spot dramati- 
cally inflates a "hard-hat" afflicted with 
indigestion— all by means of the Scanimate 
electronic video synthesizer. 




a 
"5 
Q 

© 











With dazzling speed, the computer 

has reexplored a succession of 

blind alleys in the visual arts. But the 

future looks different. "Whatever the 

technical route, we are on the verge of 

realizing an entirely new artistic mode." 



Idols 




Computer 
Art 



t • '• M I* «'» l'» M »'» .'l »\ *'l •'• »'♦ •'» M «'* »'• M M #'» •'» *'» .'• •'• 

MniHIMIMMIMIMMMHIIMMMlMIMMIMI 



Wffi',' ■ - • ••••».»,• AMAM' ' • • • •••■'• •AVA'AW- • ' ' '•A'AWA"* ">-V 

I** > » t i i > i i , 1 1 > it MiHumm tYl \ tit I unit* I II I tt M M « 1 4 « 1 » » * » * V|»Y*Y» in 11*1 III I \l HXMiMim »Yn Y(Y* i >i *> n 1 1 * 1 1 i t fffi 










'"■''!■' 'r'' 



r ///// .... ..tHMMMMi:- • - - '••••••"»•»••• • iMtiMMMt- • • • '.'';''.' mVA 

ilMtHHMMMh. . I II I M M I lilt I . ■ IMMIHMI. 1 1 ( t lV 



ROBERT E.MUELLER 





These pure 

sine waves of differing 
amplitudes by Bruno 
Sonderegger are Lissajous 
Variations in which 
step voltages and 
frequency changes are 

used. Since the 
sinusoid is a "natural" 
function, this design 
falls into the 
Idol of Nature category. 



The computer is dangerously close to being our modern 
version of the kaleidoscope. The twists and turns of programs 
give unexpected variations of form that seem to be strikingly 
beautiful. But is it art? What is beauty? Many people in the 
computer field do not seem to realize that there is a long history 
of aesthetic investigation into this problem. 1 am an artist (with 
woodcuts in many museums including the Museum of Modern 
Art in New York City), and also an aesthetic ian who bridges 
science and art (I have an engineering degree from MIT and a 
degree in philosophy from NYU). I have given computer 
graphics a lot of thought since its inception — see my book The 
Science of Art: The Cybernetics of Creative Communication, 
chapter 8. The Computer Apprentks (Day, 1967.) This article 
entitled IDOLS OF COMPUTER ART, reprinted with 
permission, was published originally in Art In America (May- 
June 1972.) I thought it might be of interest to the readers of 
Creative Computing. It summarizes the pitfalls and limitations 
of computer graphics as fine art, for the benefit of people who 
either take themselves too seriously, or who would like to try and 
take themselves more seriously as artists. 

— Robert E. Mueller 
® Robert E. Mueller, 1972 



It is not surprising that a device as powerful as the com- 
puter should influence art — the latest in the long line of 
technological developments to do so. While I believe 
it will ultimately cause a minor revolution in all of the 
arts, the results to date are exceedingly poor and unin- 
spiring. But all new media take some time to be assimi- 
lated — not to mention the economics of making them 
available for something so nonutilitarian as the arts. 

Since Pythagoras, music has of course been far more 
tractable than visual art to mathematical, and thus even- 
tually computer, manipulation. Johann Joseph Fux set 
the stage for classical music in 1715 with his Gradus ad 
Parnassum, the basic treatise to codify counterpoint in 
music. A similar mathematical impulse prompted Helm- 
holtz to write his Sensations of Tone in 1863, and also 



100 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Paul Hindemith his Craft of Musical Composition in 
1936, both updatings in disguise of Pythagoras' drive 
toward ordering musical notes. Schdnberg took a dif- 
ferent tack when he introduced the arbitrary, acousti- 
cally independent technique of the twelve-tone row; it 
represents the triumph of the urge toward mathematical 
abstraction over empirical necessity, the same urge 
Euclid demonstrated when he lifted geometry out of the 
practical world and put it on the plane of pure thought. 

The computer permits this very old desire to organize 
tones or create new ones to be accomplished with great 
ease, and at a level of organization far beyond our capac- 
ity for perceptual discrimination. Milton Babbitt has 
pushed the impulse to mathematize musical quantities 
and qualities to its limit, subjecting harmonic, timbric, 
rhythmic and dynamic variations to the dominance of 
a single mathematical logic — a feat possible only with 
a computer. And specialized computer languages are 
in existence to increase the spectrum of possible tones, 
all generated directly on magnetic tape with little techni- 
cal knowledge of the computer required to use them. 

One would expect that mathematical ideas would 
similarly influence the manipulation of light and color. 
Although color organs are very ancient (Aristotle re- 
fers to the relationship between color and music in his 
On Sense), no artist has managed to apply' mathematical 
virtuosity to visual phenomena for expressive purposes. 
Indeed — with a few notable exceptions — artists have re- 
mained somewhat aloof from the technological know- 
how our age has contributed toward color theory and 
production. But with the recently invented devices for 



creating or handling color (e.g. , color phosphor cathode- 
ray tubes, electroluminescent screens, or holographs) 
this might change. And given the computer to control 
them, new opportunities for inventive manipulation 
will no doubt open up, limited only by the availability 
of such media and their comprehension by interested 
artists. 

While these technological breakthroughs are being 
ironed out and made available, the computer specialist 
has been engaged in a private, often playful investiga- 
tion of the computer's potential for making graphic 
curiosities. These productions are related to the fan- 
tastic curves invented by nineteenth-century mathe- 
maticians, and before that to constructed geometrical 
shapes the Greeks derived from conic surfaces. Of 
course the computer specialist doesn't realize it, but 
his computer graphics are exactly like those unpredictable 
and originally meaningless curves that just happened 
when geometric elements were fiddled with indiscrim- 
inately. Mathematicians assigned them highly romantic 
names: Devil's curves, Rose curves, Witches of Agnesi, 
Syntratrixes, Curves of Pursuit, Loxodromes, Caustics. 
This activity preceded the invention of analytic geometry, 
and was perhaps instrumental in its birth. Computer 
graphics may be a similar paradigm of some future 
computer mathematics. 



j, 



udging by the results, three major classes of com- 
puter graphics are being produced. The first, which I 
call "Lissajous Variations," has its counterpart in the 
traceries of pendulums and their mechanical or elec- 





^« 




Spatial Plane by 






Peter K. Kreis 






visualizes a 






mathematical problem 






(Idol of Formula). 


• 




MAY/JUNE 1978 




101 



tronic equivalents. They were first investigated in 1815 
by Nathaniel Bowditch (and were sometimes called 
Bowditch Curves), but studied in detail by the French 
mathematician Lissajous whose name they now bear. 
Lissajous figures are generated when two or more vi- 
brating systems act on one another. These systems can 
be mechanical, like a pendulum supported by two or 
more legs; or they can be electronic, as when signals 
interact and are viewed on an oscilloscope. When the 
vibrating systems are generated by a computer and made 
visible by a pen plotter or cathode-ray-tube peripheral 
device, the resulting Lissajous Variations can produce 
complex and highly interesting forms. 

The second class of computer art, 'Transforma- 
tions/' takes some recognizable picture or curve or 
function, and subjects it to a consistent alteration. It 
is related to the distortions of fun-house mirrors, and 
also to the technique for reducing photographs to half- 
tones for the purpose of printing. But instead of con- 
verting the picture to a series of dots, this technique 
breaks down the original into many different elements. 



sometimes lines, spirals, wavy variations or perhaps 
arbitrary shapes or symbols. 

The third and most interesting class of computer 
graphics, which I call "Controlled Serendipity," has 
the most artistic potential. This technique uses a given 
visual shape or form, either one derived from a photo- 
graph or picture or from a mathematical curve — or even 
from a new form made directly by the programmer — 
and subjects it to various random manipulations. The 
resulting pattern is observed and alterations are made 
on the original shape in order to see what happens the 
second time around. This is a feedback process in which 
randomly discovered elements can be emphasized or 

attenuated at will by the operator. It imitates a mode 
many artists use — the incorporation of accident — ex- 
cept that the randomness is introduced on purpose, 
in most cases through random-number generators. In 
science this introduction of randomness is sometimes 
called "dither," and B. F. Skinner has called Impres- 
sionism "realism with dither." 



B 




ut computer art to date suffers from basic limita- 
tions due, in large measure, to a lack of understand- 
ing of the nature of art. Computer specialists are not 
very knowledgeable about the history of abstract art. 
While their naivete could be refreshing and even help- 
ful in teaching us how to exploit a totally new medium, 



Crest by Kerry Strand is a 
Lissajous Variation using non- 
sinusoidal functions (Idol 
of the Kaleidoscope). 



102 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Zdenek Sy'kora based this 

Controlled Serendipity 

graphic on a computer program 

which distributed the design 

elements over a grid, producing 

playful variations on simple 

shapes (Idol of Game). 




$i 



k J +r V*y ^r *♦* *f 

MTMIMIMtMTMTM 



-♦M+ 



*r <tr A*r A*r ifiif* A* 



♦ 



r ^^r T 




it has prevented them from achieving anything but the 
most superficial designs. They do not realize that Du- 
champ and Gabo, for instance, experimented with simi- 
lar mechanically and photographically originated graphic 
ideas in the early decades of the century. 

The errors into which specialists fall when attempting 
to apply the computer to art, one may call the Idols of 
Computer Art, in the same sense that Francis Bacon's 
Idols of Science stood for the traps of scientific theoriz- 
ing. I feel that, to date, computer artists have been pre- 
occupied with six intimately related false notions, which 
may be called "Idols of Nature,' "Idols of the For- 
mula," "Idols of the Kaleidoscope," "Idols of the 
Game," "Idols of Disguise" and "Idols of the Eye." 

Since these Idols apply to fundamental ways in which 
perceptual material is organized, it is reasonable to 
suggest that they also apply to music and any other art 
form subjected to computer manipulation. 

All three categories of computer art can be used to 
generate what I call the "Idol of Nature," or that ten- 
dency to use natural order as a basis of patterned form. 
Things in nature such as crystals or flowers, the human 
body, landscapes, and so on, can become a mean- 
ingful part of a work of art. But when nature is simply 
reflected — increasingly possible as computerized techni- 
ques advance — its value as art becomes problematical. 
The results may be impressive, but they lack the neces- 
sary human insight and intervention, remaining "art- 
like" rather than becoming art. For example, natural 



forces are being released or channeled when Lissajous 
patterns are formed. These patterns represent not art 
so much as a methodological realization of forms im- 
plicit in nature, even though that nature is, of course, 
quite removed from a flower or sunset or crystal. 



A 



subclass of this Idol is the "Idol of the Formula,' 
in which a predetermined mathematical equation is used 
to generate some structure. Mathematics becomes a 
"new nature" generated by man. The generated forms 
may not be obvious from the original formula, but 
since they are implicit in the "givens" of mathematics 
or programming, they wait to be released by some tech- 
nique for the eye to see. Most mathematical constructions 
fall into this class, and although conic sections or 
topological soap-bubble forms are interesting and perhaps 
highly suggestive, they offer nothing other than a rather 
empty inspirational force. Though we can say that 
mathematics is not. art, some mathematicians think of 
themselves as artists of pure form. It seems clear, 
however, that their elegant and near- "esthetic' forms 
fail as art, because they are secondary visual ideas, the 
product of an intellectual set of restraints, rather than 
the cause of a felt insight realized in and through 
visual form. 

The "Idol of the Kaleidoscope" is mainly the product 
of the "Lissajous Variations" category. The mirroring 
of elements always transfers a feeling of great order, as 
do all effects of symmetry and periodicity. It leads to 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



103 



pleasant design, but not, I think, to art. Art should 
surprise us and demonstrate unexpected qualities, and 
the surprise or shock is due not so much to its novelty 
as our inability to understand its irrationality. Art we 
"understand" seems highly ordered or organized because 
we have exhausted it of its disarray, and by doing so have 
changed our perceptual devices for detecting degrees of 
disorganization in our experience. 

Ordering through symmetry and periodicity is the ob- 
verse of the desire to randomize — an equally fallacious 
end in itself. The "Controlled Serendipity" category 
uses a quota of chaos in the interests of complexity and 
the unpredictable, producing what we might call the 
"Idol of the Game." Making chaos or order a matter of 
principle is recognized by physicists in the concept of 
entropy — the measure of the tendency for matter to run 
down or become increasingly disordered. Entropy 
measures of pure order or pure randomness represent 
a predictable termination of expression, and they are 
both null-points of artistic communication. But it is the 
failure to attain pure order or pure chaos that makes 
such attempts meaningful, recalling Claude Shannon's 
Theory of Information that all significant human form 



must lie somewhere between them. Fortunately between 
these extremes there is, as Rudolph Arnheim points out 
in his Entropy and Art, an incredibly rich variety of 
structures. Their continual evolution enables us to order 
our mental-perceptual mechanisms into conventions 
through which reality — and art — is interpreted. This is 
partly what Suzanne Langer means when she says that 
art attains values appropriate to our intuitive judgment 
about its worth. 

In "The Idol of Disguise" some form or design is 
dressed up in an attempt to give it a new perceptual 
status, as represented by the "Transformations' cate- 
gory. The prevalence of this type of alteration makes it a 
very deceptive trap for computer artists. We enjoy look- 
ing at the old transformed into the new, with some 
remnants of the old still present to tell us where we 
are. Perhaps this impulse prompted Picasso to include 
relatively realistic nude bodies along with the African 
masklike faces of Les Demoiselles a" Avignon. Total 
newness is incomprehensible — even if it were possible. 
The "Idol of Disguise" represents the repackaging urge 
manifest in art as eclecticism — one way to sell the 
novel to a conventional world. 



Charles Osuri and James 
Shaffer's Sine-Curve Man 
demonstrates how a 
photographic image is 
transformed into 
a series of sine waves 




104 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Frieder Nake has translated 

a picture by Paul Klee to create 

a ' "new ' ' work (Idol of Disguise). 




The "Idol of the Eye' pJays on that organ's per- 
ceptual capacities for novel effects, often to the point of 
saturation and sensory overload; many "Lissajous 
Variations" fail because of this. This "Idol" is illus- 
trated by optical illusions, the visual "enigmas," which 
are the Op artists ' ' 'nature . ' ' We now begin to enter those 
gray areas where our perceptual apparatus causes subtle 
and important inflections. Music, for example, depends 
upon the nonlinear qualities of the ear to generate the 
hierarchies of harmonic importance. And of course the 
eye's physiological limits play an important role in our 
reaction to color harmonies. But we do not yet know 
exactly how optical illusions can be exploited most fully, 
although artists like Vasarely or Bridget Riley have 
begun to show us meaningful artistic applications. 



i 



s it possible to imagine more viable computer art? 
The greatest single limitation on computer graphics 
seems to be the peripheral devices, the input and output 
equipment by which people can enter their visual ideas 
into the computer and receive them back. Another prob- 
lem is that the artists' visual field of interest is far more 
complex than technicians realize. Consider line, for 
instance: the most superficial study of artists' drawings 

reveals nuances of stroke, pressure and texture inacces- 
sible to the monolithic ball-point stylus or the cathode- 
ray beam, moved step by step across a sleek, 
homogeneous visual plane. 

At this point in the development of computers, the 



visual ideas with which they deal are so simplified that 
they bore the sophisticated artistic mind to death. What 
is needed is an electronic medium offering as much con- 
trol and variety as, say, watercolors. This is not in- 
herently impossible, though most computer designers 
respond to such an opinion with a look of total in- 
credulity — especially in the area of peripherals. The 
answer may lie in a television system linked into a 
computer, with some direct manual control provided for 
the artist. Such a system must allow human manipulation 
of as small or as large an area as the artist desires, and 
could theoretically be as subtle and precise as any classic 
artistic medium. Hands become the crux of human in- 
volvement with visual media, because without their 
virtuosity minds are stranded. 

Although no existing electronic medium gives an 
artist direct manual contact with the computer's visual 
memory or computational powers, video control clearly 
lends itself to computer adaptation. The most interesting 
idea so far was conceived by Lee Harrison III. His device 
can be seen any evening on television, manipulating the 
titles and formats of commercials. Harrison's device 
splits into sections any given input image placed on a 
pickup screen. The operator can manipulate these sec- 
tions one by one, varying their relative positions, dis- 
torting their shapes, sizes, colors, and so on; and images 
can be brought together or overlapped in full color for 
photographing or video taping. The images are con- 
trolled by analogue-computer circuits, but an artist 



MAY JUNE 1978 



105 



must twiddle knobs to make his alterations, and learn a 
complex system of switching more restrictive than 
liberating. 

A more direct if less professional approach is that 
of many young artists who go right to the seat of video 
artistic control — attacking a color television receiver in 
its circuitry, working with video tape systems, learning 
how to fiddle with resistors and capacitors in order to 
make interesting images in real time, photographed or 
recorded on video tapes. This type of floundering around 
in a new medium can lead to new insights which will 
clearly have a direct influence upon computer art. 

An idea conceived while I was investigating the prob- 
lems of computer art and video manipulation may pro- 
vide a crude start in gaining more precise control over 
computerized images. Marrying Harrison's perfection 
with the video tinkerer's urge for freedom, it exists only 
as a patent application at present. Technically very 
simple, my device requires neither analogue nor digital 
computers, though of course they would expand its 
potential. With this system a person could draw by hand 
directly into video, in full color, using regular brushes 
or pens (but without pigments of any sort). This provides 
an extremely delicate control, right down to a single 
hairline of video input at any given point. And since this 
input is immediately converted into electronic signals, it 
can release a repertoire of arbitrary shapes, designs or 
other visual effects that emanate from or surround every 



point of contact with the brush or stylus. Through a 
keyboard control, these other shapes can be "played' 
point-by-point by the operator's left hand while he draws 
individual points with his right. This in effect multiplies 
a person's hands, permitting him to draw circles, entire 
lines, bands of colors, or many different geometric 
or other forms anywhere on the screen simply with one 
touch of the brush to the surface of the input "draw" 
screen. 

Whatever the technical route, we are on the verge of 
realizing an entirely new artistic mode. An electronic- 
video-computer visual medium is as different from paint- 
ing as film is from theater. As more interesting ways of 
rendering visual form are developed, and as the special- 
ists begin to understand the limitations of their device. I 
am sure we wiil begin to see much stronger results. The 
most powerful impact will be, I feel, on mathematical 
form and problems of pattern recognition, an area on 
which computer specialists are already at work. They 
will probably discover that computer graphic productions 
are not so much art as they are new insights into the 
forms that must be explored in order to make the 
computer a more useful tool for dissecting generalized 
shapes. Afterward, perhaps, with some luck and know- 
how, the artist can begin to use the computer in his own 
way. But computer graphics will never become com- 
puter art until the technical processes become second 
nature to their artist-manipulators. ■ 




Shift No. 2, 1969, 

by Auro Lecci, is a 

design in which 

restraints are 

transformed to 

create an expanding 

septagon around a 

point (Idol of the Eye). 



106 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





Sample 
Run 



Joe Jacobson 



I create computer art using either a 
CRT output or a mechanical plotter. 
Thefirststep istofind an ideaortheme. 
Then I figure out a computer routine 
that will generate this design. The last 
step is to write the program and run it. 
Some programs embody generalized 
geometric routines and will draw a 
range of different pictures in response 
to a variation in the parameters entered 
through the keyboard. Other programs 
are designed solely todrawa particular 
picture that is envisioned at the begin- 
ning. 

The picture shown, "Stargate", was 
drawn with the latter type of program. 
The geometric ideas came from several 
sources. Kelly Freas, the well-known 
science fiction artist, had shown me a 
geometric design he created for a logo. 
Christian Kuebler, a fellow ex- 
perimenter in computer art, had 
suggested an interesting geometric 
algorithm several years ago. And I had 
an idea I wanted to use sometime. It 
occurred to me to make a synthesis of 
these design elements in one picture, 
and "Stargate" is the result. 

This picture was generated on a 
Tektronix 4051 terminal, which can be 
used as a stand-alone microcomputer. 
It uses BASIC and has a package of 
graphics routines, and provides the 
user with 8K of RAM. The picture is 
displayed on the terminal storage CRT 
screen, and the system includes a 
hardcopy machine. 

I've collected about a hundred such 
"plotter art" pictures, done over several 
years by myself and a few friends. ■ 



Computer 

Stargate 



198 REM "STAR GATE" 
119 PAGE 

129 REM 

139 A-3.3176 

149 B-0.3214 

199 C-10 

169 MIHDOW -18,18,-19,10 

178 UIEHPORT 15,115,8,188 

188 MOUE 8,C 

198 FOR X-0 TO C STEP 8.1 

289 Y-A/<X+B>-B 

218 DRAW X,Y 

228 NEXT X 

238 FOR 0-0 TO 38 STEP 5 

248 I-8-SQRCQ) 

258 MOUE 8,1 

268 J-l 

278 FOR T«8 TO PI/2 STEP PI/<25*I> 

288 X«I*C0S(T> 

298 Y»A/<X+B>-B 

388 Z-USIMCT) 

318 IF 2<Y THEN 370 

328 IF J>1 THEN 368 

338 MOUE X,Z 

348 J-J+l 

358 GO TO 378 

368 DRAM X,Z 

378 NEXT T 

388 NEXT Q 

398 MOUE -C,0 

488 FOR X— C TO 8 STEP 0.1 

418 Y— A'<X-B>-B 

428 DRAW X,Y 

438 NEXT X 

449 FOR Q-0 TO 39 STEP 5 

459 I-e-SQR(Q) 

469 MOUE -If 9 

479 J-l 

499 FOR T-PI/2 TO PI STEP PI/<25*I> 

499 X«I*C0S<T> 

599 Y— A/<X-B)-B 

519 Z-ItSINCT) 

529 IF Z<Y THEN 588 

538 IF J>1 THEN 578 

548 MOUE X,Z 

558 J-J+l 

568 GO TO 588 

578 DRAW X,Z 

588 NEXT T 

598 NEXT Q 

688 MOUE -C,8 

618 FOR X«-C TO 8 STEP 0.1 

628 Y-A'<X-B>*B 

638 DRAW X,Y 

648 NEXT X 

658 FOR Q«0 TO 30 STEP 5 

668 I-8-SQR<Q> 



€?d MOUE -1,0 

688 J-l 

698 FOR T-PI TO 1.5*PI STEP PI/<25*I> 

788 X-I*C0S<T> 

718 Y-A/<X-B>+B 

728 Z-I*SIN<T> 

738 IF Z>Y THEN 790 

748 IF J>1 THEN 788 

758 MOUE X,Z 

768 J-J+l 

778 GO TO 798 

788 DRAW X,Z 

790 NEXT T 

899 NEXT 

818 MOUE 8,-C 

828 FOR X-0 TO C STEP 8.1 

838 Y— A/<X*B>*B 

848 DRAW X,Y 

858 NEXT X 

868 FOR Q-8 TO 38 STEP 5 

878 I-8-SQRCQ) 

888 MOUE 8,-1 

898 J-l 

988 FOR T«1.5*PI TO 2*PI STEP PI/<25*I> 

918 X»I*C0S(T> 

928 Y— A/(X+B)+B 

938 Z-I*SIN<T> 

948 IF Z>Y THEN 1000 

950 IF J>1 THEN 990 

960 MOUE X,Z 

970 J-J+l 

988 GO TO 1000 

990 DRAW X,Z 

1000 NEXT T 

1010 NEXT Q 

1020 WINDOW -10.10,-10,10 

1030 UIEWPORT 40,90,25.75 

1040 N-10 

1050 D-l 

1060 M-l 

1070 T-0 

1080 R-M*D 

1090 X«R*C0S<T> 

1100 Y-R*SINCT> 

1110 MOUE XiY 

1120 IF T>1.5*PI THEN 1200 

1130 M-N+l-M 

1140 T-T+PI/2 

1159 R-MtD 

1169 X-R*C0S<T> 

1179 Y-R*SIN<T) 

1190 DRAW X,Y 

1190 GO TO 1120 

1200 M-M+l 

1210 IF M>N THEN 1230 

1220 GO TO 1070 

1230 END 




Joseph P. Jacobson, 18-C Franklin Drive, Maple 
Shade, NJ 08052 



Author at Tektronix 4051, used as a stand-alone 
microcomputer to generate Stargate. 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



107 



This article shows how a microcomputer can monitor 
an individual's actual financial behaviors and 
interpret them in terms of strategy systems. 

BASIC Financial 
Behaviorism or 
First Steps Toward 
a Real Budget 



Dennis J. McGuire 




As microcomputers become in- 
creasingly available to the general 
population for home use, the prac- 
ticality of sophisticated financial 
management for the consumer has 
arrived. A survey of available software 
products has revealed that serious 
programs for the strategic manage- 
ment of personal expenditures have 
not yet found their way to the 
marketplace. Catalogue descriptions 
and articles on the subject offer rather 
trivial programs such as the ability to 
compare the amount of money a family 
spent on food this month with the 
amount spent during the same month a 
year ago; and, of course, the abun- 
dance of games includes a few on 
theoretical budget strategies. This 
article shows how a microcomputer 
can monitor an individual's actual 
financial behaviors and interpret them 
in terms of strategy systems. Since 
certain data-processing developments 
are necessary for the strategic 
management of financial behaviors, 
both in practical software applications 
and hardware devices, these are dis- 
cussed in terms of the response of the 
microcomputer industry to a recent 
survey of its interest in financial 
behaviorism, and of the consumer- 
research industry's interest in it. 

An individual's actual financial 
behaviors must be monitored over a 
period of time if his proposed budget 
strategies are to merit any serious 



Dennis J. McGuire, PhD, 4281 Henderson Place, 
Syracuse, NY 13219. 



consideration. Each act of buying 
some goods or service is a decision that 
provides a bit of information about the 
individual but the meaning of each act 
can be ascertained only when it is 
viewed in the context of all the other 
buying decisions that have been made 
during the same time period. A com- 
puter makes it relatively easy to record 
expenditures by account number and 
can show what percentage of a month's 
spending was allocated to each ac- 
count. Ranking the account expen- 
ditures by percentage reveals a budget 
strategy. This strategy is the one that 
the person is actually operating with, 
whether or not he is fully aware of it as a 
strategy, and must be the basis for 
considering possible alternatives that 
are necessary for the purchase of some 
desired product or service. 

Many people are interested in 
monitoring their financial behaviors 
out of sheer curiosity about themselves 
and a simple desire to know exactly 
how they are spending their money. An 
additional motivation for such monitor- 
ing is indicated by a basic hypothesis 
of financial behaviorism; namely that 
an exact, comprehensive and com- 
pletely factual accounting of one's 
financial behaviors will lead to the 
more efficient use of one's money to 
obtain the goods and services one 
really wants. Experiments conducted 
to verify this hypothesis have given 
indications that not only is this true but 
the individual learns to plan and carry 
out operations that require financial 
decisions such as relocating, buying a 



house, going into business, etc., much 
more efficiently than was the case prior 
to the practice of financial 
behaviorism. 



The SPEAS 

In the analysis of financial behaviors 
only expenditures of disposable per- 
sonal income are of interest; that is, 
income after taxes. The categories of 
such expenditures are food, housing, 
clothing, transportation, savings and 
financial investments, recreation, per- 
sonal business, medical car.e and 
insurance, education, personal in- 
surance, and miscellaneous. Each of 
these categories can be subdivided to 
suit an individual's needs; but a Stan- 
dard Personal Expenditures Accoun- 
ting Systems (SPEAS) is essential to 
the acquisition of useful data. 

To illustrate the point compare the 
expenditure rankings of the two follow- 
ing individuals. 



Case I 



Account 


% 


Food 


27.8 


Housing 


27.6 


Transportation 


15.7 


Clothing 


11.9 


Medical care 


6.3 


Personal insurance 


5.1 


Recreation 


4.3 


Personal business 


0.7 


Miscellaneous 


0.6 


Savings & Inv. 


0.0 


Education 


0.0 



108 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Standard Personal Expenditures 


Accounting Systems (SPEAS) 


FOOD 


RECREATION 


011 Non-taxed food items consumed at 


061 Recreational goods (sports equip- 


home 


ment, games, etc.) 


012 Taxed food items 


062 Recreational services (entrance fees, 


013 Dining out 


etc.) 


HOUSING 

021 Rent 

022 Home ownership (purchase & finan- 
cing, maintenance & repairs, com- 
modities, services) 


063 Subscriptions for magazines 

064 Books 

065 Tobacco products 

066 Alcoholic beverages 

067 Non-medical drugs 


023 Fuel & utilities (fuel oil, coal, gas, 


PERSONAL BUSINESS 


electricity, other utilities) 


071 Postage 


024 Household furnishing (textiles, fur- 


072 Services (printing, etc.) 


niture, floor coverings, appliances, 


073 Supplies 


other durable house furnishings) 


074 Equipment 


025 Household operation (housekeeping 


075 Brokerage charges & investment 


supplies, housekeeping services) 


counseling 


026 Personal property insurance 


076 Legal services 


027 Hotel & motel bills 


077 Bank services 


028 Telephone 


078 Expenses of handling life insurance 


CLOTHING 


079 Funeral & burial expenses 


031 Men's apparel 


MEDICAL CARE & INSURANCE 


032 Boy's apparel 


081 Professional medical services 


033 Women's apparel 


082 Prescriptions & drugs 


034 Girl's apparel 


083 Hospital services 


035 Jewelry 


084 Health insurance 


036 Cleaning & repair of clothing 


085 Ophthalmic products 


037 Personal care (toilet goods, beauty & 


086 Orthopedic appliances 


barber shop services) 
038 Luggage 


EDUCATION 

091 Tuition & fees for formal ed. 


TRANSPORTATION 


092 Musical & other instruction 


041 Purchase of automobile 


093 Textbooks & supplies 


042 Gasoline 

043 Auto parts 

044 Auto repair 

045 Auto maintenance (oil, washing, an- 


PERSONAL INSURANCE 
101 Life insurance 

MISCELLANEOUS 


tifreeze, etc.) 

046 Parking 

047 Tolls 


111 Alimony 

112 Gambling 

113 Support payments 


048 Auto insurance 

049 Purchased transportation (buses, tax- 
icabs, trains, airplanes, etc.) 


114 Gifts 

115 Sales tax 

116 Miscellaneous 


SAVINGS & INVESTMENTS 




051 Savings deposits 




052 Short-term investments 




053 Long-term investments 







Case II 




Account 




% 


Savings & Inv. 




23.0 


Housing 




19.1 


Food 




14.0 


Clothing 




9.3 


Transportation 




9.2 


Miscellaneous 




7.8 


Personal insurance 


5.3 


Medical care 




3.9 


Recreation 




3.5 


Personal business 


3.1 


Education 




1.8 



Note that Case I uses 89.3% of his funds 
for basic living needs and none for 
savings and investments while Case II 
uses 55.5% for the basic needs and 
30.8% for savings, investments, and 
miscellaneous. The two rankings il- 
lustrate two different budget 
strategies. Case I can appropriately be 



called a "Basic Needs Strategy" and 
Case II an "Increase Net Worth 
Strategy"; these terms are descriptive 
without knowledge of the actual 
amount of income spent by the two 
individuals. 

The SPEAS subdivides the eleven 
major accounts to provide an accom- 
modation for every possible personal 
expenditure. Food is the first account 
and all subdivisions of thisexpenditure 
category are indicated by the numerals 
"01" as the first digit of the account 
number. Thus 011 represents the 
account for all non-taxed food items 
consumed at home, 012 all taxed food 
items, and 013 all eating-away-from- 
home expenses. If an individual wanted 
a further breakdown of his expenses he 
could let 011.1 represent dairy items, 
01 1 .2 meat, 01 1 .3 fruits and vegetables, 
011.4 cereals, 011.5 processed foods, - 
..., 012.1 soft drinks, 013.2 candy ,..., 
013.2 menu items, 013.2 tips, etc. Such 



subdivisions would amount to 
customized systems based on the 
SPEAS. 

The SPEAS presented here has been 
based on expenditure categories as 
itemized by the "Groups of Goods and 
Services Priced for the Consumer Price 
Index" by the United States Bureau of 
Labor Statistics, the "Expenditure of 
Income" tables listed in Social In- 
dicators 1973 by the Statistical Policy 
Division of the United States Office of 
Management and Budget, Publication 
17, Your Federal Income Tax publish- 
ed by the Internal Revenue Service, 
and the results of experimental im- 
plementation. 

Indicators of Performance 

This system makes it easy to account 
for any expenditure. Some account 
expenditures will occur frequently; that 
is, during any typical week, and the 
user will soon become so familiar with 
them that it will not be necessary to 
check the SPEAS listing to identify the 
account number. In fact, the user may 
soon come to refer to his more com- 
mon expenditures by their SPEAS 
number; for example, expenditures for 
non-taxed food consumed in the home 
might be referred to as "zero eleven 
expenditures". Other expenditures 
occur monthly, such as 021 payments 
(rent). Some may never be used by any 
given individual; for example, a 
homeowner will not use account 021, 
as his monthly expenditures for hous- 
ing will be under 022 (home 
ownership). The pattern of use may 
even serve as an indication of an 
individual's socio-economic status 
(SES) and the investigation of such 
relationships is interesting from a 
sociological point of view (socio- 
economic status is determined by 
parameters like annual income, oc- 
cupation, age, sex, and marital status). 
Within certain SES strata, the 
variations in expenditure patterns 
could be interpreted as indications of 
the personalities of individuals which 
suggest hypotheses interesting from a 
psychological point of view; that is, you 
could analyze someone's personality 
in terms of the things that he buys. 

Such investigations would be 
searching for key indicators as 
measures of an individual's perfor- 
mance just as batting averages, home 
runs and runs batted in have come to 
be used as key indicators of a baseball 
player's performance as a hitter. In- 
dividuals, in turn, would be interested 
in assessing theirfinancial behaviors in 
comparison with well-documented 
norms. The norms, together with 
measures of an individual's perfor- 
mance, would indicate what goals are 
realistic and what goals are beyond the 
limits of possibility. Anyone 
knowledgeable about baseball, for 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



109 



example, would recognize a major 
leaguer's goals of batting .500, hitting 
90 home runs, and batting in 400 runs 
as impossible to attain. It may be just as 
impossible for the individual described 
in Case I to put 20% of his income into 
savings and financial investments. 

It would not be possible to compute a 
hitter's average in the first place unless 
there were standard agreements about 
how to interpret the event of a hit ball. 
The average is affected by whether the 
event is judged to be a hit, an out, a 
safety by error, a fielder's choice, or a 
sacrifice. These categories indicate the 
standard accounting system of 
baseball hitting. Once the definitions 
are agreed upon, it is possible to 
compute averages and to identify who 
is the batting champion by simply 
seeing who has the highest average. It 
is also possible to compute the average 
of all the hitters' averages to establish a 
performance norm. Such norms are 
appropriate for hitters in the same 
league and the norms will differ from 
little league to amateur adult league, 
and from minor pro leagueto major pro 
league. The different leagues are 
analogous to different socio-economic 
strata in the economy. 

Given that a person is in a specific 
SES, say a full-time college student, a 
blue-collar homeowner with children, a 
professional married couple who rent 



an apartment in a large city, etc., the 
pattern of his expenditures gives an 
objective analysis of his personality. 
His expenditures will show more than 
anything else what he really is in- 
terested in and what he wants to do or 
to have. A question like "How closely 
do his ideas about what he wants 
match his pattern of spending?" could 
be answered directly. "How intelligent- 
ly does he go after what he wants?" 
would be measured by determining 
how much money he is wasting, and 
money wastage could be measured if 
norms for people in similar cir- 
cumstances were known. 

Rules 

In accounting for personal expen- 
ditures, income for the sale of assets 
should be debited to the appropriate 
account; that is, entered as a negative 
expense. For example, if one sells 
some personal furniture, the amount of 
money received should be subtracted 
from account 024 (household fur- 
nishings). Business expenses need not 
be recorded to the extent that they are 
to be reimbursed by a company. 
Expenditures should be recorded ac- 
cording to the intent of the purchase; 
for example, automobile antifreeze 
purchased for one's car but later given 
to a friend is recorded under 045 (auto 
maintenance), not under 114 (gifts). 



18 REM 
28 REM 
30 REM 
40 REM 
50 REM 
60 REM 
70 REM 
80 REM 
90 REM 
100 REM 
110 REM 
120 REM 



JJk ^^ -^ ^^ ^^ ."^ J^ »^^ J^ J^ >*^ J^ Jfi ,*^ J^ J^ /^ ^t JfS J^ 0^ ^C >t^ JfS ^^ 

* FINANCIAL BEHAVIORISM * 
******* — UPDATING EXPENSES- - ******* 

* PROGRAMMED BY JOHN G. D0N0HUE * 

* FOR THE COMPUTER SHOP OF SYRACUSE * 
******* NOVEMBER 20 * 1977 ******* 

^^^ ^^^ ^^* ^^^ ^w^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ *^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 



INSTRUCTIONS 



** 

^* ^P *^ *^ ^^ 

** 

130 INPUT "DO YOU HRNT INSTRUCTIONS? 
140 IF R$< I, l>="Y tt THEN GOSUB 1060 



** 
***** 

** 

",R$ 



150 REM ** 

160 REM ***** 

170 REM ** 

180 P=5 

190 N=63 

200 DATA 011,012,013 



VRRIRBLES INITIALIZED 



** 
***** 

** 
\REM MY DEVICE #5 IS PRINTER 
\REM NUMBER OF ACCOUNTS YOU ARE USING 
\REM THE ACCOUNT NUMBERS 



210 DATA 821,822,823,824,825,826,827,828 

228 DATA 83 I ,832,833,834,835,836,837,038 

230 DATA 041, 042, 043, 044, 845, 846, 847, 848, 849 

248 DATA 851,852,853 

258 DATA 06 I ,062,063,864,865,066,067 

260 DATA 071 ,072,073,074,075,076,077,078,079 

270 DATA 881,882,883,884,885,886 

288 DATA 891,892,893 

298 DATA 181 

308 DATA II I, 112,113, 114,115,116 

318 OPEN *8, H FINBEH H 

328 DIM A<N>,B<N> 

338 FOR 1=1 TON 

348 READ A< I > 

358 NEXT I 

368 INPUT "IS FILE INITIALIZED? m ,R$ 

378 IF R$<l,IK>"V m THEN GOSUB 978 

388 REM ** ** 

398 REM ***** ASK QUESTIONS ***** 

408 REM ** ** 



Many people are in- 
terested in monitoring 
their financial behaviors 
out of sheer curiosity 
about themselves and a 
simple desire to know 
exactly how they are 
spending their money. 



Sales-tax charges should be separated 
from all goods and services taxed and 
entered in account 115. 

The manner in which expenditures 
are to be recorded depends on the 
device used. Since a microcomputer is 
not handy enough to carry around in 
the pocket, it is sufficient to collect 
receipts for expenditures and enter the 
expenditures when convenient. 
Receipts are available for practically 
everything except parking meters; 
checks and credit card receipts 
facilitate this procedure. If an in- 
dividual wanted to record every minor 
expenditure such as parking meter 
costs he could use some form of petty 
cash voucher to make the notation. The 
BASIC program composed by John G. 
Donohue of the Computer Shop of 
Syracuse and included in this article is 
designed to record, update, compute 
percentage, and rank the expenditures 
on a microcomputer. 

Design for a SPEAS Calculator 

Since the rapid and continuing 
decrease in component prices 
provides the hardware capability for 
consumer applications such as finan- 
cial behaviorism, and the hardware is 
relatively easy to do, the 
breakthroughs are in such innovative 
application designs as this article 
proposes. Hand-held computers 
manufactured to perform the SPEAS 
recordings and strategy computations 
are quite feasible and the industry has 
expressed interest in such a develop- 
ment. Such a device would eliminate 
the necessity to collect receipts, 
facilitate the immediate recording of all 
expenditures, and expand the use of 
financial behavioristic methods to a 
larger portion of the population. It 
would feature a memory that retains 
the data when the device is turned off 
as the check-balancing calculators 
presently do, a key to review the day's 
entries to check for any obvious 
mistakes (such as an entry of $3,000 for 
parking), and an accumulator key for 
summation of the day's accounts into 
the monthly accumulation of expen- 
ditures. At the end of the month the 
results could then be stored in a 



110 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



microcomputer disk or a hand-written 
record could be kept. 

Needed Software Developments 

Needed developments for 
applications software are as abundant 
as the private businesses, government 
agencies, and academic institutions 
that conduct research into consumer 
behaviors. Consider for example: 

• The type of research conducted by 
the Nielsen Company and the National 
Opinion Research Center; the 
marketing and advertising industries 
have long been searching for some way 
to develop accurate correlations 
between what people say they do or do 
not like and what they actually buy. 

• The expenditure of income tables 
published in Social Indicators 1973 by 
the United State Department of Com- 
merce bases its figures for "Consumer 
unit expenditures, by type of product 
and service for selected income 
groups" on data supplied by industry 
with little input from "consumer units" 
themselves. (Consumer units include 
(1) groups of people living together 
who pooled their incomes and drew 
from a common fund for their major 
items of expense and (2) persons living 
alone or in a household with others but 
who are financially independent.) This 
book is the first published statistical 
analysis that attempts to develop 
indicators that reveal not only the 
status of the population in relation to a 
perceived social objective, but that also 
furnish some idea of what forces were 
influencing that status. "At the present 
time," the introduction states, "not 
enough is known about the cause and 
effect of social conditions to develop 
such ideal indicators." Now that the 
instruments have been developed to 
acquire the data descriptive of the 
financial behaviors of consumer units 
the feasibility of developing ideal social 
indicators is less remote. 

• The "Review of Applied Urban 
Research" published by the Center for 
Applied Urban Research at the Univer- 
sity of Nebraska at Omaha is an index 
of the relative attractiveness of 100 
cities. The factors used to calculate a 
ranking of the cities include things like 
the "cost of eating out as percent of per 
capita daily income". The information 
gathered to compose the index would 
be enhanced by input from studies of 
the actual financial behaviors of 
statistically significant populations of 
the cities. 

Theoretical and Practical Develop- 
ments 

The conceptual structure of financial 
behaviorism itself is based on the 
fundamental theorems of information 
theory. These theorems rely on the 
mathematical description of entropy to 
calculate the information content of 



410 PRINT\PRINT"FINRNCIRL BEHAVIORISM SPRINT" ■ 

420 PRINT "TO CLOSE FILE RND END PROGRRM, TYPE '0,0'." 

430 INPUT "ENTER RCCOUNT NUMBER (COMMR) EXPENDITURE ",X,Y 

440 IF X=0 THEN 650 

450 FOR I* I TON 

460 IF X=R(I> THEN EXIT 510 \REM FIND I OF THIS RCCT.M 

470 NEXT I 

4B0 PRINT "RCCOUNT NUMBER IS IN ERROR. TRY RGRIN SPRINT 

490 GOTO 430 

500 REM ** ** 

510 REM ***** URITE REPLIES ***** 

520 REM ** ** 

530 RERD #0X<I-I>*I5, R,B 

540 IF R=X THEN 620 \REM DOUBLE CHECK 

550 PRINT "MISMATCH OF FILES UITH DRTR STATEMENT" 

560 CLOSE§0\OPEN§0, "FINBEH" 

570 FOR 1=1 TO N 

500 URITE *0Z< I- 1 J* 1 5+ 1 6, 0, NOENDMfiRK 

590 NEXT I 

600 CLOSE30 

610 END 

620 URITE *0X<I-I>*I5+5,B+Y,NOENDNRRK 

630 CLOSE*0\OPEN*0, "FINBEH" 

640 GOTO 430 

650 REM ** +* 

660 REM ***** RRNK THEM RND PLRCE X ON FILE ***** 

670 REM ** ** 

600 CLOSE*0\OPEN§O, "FINBEH" 

690 T=0 

700 FOR 1=1 TO N 

710 RERD *0,R,B< I >\URITE§8,0,NOENDMRRK 

720 T*T+B<I> 

730 NEXT I \REM GET TOTRL EXPENDITURES T 

740 CLOSE*0\OPEN*0, "FINBEH" 

750 FOR 1=1 TO N 

760 URITE *0X<I-I>*I5+I0,B<I>/T*I00,NOENDMRRK 

770 NEXT I SREM SRVE PERCENTRGES ON FILE 

700 FOR J=l TO 5\PRINT*P,\NEXT J 

790 PRINT *P, "FINRNCIRL BEHRVIORISM — EXPENDITURES" 

000 PRINT *P, 

010 PRINT *P," TOTRL $",X8F2,T 

020 PRINT #P 

030 PRINT *P, "RCCT§ EXPENDITURE X OF TOTRL" 

040 C/=-/ 

850 FOR 1=1 TO N \REM RRNK THEM RND PRINT IN ORDER 

060 RERD *0X<I-I>*I5, R,B,C 

870 IF OCI THEN 11=1 

880 IF OCI THEN CI*C 

898 NEXT I 

900 IF Cl>-I THEN 930 

910 FOR J=l TO 5\PRINT0P,\NEXT J 

920 GOTO 560 

930 PRINT *P,"*",X4I,R<II>," $",X8F2,B< 1 1 >, " ",Z5FI ,CI , "X" 

940 URITE *0X<II-I>*I5+I0,-I,NOENDMRRK 

950 GOTO 840 

960 REM 

970 REM ** 

900 REM ***** 

990 REM ** 

1000 REM 

1010 FOR 1=1 TON 

1020 URITE *0,R<I>,0,0 

1030 NEXT I 

1040 CLOSE§O\OPEN*0, "FINBEH" 

1050 RETURN 

1060 REM ** 

1070 REM ***** INSTRUCTIONS 

1000 REM ** 

1090 PRINT "THIS PROGRRM IS URITTEN 

1100 PRINT "KEEP TRRCK OF SUBTOTRLS 



INITIRLIZE THE FILE 



** 

***** 
** 



** 

** 

IN NORTH-STRR BRSIC TO HELP" 
OF EXPENDITURES IN ERCH OF" 



## 



n 



1110 PRINT "'N' 
1120 PRINT "RND 
It 30 PRINT " 
1140 PRINT " 
1150 PRINT 
1160 PRINT 
1 1 70 PRINT 
1 180 PRINT 
1 190 PRINT 
1200 PRINT 
1210 PRINT 
1220 PRINT 
1230 PRINT 
1240 RETURN 



tt 



CRTEGORIES. ERCH CRTEGORY HRS RN 'RCCOUNT *' R<I>," 
R TYPICRL RECORD ON THE DISK CONTRINS THREE FIELDS 
THE RCCOUNT NUMBER R< I ) OR R" 
THE CURRENT SUBTOTRL OF EXPENDITURES IN THRT RCCT. " 

CRLLED B <OR B+V UHEN UPDRTED>. " 
THE PERCENTRGE THRT SUBTOTRL REPRESENTS OUT OF" 

THE TOTRL EXPENDITURES. " 



"THIS PROGRRM MRV BE USED RT THE END OF ERCH DRY TO" 
"UPDRTE YOUR RECORD OF EXPENDITURES IN ERCH RCCOUNT. " 



"IT UILL PRINT OUT R LISTING OF EXPENDITURES BY" 
"RCCOUNT, RRNKED BY X OF TOTRL 



i> 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



111 








! 



% 






> 






























OUT 




MOST 
YOUR 



Photo by Rasmussen, University of Wyoming 




WITH 



No computer magazine gives you more applications than we do! Games. 
Puzzles. Sports simulations. CAI. Computer art. Artificial intelligence. 
Needlepoint. Music and speech synthesis. Investment analysis. You name 
it. We've got it. And that's just the beginning! 

Whatever your access to computer power— home computer kit, mini, 
time-sharing terminal— Creative Computing is on your wavelength. 
Whatever your computer application— recreation, education, business, 
household management, even building control— Creative Computing 
speaks your language. 

Read through pages of thoroughly documented programs with complete 
listings and sample runs. All made easy for you to use. Learn about 
everything from new software to microprocessors to new uses for home 
computers. And all in simple, understandable terms. And there's still more. 
Creative Computing discusses creative programming techniques like sort 
algorithms, shuffling and string manipulation to make your own program- 
ming easier and more efficient. 

We can even save you time and money. Our extensive resource section is 
filled with all kinds of facts plus evaluations of hundreds of items. Including 
microcomputers, terminals, peripherals, software packages, periodicals, 
booklets and dealers. We also give you no-nonsense equipment profiles to 
help you decide which computer is best for you— before you spend money 
on one that isn't. 

We've got fiction too. From the best authors in the field, like Asimov, Pohl 
and Clarke. Plus timely reviews of computer books, vendor manuals and 
government pamphlets. And so much more! 

Isn't it about time you subscribed to Creative Computing? It's the smart 
way to get the most out of your computer. 

Complete this coupon and mail it today. Orforfast response call ourtoll- 
free hot line. 

800-631-8112 

(In New Jersey call (201) 540-0445) 

CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




COMPUTING 
MAGAZINE 



I want to get the most out of my computer. 
Please enter my subscription to: 

creative conepatiRg 

Foreign Foreign 
Term USA Surface Air 



D$ 8 D5 12 D$20 

D $ 15 D $ 23 D$39 

□ $ 21 D $ 33 D $ 57 

□ $300 □ $400 D $600 
D $ 10 D $ 12 D $ 15 
D $ 10 D $ 12 D $ 15 

□ Payment Enclosed 

D Visa/Bank Americard □ Master Charge 

Card No. 

Expiration date 



□ 1-year 
D 2-year 
D 3-year 

□ Lifetime 

□ Vol. 1 Bound 

□ Vol. 2 Bound 



□ Please bill me ($1.00 billing fee will be 
added; foreign and book orders must 
be prepaid) 

Name 



Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



Send to: Creative Computing Attn: Sara 
P.O. Box 789-M, Mornstown, N.J 07960 



8 



X 

X) 
If) 



S 

» 
a 

o 

a. 









1 

D 

I 



iLtO 



m 

2 



o 



<S 8 



Z 

a 






a D 

o< in 

D D 

D D 



O 0> 

a a 

a o 

<o 10 

D D 



d a 



to 

10 



a 



a 

o 
o 

ro 

a 



*-« ro ^ cm tO i-4 



C 

o 

x: 



3 
I 

•a 

c 





§ 
I 



8 



E 

o 



<3 






5. x -j 

< *° 

Si 

II 

»a 

& 



£ 

2 



a 



4- 

to 








GPeafcf ve computing 

P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown, NJ 07960 



8CC3 




creative computing 

P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown, NJ 07960 



8CC3 



Creative COIRpatiRg brings you its best! 



I* 




Some Common BASIC Programs 

Adam Osborne. An ideal workbook to accompany 
a BASIC programming course or for one's own 
use. Contains 76 general purpose, practical 
BASIC programs with complete listings. 192 pp. 
$7.50 [7M]. 

Game Playing With Computers 

Donald Spencer. A good mind-exercising 
resource. Contains over 70 games, puzzles and 
recreations for the computer. The games, in both 
BASIC and FORTRAN, have detailed descriptions, 
flowcharts and output. Also includes a history of 
game-playing machines and lots of "how-to" write 
your own games. 320 pp. hardbound $16.95 [8S]. 



BASIC Programming 

Kemeny and Kurtz. An excellent gradual introduc- 
tion to computer programming in BASIC with lots 
of samples ranging from simple to complex. Rated 
"The best text on BASIC on almost all counts." 150 
pp. hardbound $8.50 [7E]. 



Byte Magazine 

If you're considering your own personal com- 
puter, then you need Byte. With an emphasis on 
hardware, Byte provides a wealth of information 
on how to get started at an affordable price. 
Theory, opinion, how-to articles. Subscriptions, 
USA 1 year $12 J2A], 3 years $32 [2B]; foreign 1 
year $25 [2F]. First issues of this now classic 
publication .have been edited into The Best of 
Byte, Volume 1. 386 pp. $11.95 [6F]. 

Microcomputer Design 

Donald P. Martin. This book is well-suited for the 
engineer who's designing microprocessors into 
his company's products. Not just block diagrams 
or vague theory, but dozens of practical circuits 
with schematics for CPUs based on 8008 chips. 
Includes interfacing to A/D, D/A, LED digits, 
UARTs, teletypewriters. Over 400 pp $14.95 [9P]. 



A Guided Tour of Computer 
Programming In BASIC 

Dyer and Kaufman. This 
book tops all introductory 
texts on BASIC. Filled 
with detail and examples, 
it includes sample pro- 
grams for many simula- 
tions, several games, re- 
servations systems and 
payroll. Aimed at the 
novice, but of value to 
everyone. 156 pp. $4.80 
[8L]. 



For faster service call toll free 

800-631-8112 

In NJ call 201-540-0445 




Creative Computing Magazine 

The #1 computer applications magazine helps you get the most out of your computer, be it a micro mini 
or timesharing system. Plenty of practical applications in education, small business management 
household management, recreation and games, and building control. Programming techniques for 
those writing their own, include sort techniques, recursion, and file structures. Complete listings and 
sample runs of games, investment analysis, music synthesis, artificial intelligence programs and much 
more. Articles, in-depth book and resource reviews, hardware and software evaluations and even some 
fiction and foolishness. "But the best thing about Creative Computing is its feisty, friendly attitude" — 

«£f m !£ 9 2 V0ic , e - Subs S!^ iP r t J^ s ;M SA 1 * ear $8 V A ^ 3 y ears $ 21 n B V> forei 9 n 1 year $12 (1G], 3 years 
$33 [1HJ. Sample copy $2 [1C]. Volume 1 and 2 issues have been edited into two big 324-page books 

American Vocational Journal said of Volume 1, "This book is the 'Whole Earth Catalog' of computers " 

$8.95 [6A]. Volume 2 continues in the same tradition, "Non-technical in approach, its pages are filled with 

information, articles, games, and activities. Fun layout." — American Libraries. $8.95 [6B] Also available 

is a special package of all the single issues in Volume 3 for only $8 [1N] 



Artist And Computer 



"Get yourselves a copy of this book if you enjoy 
feeding your mind a diet of tantalizing high-impact 
information." — San Francisco Review of Books. 
In this book, 35 artists present a multitude of 
computer uses and the very latest techniques in 
computer-generated art. 132 pp. $4.95 softbound, 
[6D], $10 hardbound [6EJ. 

BASIC Computer Games: 
Microcomputer Edition 

David H. Ahl. An anthology of 101 games and 
simulations. Everything from Acey-Deucey to 
Yahtzee, all in BASIC. The only book of its kind 
with complete listings, sample runs and descrip- 
tive write-up of each game. 248 pp. $7.50 [6C]. 



Creative Computing Catalog 

FREE 16-page reference to computer-related 
products not readily available in commercial 
stores. Lists books, magazines, T-shirts, game, 
binary dice and more [5 A 





CDlTlFUTEP.-PiflGE 



The 

Colossal 

Computer 

Cartoon 

Book 



Sit back and relax. Take a break with the best 
collection of computer cartoons ever. Popular gift 
item, too. 128 pp. $4.95 [6G]. 

Problem Solving With 
The Computer 

Ted Sage. Used in conjunction with the traditional 
high school math curriculum, this book stresses 
problem analysis in algebra and geometry. This is 
the most widely adopted text in computer 
mathematics. 244 pp. $6.95 [8J]. 

Computer Rage 

Fun and educational new hoard game based on a 
large-scale multi-processing computer system. 
The object is to move your three programs from 
input to output. Moves are determined by the roll 
of three binary dice representing bits. Hazards 
include priority interrupts, program bugs, deci- 
sion symbols, power failures and restricted input 
and output channels. Notes included for adapting 

§ame for school instruction. Great gift item. Ages 
-adult, 2-4 players. $8.95 [6H]. 



Getting Involved With Your 
Own Computer 

Solomon and Viet. One of the first books on 
microcomputers that requires no previous 
knowledge of electronics or computer program- 
ming. Tells you where to find information, explains 
basic concepts and summarizes existing systems. 
Good place for the neophyte to begin. 216 pp. 
$5.95 [9N]. 

An Introduction to Microcomputers 

Adam Osborne. Volume 0, "The Beginner's Book" covers microcomputer system components, how they 
work together; number systems, the basics of programming, and putting it all together in a system of your 
own. 264 pp. $7.50 [9T] . Volume 1, Basic Concepts, also assumes no prior knowledge of computers. It 
covers basic principles, binary arithmetic, the microprocessor CPU, I/O logic, memory organization and 
programming. 264 pp. $7.50 [9KJ. Volume 2 (2nd Edition), Some Real Products, covers 20 actual 
microprocessors in considerable detail including timing diagrams, instruction sets, and interrupts. 760 
pp. $15 [9LJ. 



Fun & Games With The Computer 

Ted Sage. "This book is designed as a text for a 
one-semester course in computer programming 
using the BASIC language. The programs used as 
illustrations and exercises are games rather than 
mathematical algorithms, in order to make the 
book appealing and accessible to more students. 
The text is well written, with many excellent 
sample programs. Highly recommended." — The 
Mathematics Teacher. 351 pp. $6.95 [8B]. 



creative computing 

Please send me the following: 
Quan. Cat. Description 



P.O. Box 789M, Morristown, NJ 07960 USA 



Price 



Books shipping charge 

$1 USA,$2 Foreign 

NJ residents add 5% Sales tax 
8 GHJ TOTAL 



Name _ 
Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



D Cash, check, MO. enclosed 
□ Bank Americard/VISA 
a Master Charge 
Card No. 



Expiration date 



events that could possibly be a 
message. The expenditure transac- 
tions of any individual provide the data 
that describe the messages sent back 
and forth between the individual and 
the economy with money functioning 
as the measure of each one's com- 
munication with the other. Financial 
behavioristic data can be analyzed in 
terms of the mathematical models used 
to describe the communication 
capabilities of electronic devices; such 
theoretical explorations would seek to 
develop meaningful interpretations of 
various patterns of financial behaviors 
so that more efficient money systems 
can be designed. 

The strategies exemplified as Case I 
and Case II, the Basic Needs Strategy 
and the Increase Net Worth Strategy, 
are representations derived from the 
income expenditure tables of Social 
Indicators 1973. Case I represents an 
individual with an after-tax income of 
$5,000 and who probably supports a 
family of about five. Case II represents 
an individual with an after-tax income 
of $15,000 or more and who probably 
supports a family of two or three. (1960 
dollars: Data presented in the table are 
taken from the Survey of Consumer 
Expenditures, 1960-1961, a sample 
survey of representative consumer 
units in the United States conducted by 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics.) The 
individual described by Case I is not 
really free to adopt the Increase Net 
Worth Strategy; daily survival needs 
structure his socio-economic environ- 
ment and limit his strategy options. But 
a ranking of his expenditure percents 
by the more detailed SPEAS can reveal 
options that could realistically indicate 
more efficient uses of his money to 
accomplish his objectives. The same is 
true of Case II. Moreover, sufficient 
data would make it feasible to develop 
reality-based simulations of the effects 
on the individual's budget of having 
another child, relocating, buying a 
house, etc. Projections describing the 
financing of such events would be 
interesting not only to the individual 
but to loan officers as well. 

A financial behaviorism strategy has 
been defined simply as the ranking of 
an individual's account expenditures 
by percent. The number of optional 
rankings realistically available to any 
individual is an indicator descriptive of 
that individual's financial 
maneuverability. The number of 
significantly different options available 
to any individual provides the key to a 
classification system. To determine 
what options are significantly different 
it is necessary to calculate the mean 
and standard deviation of the in- 
dividual's account percentages and 
determine whether any account in the 
upper range can be switched with an 
account in the middle or lower range. 



For example, could Case I switch 
transportation (15.7%) with personal 
business (0.7%)? Probably not; his 
transportation is likely to be a survival 
need. Could Case 1 1 switch savings and 
financial investments (23%) with 
recreation (3.5%)? Probably; he could 
decide to use the money customarily 
put into savings, stocks and bonds to 
take a cruise vacation next month. 

A handy indicator is the amount of 
sales tax (account 115) spent by the 
individual. Sales-tax entries can be 
accumulated by amount as well as by 
percent for comparison with the values 
listed in the "Optional Sales Tax 
Tables" of the Internal Revenue Ser- 
vice. For example, the deductible 
amount listed for a family of over five 
with an income range of six to seven 
thousand dollars is$109forthe year, or 
about $9 per month (in New York State; 
other States are included in the table of 
Publication 17, Your Federal Income 
Tax), and for a family of three with an 
income range of fifteen to sixteen 
thousand dollars it is $178, or about $15 
per month. With the tax-table values 
stored in the microcomputer, an in- 
dividual can have the ratio of his sales- 
tax expenditure to the table figure 
calculated and such ratios can serve as 
indicators of the individual's participa- 
tion in the marketplace economy. 
Meaningful interpretations of such 
ratios depend on correlations with 
other factors as developed through 
methodical investigations of proposed 
hypotheses. 

Microcomputer programs that com- 
pute and display SPEAS options 
representative of valid budget alter- 
natives need to be developed; it is 
proposed here that individuals in- 
terested in practicing financial 
behaviorism develop such programs 
based on their own experience. 
Suitable programs will become more 
widely useful as data banks are 
developed and a larger portion of the 
population wants to know how it can 
use the microcomputer to figure out 
budget strategies that are realistic in 
terms of disposable income and ef- 
ficient in terms of buying desired 
products and services. 

Conclusion 

To begin the analysis of an in- 
dividual's financial behaviors with a 
microcomputer, the following program 
has been composed by John G. 
Donohue of the Computer Shop of 
Syracuse, New York. It is designed to 
accumulate expenditures by account, 
change them to percents of total 
expenditure, and rank the percents by 
account. This process reveals the 
strategy actually used by the person 
analyzed and is the first step toward 
investigating the feasibility of realistic 
budget alternatives. 



A final note — if you make an 
erroneous entry into an account you 
can correct it by entering more or less 
to reach the proper amount. For 
example, if you entered $25 into 
account 021 and your rent was actually 
$250 just add in another $225 to get the 
correct amount. If you added $25 to an 
account that was not used at all then 
add in a negative $25 to remove the 
mistake. 

A SPEAS printout of a month's 
accounts is shown. If you analyze it, 
perhaps you can think of a name for the 
expenditure strategy indicated. ■ 



A SAMPLE PRINTOUT OF A MONTHS 
EXPENDITURES BY SPEAS ACCOUNTS 

FINRNCIRL BEHAVIORISM — EXPENDITURES 
TOTRL' $ 827. 15 



RCCT§ EX 


PENOITURE 


X OF TOTF 


§21 $ 


258 . 80 


30. 2X 


§51 $ 


115.00 


I3.9X 


§ II $ 


95.00 


U.5X 


§ 181 $ 


38.75 


4.7X 


§23 $ 


32.00 


3.9X 


§33 $ 


32.00 


3.9X 


§81 $ 


24.00 


2.9X 


§ 114 $ 


24.00 


2.9X 


§28 $ 


23.00 


2 8'/. 


§42 $ 


23.00 


2.8X 


§24 $ 


17.00 


2. IX 


§31 $ 


17.00 


2. IX 


§ 115 $ 


15.00 


I.8X 


§71 $ 


13.00 


I.6X 


§37 $ 


12.00 


I.5X 


§13 $ 


10.00 


I.2X 


§45 $ 


10.00 


I.2X 


§12 i 


9.00 


I.IX 


§72 $ 


8.95 


I.I'/. 


§25 i 


f 8.00 


1.0'/. 


§63 $ 


» 7.88 


9X 


§66 4 


> 7.25 


.9X 


§46 i 


7.80 


8X 


§83 4 


r 7.00 


8X 


§47 4 


■ 6.00 


7X 


§65 4 


f 5 40 


.7X 


§43 4 


f 5.00 


.6X 


§1(2 4 


1 5.00 


6X 


§22 4 


1 .00 


OX 


§26 4 


■ .00 


OX 


§27 4 


r .00 


OX 


§ 32 4 


f .00 


.ox 


§34 4 


f .00 


ox 


§35 4 


f .00 


.ox 


§ 36 4 


f .00 


ox 


§ 38 4 


r .00 


ox 


§ 41 4 


t .00 


ox 


§ 44 i 


r .00 


ox 


§ 48 4 


> .00 


ox 


§ 49 4 


t .00 


.ox 


§ 52 4 


t .00 


ox 


§ 53 4 


> .00 


ox 


§ 61 4 


* .00 


ox 


§ 62 4 


i .00 


.ox 


§ 64 4 


f .00 


.ox 


§ 67 4 


t .00 


.ox 


§73 4 


r .00 


ox 


§ 74 4 


t .00 


.ox 


§ 75 4 


■ .00 


ox 


§76 4 


f .00 


ox 


§77 4 


r .00 


ox 


§78 4 


1 .00 


ox 


§79 4 


r .00 


ox 


§ 82 4 


• .00 


ox 


§84 4 


f .00 


ox 


§ 85 4 


f .00 


ox 


§86 4 


t .00 


ox 


§ 91 4 


f .00 


ox 


§92 4 


f 00 


ox 


§ 93 4 


f .00 


ox 


§ III 4 


■ .00 


ox 


§ 113 4 


r .00 


ox 


§116 4 


I .00 


.ox 



& 



114 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




What's a Programmer? 



Wade M. Turner 



Do you know what a Computer Programmer is? I do — or 
rather, I am. 

I'm the guy who writes the instructions that tell the big black 
box to overcharge you by seventeen cents, so you'll spend ten 
dollars on phone calls and gas getting the seventeen cents off 
your bill. 

Or else I tell the computer not to credit your last payment, 
and then tack on one-and-a-half percent interest for late 
charges — and I fix it so the late charges can never be adjusted. 
You will always be indebted to us. 

Actually, when you get right down to it, I don't do any of those 
things. On purpose. 

What I do is take some handwritten — or sometimes even 
typed, if he is senior enough — notes from a Systems Analyst, 
who is next higher in the pecking order around Data Processing 
shops. Unfortunately, the Systems Analyst comes right out of 
college into analysis, and knows nothing of the limitations of the 
instructions a computer is able to interpret and execute. I mean, 
Computers are dumb! 

You see all these movies and read books about how smart 
computers are — forget it. Computers are glorified adding 
machines and high-speed printers, no more and no less. 

You can hook on readers, and boob tubes (Cathode Ray 
Tubes, or CRTs, as we call them), and voice-response units, 
male or female — so the customer thinks he's chewing out a 
nice young lady, when all the time he's talking to a big dumb 
black box that doesn't understand a word he's saying. But, no 
matter what you hook on, the computer is still dumb. 



Anyhow, I take these notes from the Systems Analyst, telling 
me to write a program for automatic billing, on ten cycles — 
every three days — based on the last four digits of the 
customer's Credit Card Number. Simple so far, right? Wrong! 

Our Master Customer File, on thirty reels of tape, which 
contains all the information about our customers, is arranged 
alphabetically by name. It has the Credit Card Number in three 
different places, according to whether it is a straight credit 
application, a transfer from another state, or a guarantee 
referral from another customer. 

Still with me? 

Okay. Even though the numbers are in three different places, 
and all thirty tapes have to be read every time the program is 
run, I can make the dumb computer look in all three places, or 
until it finds a number. So that solves that little problem. 

Now, I read the note a little further, and I find that the 
Systems Analyst wants the cutoff date for billing four days 
previous to the cycle. 

Have you ever asked your three-year-old son what time it 
was? Have you ever told your dog to wash the dishes? 

I could probably come up with more apt comparisons, but 
those should suffice. I mean, the big dumb computer doesn't 
even know what year it is, unless the damn fool operator types 
the year in on the electric typewriter hooked to the computer 
and called the Console. 

And the less said about operators, the better. 

Anyhow. I, with my analytical, spatial-logic-trained mind, and 
seven years' experience second-guessing Systems Analysts, 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



115 



Video Terminals 

$649.50 $15 packing 

Data point 3000, 3360 CRT's 

Std. ASCII, RS-232, many features 

Fully Assembled, Guaranteed 

REFURBISHED 
TELECOM. Box 41 1 7 (703) 683-401 9 
Alexandria, Virginia 22303 



CIRCLE 145 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1^ 

S SOL or NORTH STAR OWNERS! = 

E VDM GAMES (req. SOLOS or CUTER): = 

5 Real-time ROBOTS AND ASTEROID! 

= PKG-VlCC(2games)onl200-baudCUTS = 

E tape $20 E 

E NORTH STAR BASIC GAMES: ROADRACE, E 

= 3DTICTAC, EVENWINS, BIORYTHM, = 

SUPRWUMP! = 

— PKG-N1CC (5 games) on DISKETTE. $15 = 

licro E 

ogistics E 

Box 922, Madison Square Station, E 
New York, New York 10010 
N.Y. Res. add 8% sales tax 

nimilllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllrE 

CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Mil 
LI 



A COMPILATION OF FINAGLE'S 
UNIVERSAL LAWS FOR SYSTEMS 
ENGINEERS 



In any calculation, any error which can creep in will do so. 
Any error will be in the direction of most harm. 
In any formula, constants (especially from engineering hand- 
books) are to be treated as variables. 

The best approximation of service conditions in the laboratory 
will not begin to meet those conditions encountered in actual 
service. 

The most vital dimension on any plan or drawing stands the 
greatest chance of being omitted. 

If only one bid can be secured on any project, the price will be 
unreasonable. 

If a test installation functions perfectly, all susequent production 
units will malfunction. 

All delivery promises must be multiplied by a factor of 5.0. 
Major changes in construction will always be requested after 
fabrication is nearly completed. 

Parts that positively cannot be assembled in improper order 
will be. 

Interchangeable parts won't. 

Manufacturer's specifications of performance should be multi- 
plied by a factor of 0.5. 

Salesmen's claims for performance should be multiplied by a 
factor of 0.25. 

Installation and Operating Instructions shipped with any device 
will be promptly discarded by the Receiving Department. 
Any device requiring service or adjustment will be least ac- 
cessible. 

Service conditions as given on specifications will be exceeded. 
If more than one person is responsible for a miscalculation, no 
one will be at fault. 

Identical units which test in an identical fashion will not behave 
in an identical fashion in the field. 

If, in engineering practice, a safety factor is set through service 
experience at an ultimate value, an ingenious idiot will promptly 
calculate a method to exceed said safety factor. 
Warranty and guarantee clauses are voided by payment of the 
invoice. 



Axiom 
Axiom 
Axiom 


#1 
#2 
#3 


Axiom 


#4 


Axiom 


#5 


Axiom 


#6 


Axiom 


#7 


Axiom 
Axiom 


#8 

#9 


Axiom 


#10 


Axiom 
Axiom 


#11 

#12 


Axiom 


#13 


Axiom 


#14 


Axiom 


#15 


Axiom 
Axiom 


#16 

#17 


Axiom 


#18 


Axiom 


#19 



Axiom #20 



can even circumvent this problem. I quickly sharpen two 
pencils, get out my coding sheets, and run down the hall to the 
second cubicle from the end — and ask Jackie how she solved a 
similar problem last year. 

She agrees to tell me. After lunch at Charlie Brown's, after 1 
pick up the eight-dollar tab. 

Cheap enough! 

I drive us back to the office, dash to my cubicle, and design a 
little jewel called the Date Card, which I will place at the end of 
the other cards which tell the big dumb computer which 
program I want it to execute. I mean, you have to tell that dumb 
machine everything. 

The other cards are called Job Control Language cards, or 
JCL's. Personally, I call them JC's, since it is a miracle when the 
big dumb computer reads them and executes them right the 
first time. 

Well. I've taken care of the card numbers, and the cutoff date 
of the bills. In theory, anyway. 

And now, I find out what little goodie the systems analyst has 
in store for me next. I can hardly wait! 



I'm the guy who writes the instruc- 
tions that tell the big black box to 
overcharge you by seventeen cents, 
so you'll spend ten dollars on phone 
calls and gas getting the seventeen 
cents off your bill. 



I discover that he wants me to list each charge for the month 
separately, along with the previous payment, the old balance, 
and the new balance. Nothing to it . . . sixth-grade kids all over 
the world are doing it — at least they were, *until some genius 
came up with New Math. It should be a snap for an intricate, 
sophisticated conglomerate of integrated microelectronic 
circuitry that leases for sixty thousand bucks a month, and 
costs in the millions. 

And, given the proper instructions, it is a snap. 

It is a snap, in theory. But in practice, the damn fool operator 
runs my billing program before he runs the program that 
updates the Master Customer File. Therefore, even though 
Mrs. Solomon from Rolling Hills made a special trip to 
personally deliver her check to our South Bay store so it could 
be credited for last month's payment before the deadline, the 
big dumb computer adds on a one-and-a-half percent late 
charge for no previous month's payment. 

Sound familiar? 

When Mrs. Solomon goes to the Credit Department, and 
threatens to cut up her card and throw it in the Credit 
Manager's face, all he can do is wear a glassy smile and say, 
"Sorry, computer error. . ." — and wonder what happened to 
the good old days, when he could vent his frustration by 
chewing out the dozen or so girls he kept busy eight hours a day 
recording charges, licking envelopes, and mailing bills. 

I mean, how can you chew out a big dumb black box that 
won't even cringe? You can't refuse it a raise, or threaten to fire 
it, or tell it that it can be replaced — you have no ammunition at 
all for a healthy tirade once in a while to keep the old juices 
flowing. 



Sorry. I digressed. Back to the Billing Program. 

I have the number, the cutoff date, the previous payment, old 
and new balance, including itemized charges. You would think 
that would be more than enough to satisfy any sane, rational 
human being. And it probably \s. 



116 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



But, it is not enough for my Systems Analyst. 

You see, his wife once bought a dress on sale. The ticket his 
wife saw on the right sleeve of the dress read $14.95, but the 
ticket the sales clerk read — and wrote the sales slip from — 
read $16.50. It was on the left sleeve. 

The analyst's wife didn't notice the discrepancy until she 
arrived home and happened to glance at the sales slip — which 
is way too late, as any credit shopper with more than six 
months' experience will tell you. In fact, in the newer, insta- 
inventory stores, the minute the sales girl rings the register, it's 
too late! 

So, because of his wife's little problem months and months 
before, my all-wise Systems Analyst adds a little P.S. on the 
note, saying allow for credit adjustments up to the cutoff date. 

That's easy for him to say! 

What it means to me, the poor programmer, is one of two 
things. Either have the letters U CR" added to the money figures 
on all thirty tapes of the master file — which will automatically 
increase the master file to thirty- two tapes (maybe thirty/our 
tapes around Christmas and Father's Day), or else set up a 
series of one-letter codes for the keypunch girls to enter wrong 
— so the whole record gets thrown out by the big dumb 
computer. 

Either way, Mrs. Solomon of Rolling Hills never gets her 
seventeen cents credit on the Sales Tax the girl overcharged 
her because the Dorothy Gray Cosmetic, on sale twice a year, 
had the Excise and Sales Tax already included on the paste-on 
sticker — so the sales girl wouldn't have to keep running her 
finger down the sales tax indicator each time she sold a Dorothy 
Gray cosmetic. 

And, when Mrs. Solomon confronts the same poor, harried 
Credit Manager — who still has no one to pick on — all he can 
do is say, "Sorry, computer error — " 

I say, Hogwash! 

I also say other things, especially when the phone rings at 
two- thirteen AM — which is the time they always seem to run 
my programs. At least, the programs that halt with a message to 
call the programmer because the big, dumb computer didn't 
understand some perfectly logical instruction, and erased half 
the Master Customer File, or some silly thing like that. 

You see, having a logical mind, and understanding the 
eccentricities of the big black box, I always have the computer 
print out what is wrong on the electric typewriter connected to 
the computer, called the console. 

I have it print a three-number code, and then a message. For 
instance, if the damn fool operator forgets to put the Date Card 
at the end of the JCL (you remember all that, don't you?), the 
Console will magically type, "HALT, 101**DATE CARD 
INVALID OR MISSING***". 

Self-explanatory, right? Even a damn fool operator would 
understand that, you would think! 

Not the case at all. 




The operator automatically reaches for the telephone right 
beside the Console with his left hand, while he thumbs through 
the home-phone numbers of programmers assigned to 
production programs with his right, until he finds my number — 
which I pay the phone company an extra forty-seven cents a 
month to keep unlisted, so drunks and fools don't call me at 
two- thirteen AM. 



<«i 



«* 



'Hello ... is this Turner?" 

'Mummbbllee" 

This is Dave." 

"Dave who?" 

"Dave Stern." 

I wait ten seconds for him to continue, since I'm almost 
positive that he called me. But when he says nothing, I take the 
bull by the horns. "Well, Dave?" 

"Well what?" 

"Well, why in the blankety-blank did you wake me up at two 
o'clock in the blankety-blank morning?" 

"Oh, that . . . well, it's this program, see . . . CB40404." 

Again I wait. But he waits longer. 

"Well, what about CB40?" 

"Oh . . . well, it quit running . . . but it didn't blow up ... I got 
a Halt 101 on the console. . ." 

Being the alert, experienced programmer that I am, I knew he 
didn't mean literally blow up — he meant the program came to 
an abnormal termination and ruined everything the big dumb 
computer had done to that point. 

More importantly, being now wide awake and halfway 
through my second cigarette, I also sensed a familiar ring to Halt 
101. 

"Say Dave?" 
"Yeah . . ." 

"Was there a message with the Halt 101?" 
"Message? Oh. . .yeah." 
"What did the message say, Dave?" 

"Say? Oh . . . Date . . . Card . . . In . . . Val ... Id ... or missing." 
"And what does the Program Run Book say about Halt 101, 
Dave?" 

Since the mid-Sixties, and the inception of the Full Operating 
System (the big dumb computer that messes up several 
programs at the same time, instead of one at a time — like the 
old days), programmers have provided damn fool operators 
with Program Run Books so the damn fool operators wouldn't 
wake the poor programmers up at two thirteen AM. 

"Program Book? Oh ... I didn't look." 

"Well, Dave. I'll save you the trouble . . . this time. Halt 101 
says the operator didn't insert the Date Card at the end of the 

JCI or else he punched the card wrong . . . Are you with me 

Dave . . . Dave?" 

"Oh . . . yeah. Date Card, huh . . . okay . . . thanks." 

I hang up the phone and run to put on the water for the 
Instant Yuban. But Dave is too quick for me. 

I answer in the kitchen. "Dave . . . it's me. Look in the 
Program Run Book, on the last page, and punch a card exactly 

like the one there for cycle three three, Dave one, 

two, three! Got it Dave? Dave?" 

"Oh . . . yeah. Three." 

Now, don't get me wrong. Not all damn fool operators are like 
Dave. Nor do all Systems Analysts have wives with problems. 
However, the great majority . . . but that's another story. 

Besides, I gotta run just now. 

You see, the Systems Analyst gave me a new program this 
morning, and there's this tricky little formula in it. Nancy had 
one almost like it about six months ago, so she and I are going to 
The Second Storey for lunch. I mean, ten dollars is cheap 
enough, right? 

After all, they pay me eighteen thou a year for my knowledge, 
experience, and ability. I should be entitled to take a nice young 
lady to lunch once in a while, I would think. ■ 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



117 






Good-bye, Atlantic City 




Hello, PHILADELPHIA 



ERSONAL 



OMPUTING 



THIRD YEAR - LARGEST YET 

PHILADELPHIA CIVIC CENTER 

AUGUST 24, 25, 26, 27 

FOUR FULL DAYS 




August 24 

Industry Trade Show 



for Dealers, the Industry 
and Exhibitors Guests 



AND 



A complete lineup of 
seminars and meetings. 



August 25, 26, 27 

PERSONAL COMPUTER SHOW 

New Products • Seminars • Forums • Technical Talks 

The largest, with 300 booths. The longest, at 

four days, of any computing show. 



Don't Miss 




■TM 



v PERSONAL COMPUTING COLLEGE" • over 80 hours 
of in-depth seminars - ALL FREE 

PLUS FUN ACTIVITIES 

Art Show • Music Festival • Banquet 
Computerized Mouse Maze 

Save Money! 

Make reservations 

now! 

Exhibitors reserve your 
space now! 

PRODUCED BY 

PERSONAL COMPUTING INC. • John H. Dilks, President 

Rt. 1 • Box 242 • Mays Landing, NJ 08330 • Information 609-6531 188 

CIRCLE 152 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



business 
computing 




Payroll Overview: 

Micros "Meet the Payroll" 



Gene Murrow 



The payroll. . . one of the traditional 
tests of a true businessman's mettle. 
Pity the inexperienced or untested 
aspirant to a position of status, whose 
ideas and worth are discounted with 
the simple remark, "...yes, but he's 
never had to meet a payroll." 

The most recent claimant to a place 
in the business world is the microcom- 
puter, and now it finds itself having to 
perform on payday. Several manufac- 
turers, software designers, and com- 
puter outlets have begun advertising 
"payroll" for the new generation of 
small computers. Articles in this issue 
of Creative Computing describe some 
of these systems. But how useful is an 
automated payroll system? What are 
the alternatives? What should a good 
payroll system include? How should 
the astute businessman evaluate the 
various systems? In this introductory 
article, we shall provide some answers 
to these fundamental questions. 

Large companies have been using 
computerized payroll systems for 
years, and the cost-effectiveness of 
such systems is taken for granted. The 
small business of 5 to 75 employees, 
however, typically employs a manual 
or semi-automated system, or uses a 
payroll service provided by a commer- 
cial bank. The availability of microcom- 
puter systems challenges the 
traditional reliance on manual systems 
or outside payroll services. The price is 
low, and the power is generally high. 



Compared to automated systems, 
manual payroll systems have several 
disadvantages. They require con- 
siderable time by a trained bookkeeper 
or clerk, especially at end-of-quarter 
and end-of-year reporting times, and 
therefore are costly. Like any complex 
procedure which is often carried out by 
humans under pressure, they are 
susceptible to error. In addition, they 



Despite the problems 
with manual or outside 
payroll systems, they 
may well be better than 
an ill-conceived or un- 
reliable in-house micro- 
computer system. 



Gene Murrow, Computer Power & Light, Inc.. 
12321 Ventura Blvd., Studio City, CA 91604. 

MAYJUNE 1 978 



do not easily yield summary data and 
reports, which might be very useful to 
management. Most businesses are 
fortunate if just the basic journals and 
deduction registers are maintained 
accurately and kept up to date without 
the help of an accountant. 

The payroll services provided by 
banks and other service bureaus solve 
some of these problems, but create 
new ones of their own. Such systems 
are generally inflexible, requiring a 
business to adapt to the system, rather 
than the reverse. They may not accom- 



119 



modate such desirable features as 
summary reports by departments 
within a business, or pay schemes such 
as draws against commissions. 
Bookkeepers often spend as much 
time preparing the data for the outside 
service bureaus and banks as they 
would have spent simply filling out the 
checks and journals themselves. There 
is often a lag time, or "turnaround time" 
of several days between the time a 
change is desired (in pay level, 
employee status, etc.) and the time 
such a change is incorporated into the 
system. Perhaps the biggest disadvan- 
tage is the requirement of most banks 
that enough money to cover a total 
payroll be kept on deposit at all times. 
Few small businesses want to keep that 
amount of cash out of circulation for 
two weeks or a month. 

Despite the problems with manual or 
outside payroll systems, they may well 
be better than an ill-conceived or 
unreliable in-house microcomputer 
system. Here are some guidelines by 
which to evaluate a system, based on 
COMPAL's one and one-half years of 
experience installing business 
microcomputers which, among other 
things, automate the payroll. 

Hardware 

This should include a printer and a 
disk drive. The printer produces the 
reports and registers and prints the 
paychecks. Without it, your book- 
keeper will be doing a lot of copying by 
hand. The random-access capability of 
the disk drive allows for easy and flexi- 
ble maintenance of the data base. 



Systems that use a tape cassette 
instead of a disk will be limited in their 
ability to make quick updates such as 
adding or deleting an employe, chang- 
ing an employe's status, etc. The 
COMPAL system we recommend to 
our customers for all accounting 
functions including payroll includes a 
120-line-per-minute printer, and a dual 
floppy-disk drive storing 315K 
characters per disk. It leases for 
$185.38 a month. 

Software 

A payroll program must actually per- 
form several distinct tasks. These are 
described below: 

• Enter/delete/update employe rec- 
ords: name, address, Soc. Security 
number; no. of standard deductions; 
medical and retirement plan "reduc- 
tions"; pay type (salary amount, hourly 
wage, commission percentages, or 
guarantee thresholds). 

• Automatically maintain payroll 
registers: year-to-date and quarter-to- 
date employe contributions to state 
and federal taxes; same for employer 
taxes payable. 

• Compute paychecks: efficiently 
gather hours worked for each employe, 
commissions earned, vacation and sick 
days taken, gas allowances, salary 



advances, other taxable income; then 
compute gross pay, withholding and 
deductions, and net pay. 

• Print paychecks: allow for form 
alignment, proper numbering and 
dating of checks. 

• Produce reports: employe and 
employer contribution registers for 
each pay period; year-to-date and 
quarter-to-date summaries; end-of- 
year W-2's. 

• Enable system maintenance: allow 
modification of salary levels, etc., by 
privileged personnel only; allow "back- 
dating" of cumulative records if error 
detected in current payroll data; allow 
easy updating of tax computation 
algorithms when tax laws change; 
allow (indeed, force) operator to make 
back-up records easily; allow 
specification of various management 
reports (for example, totals by depart- 
ment). 

The COMPAL payroll system, 
offered with the hardware described 
above, performs all of these jobs and 
more. A complete payroll involving 25 
employes can be run in well under one 
hour. 

Other Considerations 

• Maintenance: Who will fix the 
computer if it breaks on Friday after- 
noon at 1 :30 P.M.? Who will update the 
program when the tax laws change? 



• Training: who will teach your 
bookkeeper how to run the system? 
What happens if he leaves in six 
months? 

• Reliability: of the hardware, of the 
software, and of the vendor! 

At COMPAL, these last items de- 
mand as much of our attention as the 
others. We must provide instant 
"loaners" and service to our customers 
using the payroll system. We train the 
bookkeeper, the clerk, and anyone else 
who will be using the system in our own 
classroom facilities. We see to it that 
the customer's software is up-to-date 
and in compliance with the law. 

In summary, we advise the 
businessman not to abandon his com- 
mon business sense in evaluating a 
microcomputer-based payroll system. 
Demand to see the system perform, get 
references, do the same things you 
would do in evaluating any addition to 
your operation. Don't be snowed by the 
"gee-whiz" aspects of this exciting new 
industry. Expect to pay for value; "you 
get what you pay for" does apply to the 
microcomputer business, as crazy as it 
sometimes seems. Read the articles in 
this magazine, ask around, be shrewd, 
and you will find an electronic 
associate who can "meet the payroll" 
as well as you can, and save you a lot of 
money in the process. ■ 



PROGRAMMING 
CONTEST ! 

-WIN- 



1 SI PRIZE- FLOPPY DISK SYSTEM OR $1000 CASH 
£"•* PRIZE- FLOATING POINT BOARD OR $400 CASH 
V* PRIZE- AUDIO INTERFACE OR *200 CASH 



$ 




M 


A 


Y 






O 




O 


w 


1 


N 


$ 


U 


1 




1 






N 




y 


■ 


s 



OF COURSE YOU HAVE THE SEARCHING AND SORTING SKILLS 

ACQUIRED BY EVERY HACK PROGRAMMER SINCE ENIAC! BUT 

DO YOU HAVE A CUNNING AND CLEVERNESS THAT RANKS YOU 

WITH CIA CALIBRE CODE CRACKERS.' PUT YOUR PERSONAL 

COMPUTER TO WORK AROUND THE CLOCK SOLVING OUR 

ARDUOUS WORD PUZZLE IN AN ATTEMPT TOi 

«** EXPAND YOUR SYSTEM BY WINNING PRIZES *** 



For entry form and official rules send 
a self addressed stamped envelope to: 
MICRO PUZZLES 7858 Cantaloupe Ave. 

Van Nuys, California 91402 




'I'd like to apply for a . . . oh, never mind." 




"He's been wearing it ever since he single- 
handedly won that programming contest last 
week." 



120 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



business 

computing 



Payroll: 




Osborne & Associates 



Mary Borchers 
Lon Poole 



The published payroll 
has been made as 
general and flexible as 
possible, without making 
it unwieldy. A chapter of 
the book, and various 
comments throughout, 
suggest ways to 
customise the published 
system to make it best 
suit your needs. 



Osborne & Associates is publishing a 
series of books providing BASIC 
source listings and documentation for 
business data processing. The first 
book, Payroll With Cost Accounting, 
by Lon Poole and Mary Borchers, is 
available now at $12.50, and is 
probably the most complete payroll 
package published to date. 

Payroll will be followed by two more 
books: Accounts Payable and Ac- 
counts Receivable, and General 
Ledger. Both of these books are 
expected to be completed later this 
year. 

These published accounting 
programs are a direct result of Osborne 
& Associates' five years of experience 
serving as software consultants to 
small and medium-sized businesses. 
The programs have been tested and 
updated over the years so that they are 
now, basically, error-free. 

As software consultants, 
programmers at Osborne & Associates 
realized that a great deal of diversity 
exists in accounting methods. Their 
published payroll has been made as 
general and flexible as possible, 
without making it unwieldy. A chapter 
of the book, and various comments 
throughout, suggest ways to 
customize the published system to 
make it best suit your needs. 

Contents 

Approximately one-third of the 380- 
page Payroll book is taken by source 
listings of 35 programs which make up 
the payroll system. Remarks for each 



Mary Borchers and Lon Poole, Osborne & 
Associates, P.O. Box 2036, Berkeley, CA 94702. 



program are included in the margin 
next to the listing. Line number, 
variable and special function cross 
reference tables are also provided for 
each program. 

The remainder of the book is devoted 
to extensive system and program 
documentation. A programmer install- 
ing the system should read the entire 
book, but parts of the book intended 
only for non-programmers are kept 
separate. 

For the programmer there are dis- 
cussions of program implementation, 
disk accessing methods, system 
limitations, printer usage, special 
printed forms and file layouts. 
Program-by-program information in- 
cludes the function of each program, 
how it works, its limitations, variable 
usage, CRT display requirements and 
sample printouts. A program to set up 
CRT masks is also included. 

For the non-programmer, a general 
Management Guide provides an over- 
view of how the system works. It gives 
an idea of when to enter data, which 
program is to follow which, what 
reports are included and when they 
should be printed. After reading the 
Management Guide you are ready to 
go on to the User's Manual. 

The User's Manual gives step-by- 
step instructions for each of the 35 
programs a payroll clerk will use. It 
includes general data-entry instruc- 
tions, when and how to use each 
program, field definitions and their 
limitations, sample CRT displays with 
prompt messages, user flowcharts, 
instructions on error recovery, and 
what to look for and what to watch out 
for. 

Now you may wonder why there are 
35 separate programs. 



There are two basic reasons. First, a 
crude calculation will show that you 
need approximately 1/35 memory to 
use the system with 35 programs as 
compared to the same system written 
as one huge program. 

Second, it allows much more flex- 
ibility within the system. Each program 
performs a specific task. Any program 
can be run as many times as necessary 
and in any order, as long as it doesn't 
affect calculations. For example, nine 
of the 35 programs are termed "file 
maintenance" — all they do is allow 
you to see and change data stored in a 
file. This is an important feature of this 
system, because it allows the operator 
to check and correct data at any time, 
as many times as necessary, without 
having to first complete processing (as 
you might with one huge program). 
Thus you are able to avoid propagating 
one error throughout the entire system. 

Report programs may also be run as 
many times as necessary. This makes it 
easy to get more than one copy of a 
report, and overcome those uncon- 
trollable bad printouts that often result 
from the printer itself — the paper does 
not feed properly, the ribbon gets out 
of whack, etc. 

And even though there are 35 
programs, it needn't appear that way. 
To avoid the tedium of having to load, 
execute and save each program, there 
is one program, Menu, whose only 
function is to load and execute another 
program which has been selected by 
the operator. When processing of any 
other program is complete, it in turn 
loads and executes the Menu. Thus, to 
the operator, the system does not 
appear to the 35 separate programs at 
all, but one large, multi-faceted 
program. 



MAY JUNE 1 978 



121 



System Capabilities 

The payroll published is based on a 
biweekly pay period. Up to ten separate 
companies may be entered, and each 
company may have up to 9999 
employees. 

Employees may be classified as one 
of three types: salary, salary with 
overtime, or hourly. Earnings are 
calculated by accumulating any com- 
bination of salary, regular hours, 
overtime hours, vacation pay, holiday 
pay or piecework pay (except a salary 
employee may not receive regular 
hourly pay, and an hourly employee 
may not be paid a salary). 

Taxable or non-taxable lump sums 
may be added to an employee's total 
earnings to be included in his 
paycheck. This is used for paying 
bonuses, travel reimbursements, etc. 

At the end of the pay period, taxes 
are computed on the total taxable pay, 
and then deducted from it. U.S. income 
tax, social security, California state 
income tax and California disability 
insurance are automatically withheld 
according to each employee's deduc- 
tion claims. Additional federal, state or 
miscellaneous deductions may also be 
withheld. 

When paychecks are printed, all 
additional pay and deductions that 
were included in that check's 
calculations are detailed on the check 
stub. 

The results of the check calculations 
are accumulated to monthly, quarterly 
and yearly totals. Selected information 
from each paycheck is saved to provide 
a history of every check issued an 
employee. These cumulative totals and 
historical records are the basis for 
printing the payroll journal, govern- 
ment tax forms (941 and W-2), and 
other reports. A sample of the payroll 
journal is shown. 

Pay data may be entered at any 
interval you select — from once a day 
to once a pay period. As pay data is 
being entered, it may be associated 
with a job number. 99999 jobs are 
allowed for the entire system, with each 
job subdivided into ten tasks. Subtotals 
for each task are printed along with job 
totals on the costing report. Hours 
charged to each job are also reported 
by the employee. 

Program Development and Implemen- 
tation 

All programs have been written, 
tested and run on a Wang 2200 series 
computer using its special extended 
BASIC and a 5-megabyte disk for data 
and program storage. It uses 16K bytes 
of program memory, excluding the 
BASIC interpreter. 

To effectively use this payroll system 
you will need a CRT display, printer 
and disk-storage device. Specifically, 
the CRT should display a minimum of 
16 lines by 64-character width, and 



should be formattable (you can specify 
cursor position). We suggest a 
minimum or 16K program memory. 
Programs are written for a 132- 
character line width printer; if yours is 
less, many report programs will need 
adjustments. A random-access storage 
device, such as hard or floppy disk, is 
necessary; sequential-access data 
storage will simply be too time- 
consuming. The amount of storage 
area needed is determined primarily by 
the number of employees you have. 

A programmer is required to set up 
the system. He will have to set up data 
files and insure the programs are 
running properly. If your computer is 
not compatible with Wang BASIC, the 
programs will have to be modified to 
conform to the new BASIC syntax 
(there is a chapter in the book that 
describes special features of the Wang 
Laboratories computer to help you do 
this). 



PAYROLL WITH COST ACCOUNTING 
- IN BASIC - 




By 

LON POOLE 
MARY BORCHERS 



While you are changing programs to 
be compatible with your computer, you 
will probably want to customize them 
so they match your payroll procedures 
more exactly. Even though this payroll 
is general-purpose, some arbitrary 
decisions had to be made which the 
authors realize may not be compatible 
with your payroll methods. To help the 
programmer do this, a chapter is 
included on different ways to 
customize the programs. 

Program Conversions 

Realizing that publishing programs 
in Wang BASIC limits the number of 
businessmen that could use this 
system, Osborne & Associates is 
encouraging consultants and in- 
dividuals to "convert" these programs 
to other systems and market them. 
Osborne & Associates charge no 
license fee for these conversions nor 
do they demand any royalty on resales. 



A statement of Osborne & Associates 
policy on program conversions is 
reproduced below. 

To date, there are three companies in 
the process of converting this payroll 
system to other computer systems. 
Anyone interested in purchasing this 
payroll for other systems should con- 
tact these persons directly: 

Alpha-Micro system: 
Scott Brim, president 
Computer Systems 
7952 Secretariat 
Las Vegas, NV 89119 

Digital Group Z80 and IMSAI (with 
CP/M disk) systems: 

Peter M. Burke 

The Basic Business Software 
Company 

P.O. Box 2032 

Salt Lake City, UT 84110 

Digital Group system: 
John Musgrove 
Musgrove Engineering 
9547 Kindletree Dr. 
Houston, TX 77040 

In addition, you may purchase 
machine-readable listings of Wang 
programs as published in the books by 
contacting the following: 

Wang BASIC on floppy disk: 
Richard M. Armour 
Atlantic Computing and 
Consulting, Inc. 

1104 Sparrow Road 
Chesapeake, VA 23325 

Wang BASIC on cassette or hard disk: 
Mary Borchers 
Osborne & Associates, Inc. 
P.O. Box 2036 
Berkeley, CA 94702 

Any other persons interested in 
converting the Payroll programs for 
resale on other computer systems 
should write to Osborne & Associates 
and ask for a Statement of Pol icy and to 
be included on their referral list. 

A Statement of Policy 

Osborne & Associates is publishing a 
series of books providing BASIC 
source listings and documentation for 
business data processing programs. 

All of the BASIC program books that 
we have available or currently 
scheduled copyright the printed word 
only; they specifically exclude protec- 
tion of the magnetic surface. This 
means that we are, in effect, placing the 
machine-readable form of the software 
in the public domain while retaining all 
rights to the human-readable form of 
the programs. You are free to take any 
programs out of our books and use, 
modify or resell them without 
authorization, royalty or license, but 



122 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



you cannot give away or sell any 
portion of the programs in human- 
readable form. The printed source 
listings are protected to the last line of 
readable code. 

Does this mean that you must sell a 
copy of our book with your software? 
There is no law that we could invoke to 
force this upon you even if we wished 
to; however, economics favor that you 
do so. When you see our books, you 
will find that the documentation ac- 
companying the programs could not 



be reproduced by you or anyone else 
without spending a very large sum of 
money and wasting a great deal of time. 
You are thus faced with the option of 
buying our books wholesale, reselling 
them retail and making a small profit; or 
attempting to redo the documentation 
yourself and taking a substantial loss. 
Moreover, if you produce your own 
documentation, it can only include 
source listings for any new code you 
add. You cannot reproduce our source 
listings. 



Osborne & Associates is putting 
itself in the position of supplier to 
consultants rather than competitor 
with consultants. Osborne & 
Associates will not modify programs 
for any customer, nor do any type of 
custom programming work. We will, 
instead, refer all inquiries to con- 
sultants. This being the case, we 
encourage you to tell us what you have 
done with our programs and what kind 
of referrals regarding our programs 
you would like to receive. ■ 



EMP NO. 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



IMPRESSIVE PRODUCTS 
PRVROLL JOURNAL 02/14/78 - 01/28/78 



10095 NAME 
flDDR: 



REG HRS 

80. 00 

240 00 
240 00 



SLATS GRUBNICK 
10095 MAIN STREET 
CHICAGO, CALIFORIA 
90095 



REG PAV 

400. 00 
1200. 00 
1200. 00 



T. HRS 

5. 50 

10. 50 

10. 50 



SS # 951-00-0000 STATUS 

EMPLOVEE TVPE 1 FED-EX 

EMP. CLASS ST-EX 

INS. CLASS 2 ADD-EX 



0. T. PAV 
41. 25 
78. 75 
78. 75 



W. HRS 

00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



W. PAV 
0. 00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



S DATE/EMP 05/28/74 

1 CHECK NO. 931 

1 CHECK DATE 02/12/77 

VAC HOURS 0. OO 



HAW PAV 
0. 00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



VAC HRS 
0. 00 

0. 00 
0. 00 



DATE 02/22/78 




PAGE 1 




PAV RATE 5. 0000 




H&W RATE 0000 




MON HOURS 85 5000 




MON PAV 441. 2500 




VAC PAV OTHER PAV 


NON-TAX 


0. 00 00 


00 


0. 00 25. 00 


0. 00 


00 25. 00 


0. 00 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 

EMP NO 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



FED W/H 

66. 75 

183. 87 

183. 87 

10500 NAME 
ADDR: 



REG HRS 
32. 00 
82. 00 
82. 00 



ST W/H 
13 96 
31 82 
31. 82 



I. C. A. 
25. 81 
70 45 
70 45 



LEOPOLD BLOOM 
COMPANV PRESIDENT 
10500 ULVSSSES 
DUBLIN, CALIFORNIA 



REG PAV 
1750. 00 
5250 00 
5250 00 



0. T HRS 
0. 00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



S. D. I. 

4. 41 
12. 03 
12 03 



OTHER DED 

100 00 
100 00 
100 00 



TOTAL DED 
210. 93 
398. 17 
398. 17 



SS # 101-01-1001 STATUS 

EMPLOVEE TVPE FED-EX 

EMP. CLASS 1 ST-EX 

INS CLASS 1 ADD-EX 



0. T. PAV 
0. 00 

00 
00 



W. HRS 

0. 00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



W PAV 

0. 00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



NET PAV TOTAL PAV 

230. 32 441. 25 

905 58 1303. 75 

905. 58 1303. 75 

H DATE/EMP 01/24/68 

3 CHECK NO. 932 

3 CHECK DATE 02/12/77 

1 VAC HOURS 80. 00 



H&W PAV 
0. 00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



VAC HRS 
0. 00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



PAV RATE 
HAW RATE 
MON HOURS 
MON PAV 



1750. 0000 

0. 0000 

82 0000 

2250. 0000 



VAC PAV OTHER PAV NON-TAX 

0. 00 500 00 0. 00 

0. 00 500. 00 0. 00 

0. 00 500. 00 0. 00 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



FED W/H 

695. 28 

1564. 04 

1564. 04 



ST. W/H 
190 56 
406 56 
406 56 



F. I. C. A. 
131. 63 
336 39 
336. 39 



S. D. I. 

22. 50 
57. 50 
57. 50 



OTHER DED 
00 

0. 00 
0. 00 



TOTAL DED 
1039. 97 
2364. 49 
2364 49 



NET PAV TOTAL PAV 

1210. 03 2250. 00 

3385. 51 5750. 00 

3385. 51 5750. 00 



EMP NO 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



11229 NAME 
ADDR 



REG HRS 
40 00 
40. 00 
40 00 



TOM JOAD 

11229 CANNERV ROW 

SALINAS, CALIFORNIA 

90345 



REG PAV 

512. 50 

1537. 50 

1537. 50 



O. T 



HRS 
4 25 
4. 25 
4. 25 



SS # 001-11-1001 STATUS 

EMPLOVEE TVPE FED-EX 

EMP CLASS ST-EX 

INS. CLASS 2 ADD-EX 



0. T. PAV 
40 84 
40. 84 
40. 84 



P. W. 



HRS 

4 00 
4. 00 

4. 00 



P W. PAV 

150. 00 

150. 00 
150. 00 



S DATE/EMP 11/12/69 

CHECK NO. 933 

CHECK DATE 02/12/77 

VAC HOURS 00 



H&W PAV 
0. 00 
0. 00 

0. 00 



VAC HRS 

40 00 
40 00 
40. 00 



PAV RATE 
H&W RATE 
MON HOURS 
MON PAV 



512. 5000 

0000 

S8. 2500 
803 3400 



VAC PAV OTHER PAV NON-TAX 

0. 00 100 00 0. 00 

0. 00 100 00 0. 00 

0. 00 100 00 00 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



FED W/H 
187. 20 
374 28 
374. 28 



ST. W/H 
50. 48 
87 90 
87. 90 



I. C. A. 
47. 00 
106. 96 
106 96 



S. D. I. 
8. 03 
18 29 
18. 29 



OTHER DED 

0. 00 
0. 00 
0. 00 



TOTAL DED 
292. 71 
587. 43 
587 43 



NET PAV TOTAL PAV 

510 63 883. 34 

1240. 91 1828. 34 

1240. 91 1828. 34 



EMP NO 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



11243 NAME 
ADDR 



REG HRS 

80 00 
80. 00 
80. 00 

FED W/H 

51. 97 

169. 09 

169 09 



RHETT BUTLER 

C/0 GENERAL DELIVERV 

TARA, CALIFORNIA 

90009 



REG PAV 

375. 00 

1125. 00 

1125. 00 

ST. W/H 

9. 83 

27. 69 

27. 69 



0. T. HRS 

50 

2. 50 
2. 50 

F. I. C A. 
22 14 
66 78 
66 78 



SS # 345-66-7777 STATUS 

EMPLOVEE TVPE FED-EX 

EMP CLASS ST-EX 

INS. CLASS 2 ADD-EX 



0. T 



PAV 

3. 52 

16. 50 

16 50 



S. D. I. 
3. 79 
11. 41 
11. 41 



P W HRS 

0. 00 
0. 00 
00 

OTHER DED 
0. 00 

50 00 

50. 00 



P. W PAV 
O0 
0. 00 
0. 00 

TOTAL DED 

87. 73 

324. 97 

324. 97 



S DATE/EMP 09/12/76 

1 CHECK NO. 934 

1 CHECK DATE 02/12/77 

VAC HOURS 70. 00 



H&W PAV 

0. 00 

0. OO 

0. 00 



VAC HRS 
OO 

0. 00 
0. 00 



NET PAV TOTAL PAV 

290. 79 378. 52 

816. 53 1141. 50 

816. 53 1141. 50 



PAV RATE 
HAW RATE 
MON HOURS 
MON PAV 



375. 000O 

0000 

80. 5000 

378 5200 



VAC PAV OTHER PAV NON-TAX 

00 O 00 00 

0. 00 00 00 

0. 00 0. 00 0. 00 



IMPRESSIVE PRODUCTS 
PAVROLL JOURNAL 02/14/78 - 01/28/78 



DATE 02/22/78 
PAGE 2 



COMPANY TOTALS 



VAC HOURS 



150. 00 MON HRS 



336. 25 MON PAV 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



CURRENT 

QTD 

VTD 



REG HRS 
282. OO 
442. OO 
442 00 

FED W/H 
1001. 20 
2291. 28 
2291. 28 



REG PAV 
3037. 50 
9112. 50 
9112 50 

ST. W/H 
264. 83 
553. 97 
553 97 



0. T. HRS 
10 25 
17. 25 
17. 25 

F. I. C. A. 
226. 58 
580. 58 
580. 58 



0. T. PAV 

85. 61 

136. 09 

136. 09 

S. D. I. 
38. 73 
99 23 
99. 23 



P W. 



HRS 
4. 00 
4. 00 
4. 00 



OTHER DED 

100. 00 

150. 00 

150 00 



P. W. PAV 
150 00 
150 00 
150. 00 

TOTAL DED 
1631. 34 
3675. 06 
3675. 06 



H«W PAV 
0. 00 
0. 00 

00 



VAC HRS 
40. 00 
40. 00 

40 00 



NET PAV TOTAL PAV 

2241. 77 3873. 11 

6348. 53 10023. 59 

6348. 53 10023. 59 



3873 11 
VAC PAV 

0. 00 
0. 00 

0. 00 



OTHER PAV 
600 00 
625. 00 
625. 00 



NON-TAX 
O. 00 

00 
00 



The payroll journal for Impressive Products provides current, quarter-to-date and year-to-date data in 19 
categories plus almost as many additional items of information, on an impressive group of employees 



MAY JUNE 1978 



123 



business 
competing 



The User Instruction Manual for the 
Radio Shack TRS-80 "Business 
Systems: Payroll" is a black three-ring 
binder containing four pages of in- 
struction, five payroll worksheets, five 
"Data Tape Generation List" forms, five 
identical "File Documentation" sheets 
that give the order of the eight program 
variables on the data tape, and five 
identical "Employee Records" sheets 
that give the order of the 18 items on 
the tape. The back cover holds eight 
cassettes, one for the Checks Program, 
another for the Update and Summary 
Program, and the other six for payroll 
data. 

The manual opens with these two 
paragraphs: 

"Radio Shack Payroll is a complete 
computer and manual system design- 
ed to reduce the workload involved in 
writing paychecks and keeping ac- 
count balances. It contains two 
program tapes and six data tapes. The 
programs are: PAYROLL CHECKS and 
PAYROLL UPDATE & QUARTERLY 
SUMMARY. The data tapes are blank 
originally but both of the programs will 
write information on them. Be sure to 
keep careful records of what is on each 
tape. Sound accounting procedures 
are even more important on a computer 
system than on a manual system. 

"As a second precaution, duplicate 
the programs two or three times. The 
procedure is described in the User's 
Manual. This will assure of always 
having a program should a tape be 
accidentally destroyed or erased." 

(As a sound precaution, Radio Shack 
has recorded the two programs four 
times on each cassette, twice per side.) 



How To Set Up Your System 

First, load the Update and Summary 
tape into the TRS-80 computer. When 
you then type RUN, the computer 
responds with: 

TYPE 1 TO CREATE A PAYROLL DATA TAPE 
TYPE 2 TO GET A QUARTERLY SUMMARY 
TYPE 3 TO ADD NEW EMPLOYEES TO THE 
DATA TAPE 

If you wish to create a payroll data 
tape, typing 1 and pressing ENTER will 
bring up: 

LOAD A NEW TAPE-PRESS RECORD 
PRESS ENTER WHEN READY 



Payroll: 

Radio Shack 



Stephen B. Gray 



So you remove the program cassette 
from the tape recorder, insert one of 
the six blank data tapes, press both 
RECORD and PLAY simultaneously, 
and then ENTER. The computer then 
asks a series of questions: 

HOW MANY EMPLOYEES? 

WHAT IS THE FICA SALARY LIMIT? 

WHAT IS THE FICA PERCENT? 

TYPE 1 IF YOU HAVE STATE INCOME TAX 

TYPE 2 IF YOU DO NOT 

If you type 1, then the computer asks: 

TYPE 1 IF STATE TAX IS A STRAIGHT 

PERCENTAGE 

TYPE 2 IF YOU JUST CALCULATE THE TAX 

YOURSELF 

The manual says: "All but six states are 
straight percent of either gross or 
Federal. If you operate out of one of 
those six, you must calculate State tax 
yourself each time. If State tax is a 
straight percent, the computer will ask 
for that percent." If you now type 1 , the 
computer will ask 

WHAT IS THE PERCENTAGE? 

and after you've entered the figure, the 
computer asks you to 

TYPE 1 IF THAT IS A PERCENTAGE OF 

GROSS 

TYPE 2 IF THAT IS A PERCENTAGE OF 

FEDERAL TAX 

After you enter 1 or 2, the computer 
starts in on City tax: 

TYPE 1 IF YOU HAVE CITY TAX 
TYPE 2 IF YOU DO NOT 

If you type 1, then the computer asks 
the same questions as for State tax, on 
whether the City tax is a straight 
percentage or if you must calculate it 
yourself, what is the percentage, and 
then: 

TYPE 1 IF YOU USUALLY HAVE DEDUC- 
TIONS FOR THE CATEGORY TITLED- 
OTHER— 
TYPE 2 IF YOU DO NOT 

This is a category "for any deductions 
not otherwise provided for, such as 
parking, non-resident taxes, etc." 

The computer then goes on with 
further questions: 

HOW MANY PAY PERIODS PER YEAR? 

The answer, of course, is 52, 26, or 24. 
Then, after you respond to: 

HOW MANY DOLLARS DEDUCTIBLE PER 
DEPENDENT? 

the screen comes up with 

WRITING TO TAPE 




About five seconds pass before the 
next message comes up on the screen, 
so if you haven't put in a blank data tape 
beforehand, you'll have to start all over 
again. The next message is: 

TYPE 1 IF YOU WANT TO ENTER YEAR-TO- 
DATE AND QUARTER-TO-DATE TOTALS 
TYPE 2 IF YOU WANT ZEROS IN THESE 
FIELDS 

Next, for each employee, these 
questions are asked: 

EMPLOYEE #1 

ENTER FIRST 5 DIGITS OF SOC SEC $ (NO 

DASHES) 

ENTER LAST 4 DIGITS 

TYPE 1 FOR SINGLE-2 FOR MARRIED 

NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS 

ENTER 1 FOR SALARIED-2 FOR HOURLY 

If the employee is salaried, the ques- 
tion is: 

ENTER DOLLARS PER PAY PERIOD 

If hourly: 

ENTER DOLLARS PER HOUR 

If you said you'd wanted year-to-date 
and quarter-to-date totals, the com- 
puter next asks for: 

EMPLOYEE #1 

QUARTER-TO-DATE 

GROSS 

FED 

FICA 

STATE 

CITY 

OTHER 

if you have indicated that all these 
deductions will be made. The com- 
puter then asks for the year-to-date 
amounts in the same deduction 
categories, writes these last two sets of 
data to tape, and goes on to ask the 
same questions about employee #2. 
When you've input all the data on all the 
employees, the computer notes: 

DATA TAPE CREATED-END OF PROGRAM 

As the manual says, "you are now 
ready to run your payroll on the TRS- 
80." 



On Payday 

First you load into the TRS-80 that 
other program tape, which is the 
Checks program. Then you put into the 
tape recorder the Payroll Data Tape 
you've just created (or which you 
created last payday). Press PLAY on 



124 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



the recorder so the computer can read 
data from the tape as required by the 
Checks program. 

Just to make sure you put the data 
tape into the recorder, the computer 
prints: 

PAYROLL CHECKS 
LOAD TAPE 
PRESS ENTER 

And when you press ENTER, the 
computer comes up with: 

NEW QUARTER-1=YES, 2=NO 

If you reply 1 , the quarter-to-date totals 
will be set to zero. The computer reads 
the first employee's data from the tape, 
prints it on the screen, and then asks 
you to 

ENTER REG HRS, OVTM HRS 

if the employee is on an hourly wage. 
The tax is then calculated and printed 
on the screen under the same column 
headings used by the quarter-to-date 
and year-to-date totals. 

Just in case any changes have taken 
place since you last wrote the tapes, 
the computer prints out at the bottom 
of the screen: 

ANY CHANGES??? 1=NO, 2=GROSS, 3=FED, 
4=FICA, 5-STATE, 6=CITY, 7=OTHER 

To change any parameter, type in the 
relevant code. For instance, if you want 
to change the Federal tax, type 3; the 
message 

NEW VALUE 

comes up, you type the new amount for 
Federal tax, and within a moment after 
you hit ENTER, the data on the screen 
is changed to reflect the new rate. 

Once you're satisfied that all the 
amounts are correct, reply with a 1, 
which means "no more changes," the 
computer will calculate net pay, and 
will update the QTD and YTD totals on 
the screen. 

The Paycheck 

The message now at the bottom of 
the screen is: 

HIT ENTER TO GO ON 

and when you do, the computer clears 
the screen and writes the paycheck by 
printing the amounts for GROSS, FEC, 
FICA, STATE, CITY, OTHER, and NET 
PAY. 

After the paycheck is written, press 
ENTER and the next employee's data 
will be read into the computer. 

After all checks have been written, 
this message appears: 

#OF NEW EMP 

and if any new people were hired, you 
reply with the number added, and the 
program will process the new 
employees. The program will then 
print: 

NEW TAPE--RECORD--HIT ENTER 

which means the program is ready to 
write a new data tape that will be read 




into the next PAYROLL CHECKS 
program. Put in a new tape, press 
RECORD and PLAY on the tape 
recorder, and then press ENTER. After 
the new tape has been written, label 
anddate it, write the generation number 
on the File Generation Worksheet, and 
you're all set until the next payday. 

Modifications 

The manual notes that the 
withholding tables are stored in certain 
lines, says that "when tax tables 
change, it will be necessary to modify 
these statements," and then shows just 
how to make these modifications. 

The manual then goes on to say 
"This program will handle 11 
employees in a 4K RAM machine, 66 
employees in 8K, or 177 in 16K. If you 
have a 4K machine and wish to 
increase its capability to employees, 
you may do so by eliminating some of 
the messages the computer prints on 
the screen." Then the manual tells how 
to do this. 

Correcting the Data Tape 

As the manual puts it, "Occasionally 
it may be necessary to correct some of 
the numbers on the data tape," due to 
entry errors, an employee getting 
married, an increase in the number of 
an employee's dependents, etc. A 26- 
line program is given, to be used for 
making such corrections. 

Quarterly Summary 

Way back at the beginning, you had 
three choices, and we've just finished 
looking at all of the first choice, 
creating a payroll data tape. The 
second choice was "to get a quarterly 
summary." If you had typed a 2, the 
computer would ask if you want a 
summary for each employee, or if you 
just want a company summary. 



If you press 1, for a summary on each 
employee, the computer will read the 
tape for each one and print out the 
figures; then each time you press 
ENTER, a new employee SOC SEC # 
will come up on the screen, along with 
the relevant payroll data. 

After showing you the data for each 
employee, the computer will then 
provide a company summary (which 
you could have gotten all by itself 
earlier, by pressing a 2), headed: 

SUMMARY FOR ALL EMPLOYEES 
ACTIVE AND TERMINATED 

with both QTD and YTD figures for 
GROSS, FED, FICA, STATE, CITY and 
OTHER. 

Adding New Employees 

The third choice back at the begin- 
ning was for adding new employees to 
the data tape. If you'd typed a 3, the 
computer would ask you to 

LOAD MOST CURRENT DATA TAPE- 
PRESS PLAY 
PRESS ENTER WHEN READY 

The computer would read the tape, and 
while doing so would put up on the 
screen 

READING TAPE 

At the end of the tape, the computer 
asks 

HOW MANY NEW EMPLOYEES? 

and then asks you to enterthe person's 
SOC SEC #, marital status, etc. This 
data is then added to the data tape, 
after which this comes up on the 
screen: 

DATA TAPE CREATED--END OF PROGRAM. 

Availability 

The Payroll Program is $19.95, and 
can be ordered from any Radio Shack 
store. ■ 



MAY/JUNE 1 978 



125 



business 
competing 



Payroll: 



MITS 




The Payroll System is 
designed to automatic- 
ally report back to the 
MITS General Ledger 
provided the user has a 
dual disk system. 



[Ed note: the description is taken 
from the MITS brochure. 

In the Mar-Apr Creative, the Inven- 
tory Control package was described as 
being supplied by the Altair Software 
Distribution Company. Some names 
have been changed. What we're talking 
about now is the MITS Payroll System 
from the Microsystems Division of the 
Pertec Computer Corp.; the Altair 
name will be used for personal- 
computer hardware and software.] 

The Accounting System is com- 
prised of four modules — general 
ledger, receivables, payables and 
payroll. 

The Payroll package allows a com- 
pany to prepare its periodic payroll for 
hourly, salaried, and commissioned 
employees while accumulating the 
necessary information for tax report- 
ing. It generates the monthly, quarter- 
ly, and annual returns to be filed with 
local, state and federal governments. It 
also prepares employee W-2's and 
maintains an up-to-date information 
reference for each employee. The 
payroll package includes tables for 
federal withholding and FICA as well as 
withholding for all 50 states and up to 
20 cities from precomputed or user- 
generated tables. The package will 
automatically produce payroll checks 
at the user's option. 

General Description 

The Payroll System keeps a record 
on each employee, storing such infor- 
mation as unit name and address, 
deductions and exemptions, SSN, pay 
type, pay period, and current month, 
quarter, and year-to-date totals for all 
earnings and deductions. 

Complete Employee File 
maintenance: add, change, delete, and 
list capabilities are available. 

Employees may be paid weekly, bi- 
weekly, semi-weekly, or monthly and 
any combination of these may be 
present at the same time. Employees 
may be paid as hourly employees, 
salaried employees, or draw-plus- 
commission employees and any mix of 
these types may be used at the same 
time. 



The system also contains a Tax 
Information File that can store all the 
tax information and tables the Payroll 
System, requires to calculate taxes for 
all fifty states and up to twenty local 
governments. Changes to this file are 
easily made using the tax program. 

The Payroll System uses the infor- 
mation in both the Tax Files and each 
employer's record to calculate net pay, 
all state, local and federal taxes and up 
to three other deductions, and gross 
pay. This data is stored in the employee 
record and used by the system to print 
pay checks. 



The system also generates: 

• An end-of-month report showing 
unemployment liabilities and totals 
for each deduction and tax. 

• A 941-A report giving all informa- 
tion needed to fill out the 941 and any 
state quarterly reports. 

• W-2 forms for each employee. 
For a typical dual-disk hardware 

configuration, up to 400 employees 
may be processed. 

The Payroll System is designed to 
automatically report back to the M\TS 
General Ledger provided the user has a 
dual-disk system. 



THE HARRIS SUPPLY CO. 
PAYROLL SYSTEM 
EMPLOYEE LIST - INQUIRY 
05/17/77 



101/MPT PAUL T. MANAGER 

1254 RITZ AVE. NE . 

DECATUR GA. 30032 

254-65-4346 
CURRENT: HOURS OT OTHER DATE 

05/06/77 



MARITAL ST.=M 
FED. EXEMPT. =3 
ST. EXEMPT. =3 
CITY=0 ST. =10 



DATE EMP. =04/23/65 STATUS=A 
DATE TERM.=//0 

PAY PERIOD = S PAY TYPE = S 

PAY RATE = $760,000 



CK.NO. 
6139 



DED. : INSURANCE 
$12.50 



MISC #1 
$1.50 



EARNINGS -REGULAR 
-OVERTIME 
-OTHER HRS. 
-COMMISSIONS 
-MISC. 

DEDUCTIONS-FICA 

-FEDERAL 
-STATE 
-LOCAL 
-INSURANCE 
-MISC. #1 
-MISC. #2 



CURRENT 

$760.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$44.46 

$21.79 

$24.27 

$0.00 

$12.50 

$1.50 

$0.00 



MONTH 

$760.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$44.46 

$21.79 

$24.27 

$0.00 

$12.50 

$1.50 

$0.00 



QUARTER 

$2,280.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$133.38 

$65.37 

$72.81 

$0.00 

$37.50 

$4.50 

$0.00 



MISC #2 
$0.00 

YEAR 

$6,840.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$400.14 

$196.11 

$218.43 

$0.00 

$112.50 

$13.50 

$0.00 



101/SSC SUZI C. SECRETARY 

45 W. MANCHESTER #32 
ATLANTA, GA. 30306 
254-87-6745 

CURRENT: HOURS OT OTHER DATE 



MARITAL ST 
FED. EXEMPT, 
ST. EXEMPT 
CITY=0 ST, 
CK.NO. DED.: 



=S DATE EMP. =02/12/69 STATUS=A 

=1 DATE TERM.=//0 

=1 PAY PERIOD = S PAY TYPE = 

=10 PAY RATE = $350,000 



EARNINGS -REGULAR 
-OVERTIME 
-OTHER HRS. 
-COMMISSIONS 
-MISC. 

DEDUCTIONS-FICA 

-FEDERAL 
-STATE 
-LOCAL 
-INSURANCE 
-MISC. #1 
-MISC. #2 



05/06/77 6140 



CURRENT 

$350.00 
$0.00 
$0.00 
$0.00 
$0.00 
$20.48 
$51.31 
$5.35 
$0.00 
$4.00 
$1.50 
$0.00 



INSURANCE 
$4.00 



MISC #1 
$1.50 



MONTH 

$350.00 
$0.00 
$0.00 
$0.00 
$0.00 
$20.48 
$51.31 
$5.35 
$0.00 
$4.00 
$1.50 
$0.00 



QUARTER 

$1,050.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$61.44 

$153.93 

$16.05 

$0.00 

$12.00 

$4.50 

$0.00 



MISC #2 
$0.00 

YEAR 

$3,150.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$0.00 

$184.32 

$461.79 

$48.15 

$0.00 

$36.00 

$13.50 

$0.00 



Up-to-date payroll records of two employees are provided by the Employee List. 



126 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Specifications 

Minimum Machine Requirements. 
Altair 8800 series computer or 
equivalent, with 48K (49152) bytes of 
RAM, one floppy disk unit, and an 
input/output terminal with at least 80 
characters output per line. 

Recommended Machine Require- 
ments. Altair 8800 series computer or 
equivalent, with 48K (49152) bytes of 
RAM, two floppy disk units, a video 
display unit (CRT) for data entry and 
editing, and a hardcopy printer for 
output reports and listings. 

Operating Software. Altair Disk 
BASIC Language, Version 4.0. All ap- 
plications programs (with the excep- 
tion of several machine language 
subroutines) are written using this 
interpretive BASIC. NOTE: Altair Disk 
BASIC must be licensed separately 
from the accounting packages. 

Documentation. A three-part users 
manual foreach accounting package is 
provided, having sections titled 
General Information, Systems Guide, 
and Operators Guide. Subjects in- 
clude: 

• General System Overview 

• Hardware/Software Matchup 

• A Sample Company, with Reports 
and Listings 

• Glossary of Terms and Defini- 
tions 

• Logic Flow Diagram 

• Program Narratives 

• Installation and Startup Pro- 
cedures 

• Operator Instructions, with Sam- 
ple Displays 

• Handling of Exceptions and Error 
Conditions 

• Other Miscellaneous Information 
Warranty. Any programming defects 

reported will be corrected without 
charge for a period up to thirty-six 
months after commencement of 
license. Unauthorized customer 
and/or dealer tampering of software 
will void warranty. 

License. Packages available for a 
one-time license fee arrangement 
through any of the Altair computer 
centers. OEM and Software House 
licenses available. 

Installation and Training. One-time 
license fee normally includes on-site 
installation and training of customer's 
personnel, terms and conditions of 
which are determined by customer and 
dealer. 

Software Notes. Software is supplied 
to the customer on a floppy diskette 
and, depending on customer-dealer 
arrangement, will be configured for 
that customer's hardware system. Each 
of the four accounting packages con- 
tains from 14 to 20 separate programs, 
including utility programs for systems 
generation, file and diskette backup, 
error recovery, and diskette testing. ■ 



THE HARRIS SUPPLY CO, 
PAYROLL SYSTEM 
PAYROLL REGISTER 
05/17/77 



101MPT 



PAUL T. MANAGER 



TYPE=S 



RATE= 760.000 



HOURS 

REG= 0.00 
OT = 0.00 
OH = 0.00 



— EARNINGS- 
REG* 760.00 
OT = 0.00 
OH = 0.00 
COM= 0.00 
MIS» 0.00 



DEDUCTIONS 

FIC= 44;46 INS= 12.50 

FED= 21.79 MI1= 1.50 

STA= 24.27 MI2= 0.00 

CIT= 0.00 



TOTALS 

EARN= 760.00 
DEDU= 104.52 

*NET= 655.48 



101SSC SUZI C. SECRETARY 



TYPE=S 



CHECK NO. 



RATE* 350.000 



HOURS 

REG= 0.00 
OT = 0.00 
OH = 0.00 



— EARNINGS- 
REG= 350.00 
OT = 0.00 
OH = 0.00 
COM= 0.00 
MIS= 0.00 



FIO 
FED= 
STA= 
CIT= 



--DEDUCTIONS 

20.48 INS= 4.00 
51.31 Mil- 1.50 

5.35 MI2= 0.00 

0.00 



TOTALS 

EARN= 350.00 
DEDU= 82.64 

*NET= 267.36 



CHECK NO. 



* * * 



TOTALS - DEPARTMENT 101 



— e; 


sRNINGS 





--DEDUCTIONS 




TOTALS 


REG 


1,110.00 


FIC 


64.94 


INS 


16.50 


EARN 


1,110.00 


OT 


0.00 


FED 


73.10 


Mil 


3.00 


DEDU 


187.16 


OH 


0.00 


STA 


29.62 


MI2 


0.00 






COM 


0.00 


CIT 


0.00 






*NET 


922.84 


MIS 


0.00 















The Payroll Register for Department 101 lists all the information required for calculating pay and writing 
paychecks. 



For further information on the MITS 
Payroll System, contact the 
Microsystems Division, Pertec Com- 
puter Corp., 20630 Nordhoff Blvd., 
Chatsworth, CA 01311. 



103SGT 



THE HARRIS SUPPLY CO. 

33 Northside Ave. 

Chamblee, Georgia 30340 



GEORGE T. SHIPPING 



— YOUR — — HOURS WORKED — YOU EARNED 

PAY RATE REGULAR PREMIUM REGULAR PREMIUM OTHER 



3.950 



40.0 



0.0 158.00 



0.00 



0.00 



GOVERNMENT TAX DEDUCTIONS OTHER DEDUCTIONS 

FICA FEDERAL STATE LOCAL INSUR. MISC 1 MISC 2 

9.24 6.60 0.78 0.00 8.00 0.00 2.50 



No. 0G142 



***GROSS*** 
158.00 



* * * *NET* * * 
130.88 



PAID THRU 



YEAR TO DATE TOTALS- 
EARNINGS FICA FEDERAL 



STATE 



LOCAL 



05/06/77 



3,094.84 



190.27 



150.58 



22.73 



0.00 



THE HARRIS SUPPLY CO. 

33 Northside Ave. 
Chamblee. Georgia 30340 



The Merchants National Bank 
Atlanta, Georgia 



65 404 
312 



No. 06142 



Check No - 614 2 



**** ONE HUNDRED THIRTY & 88 /100 DOLLARS 

AMOUNT 



PAY TO THE ORDER OF: 



r 



GEORGE T. SHIPPING 
88 MADDOX ST. 
ATLANTA, GA. 30329 



"1 



DATE 



05/05/7 






****$130.8I 



NON NEGOTIABLE 



PLACE MICR ENCODING HERE 



The paycheck portion of the Payroll System provides both a check and a stub that shows all taxes, 
deductions and year-to-date totals. 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



127 



I business! 
I computing |1 



This program is espe- 
cially designed for small 
companies having a 
standardized work week 
and whose employees 
are paid by the hour 
rather than salaried. 




Payroll: 



Scientific Research Inst. 



BEPT. NUMBER 

FIRM NAME 

FOR WEEK ENDING 



MINI-LEDGER 



SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 
8/S/77 



ALL SALES 

SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY 
0.00 345.12 456.72 126.90 671.81 572*62 0.00 



THIS WEEK 2173.17 LAST 


WEEK 


567 


.43 TO DATE 


2740.60 




PAYROLL 






















HRS 


GROSS 


FICA 


FEDRL 


STATE 


MISC 


NET 


EMP* SOC.SEC* 


NAMb.: 


WKD 


WAGES 


AMT 


WITH 


WITH 


DED 


WAGES 


6732 237-62-1932 


J. M. DOYLE 


65 


424.45 


24.83 


55.28 


0.00 


8.93 


335.41 


3112 698-32-2679 


G.R. CRAMER 


80 


254.40 


14.88 


33.02 


0.00 


7.50 


199.00 


918 183-67-2110 


PHIL JOHNSON 


80 


350.40 


20.49 


42.86 


0.00 


16.50 


270.55 


A671 823-16-4312 


J* SWAIN 

TOTALS 


80 


460.00 


26.91 


54.69 


.0.00 


8.50 
41.43 


369.90 




80 


1489.25 


87.11 


185.85 


0.00 


1174*86 



A/P 



AC# 

100 
2400 
1500 



CHECK # 

4567 
4568 
4569 



DATE 

8/2/77 
8/3/77 
8/3/77 



TO WHOM 

LAFAYETTE 
GEO SUPPLY 
RADCO INC. 



EXPLANATION 

MERCHANDISE 
OFFICE EXPEN 
SHOP EXPENSE 



OPENING BALANCE 



PETTY CASH 



123.45 



CLOSING BALANCE 



312.48 



TOTAL 



AMOUNT 

87.12 
45.16 
56.75 

189.03 



DATE 

8/2/77 
8/3/77 

OPENING BAL 



TO WHOM 

ED PHILLIPS 
UPS 

25.13 



TOTAL 



AMOUNT 

12.85 
8.63 

21.48 CLOSING BAL 



46.61 



Among the summaries printed by the ledger program in Volume VI is this payroll update. 



[Ed. note: The following is taken mainly 
from SRI's manuals.] 



Scientific Research Inst, has three 
payroll programs. The first is in Volume 
III of their BASIC Software Library, 
"Advanced Business" ($39.95) by R.W. 
Brown, and can be input from aud\o 
cassette. There are no external files, 
because all the data is contained in 
DATA statements. 

The second payroll program is in the 
front of Volume VI, "A Complete 
Business System" ($49.95, same 
author), but does not generate payroll 
checks. Instead, it is part of a ledger 
program that "performs periodic up- 
dates to the ledger files and also 
generates Payroll, Sales, A/P, Cash 
and Expense statistics. From these 
totals, the Balance Sheet, P&L, Year 
End taxes, 94Vs and W2 information 
may be generated." This ledger 
program is a module of a large system, 
which is a disk interactive version of 
(although not identical in all parts to) 
the Volume III program. The user can 
make up a business system from both 
Volumes III and VI, using disk interac- 
tive programs where desired. 

The third program is described 
extensively in the back of Volume VI; 
and as the forward puts it, "the entire 
source code for this complete business 
system program is not included due to 
its proprietary matter.' This 
proprietary package is available from 
Scientific Research Inst., 220 
Knollwood, Key Biscayne, FL 33149. 



128 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



First Payroll Program 

The first payroll program, which 
takes up a little over seven pages and 
about 350 lines of BASIC statements, is 
described this way in Volume III: 



Description 

This program calculates and com- 
piles a payroll register for all of your 
employees. All employee data is con- 
tained within the program so that 
external data files need not be used. 
The program computes the deductions 
for FICA and Federal and State 
income-tax withholdings, permits 
deductions for employee insurance, 
calculates the employer's state and 
federal unemployment insurance tax 
and has space provided for an ad- 
ditional deduction calculation (Union 
dues, emp. savings, loan repymts, etc.) 
should such space be needed or 
required. Four different printouts are 
generated by this program: (1 ) printing 
of paychecks, (2) Payroll Register; in a 
tabulated format, (3) employee data 
record and (4) a summarized tax record 
for the employer. 



Payroll Modifications 

There are only two modifications 
that may be made to enhance the 
operation of this program. They were 
not made before inclusion of the 
program in its present form because of 
the compatibility problems that exist 
between Advanced Basic compilers. 
The first and foremost modification 
would be to change the PRINT 
statements to PRINT USING 
statements in the report printouts. The 
second modification would be to use a 
Data File to feed information to the 
program instead of using internal 
DATA statements. If these 
modifications are not made, the payroll 
program will still function normally and 
without error. These changes are 
primarily intended as a convenience 
factor, not as a necessity. 

The PRINT statements in all four of 
the reports may be converted to PRINT 
USING statements for added report 
clarity. The PRINT statements in the 
following lines should be converted: 



835, 865, 890, 905, 1050, 1070, 1100, 
1235, 1240, 1450 and 1460. The 
TAB( ) spacing for printing on the 
check and stub are listed on lines 630 to 
680. By changing these tab constants, 
the spacing between fields on the 
check and stub may be altered to 
conform to the particular check form in 
use. 

The program may also be modified to 
allow the entry of employee data from a 
Use File rather than from the Internal 
Data statements. This would require 
the addition of a FILES statement and 
conversion of the READ statements to 
READ # statements. The exact file 
modifications will depend on the 
computer system and Basic compiler 
version being used. If the program is 
modified for a Use File, delete the 
DATA statements in the program. For 
additional memory efficiency, the 
PRINT and PRINT USING statements 
should be merged with the READ # 
statements. This merger should not be 
made unless the program has been 



Users 

This program is especially designed 
for small companies having a stand- 
ard work week and whose employees 
are paid by the hour rather than 
salaried. 



Instructions 

Before the program is run, all 
employee data must initially be entered 
into the program. The program is well 
documented and should be listed for 
full details. The subroutines for the 
Federal taxes; line 1475, the Federal 
deduction schedule; line 1550, tax rate 
due; line 1585 and the State 
withholding; line 1680, should all be 
completed for your particular re- 
quirements before the program is 
initially run. 



Limitations 

This program is set for a maximum of 
50 employees. This can be adjusted to 
accommodate other numbers of 
employees by changing the DIM 
statements in lines 155 and 160. The 
source code requires 9K bytes of 
memory for storage and 15K bytes of 
memory for execution, with 50 
employees. A sample run of this 
program follows the source listing. The 
data generating the examples is con- 
tained within the program and should 
be removed before entering your data. 



_iaiSL_lS_.THEL.P.AY.R0UU„SECTI0N. II_.GENIRAIES_ THE _F0LL0W I NG_REPQRTS. 

1 - PAYROLL LEDGER 

2 - PRINT PAYCHECKS OR 941 'S 

3_j=^RINI^H^_UNEMPJLOYttENI_T_QJALS 



4 - WITHHOLDING TOTALS 
.5_-_UPDAIE_EttP-LQY£E_ DAI A_ 
6 - END 



WHICH ONE DO YOU WANT TO DO? 1 



PAYROLL LEDGE R 



DATE JUL. 23 t 1977 



...EMPLOYEE 



EMPI DYFF 



S.S. 



$/HR. 



NUMBER 



NAME 



DEPENDENTS 



MISC. 
JKD 



GROSS 
PAY 



TOTAL 
FED 



TOTAL 
STATE 



TOTAL 
FICA 11 



INS. 
DED, 



A3721 
__. $0-_0_Q_ 

B6219 
$10.00 



J.M. DOYLE 
$7_rU9.9_4 

G.R. CRAMER 

$3,604.34 



339-26-4096 
JLf_40.3_.fi5 



$6.53 
$426.37 



_224- 16-3209 _$3_.73 
$608.62 $208.89 



>419_.44 

103 
$210.84 



_*7a50 
$9.04 



A1872 PHIL H. JOHNSON 
$0i00 $4 f 905 .60 

E4.531 O.L, HARRISON. _ 

$0.00 $0.00 



118-19-3402 
$1»047.85 

3_64__45-8237 

$0.00 



$4.38 
$292.40 

_*3_. 90 
$0.00 



$286.96 

2 
$0.00 



$6.15 
$0.00 



In the third SRI payroll program, the user has selected item 1 from the menu, the payroll ledger. (The 
printout of the first payroll program is simpler: it shows name, employee number, net pay, total tax, total 
deductions, and the totals of these last three figures.) 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



129 



modified for a Use File. 



Third Payroll Program 

Much of the explanatory text accom- 
panying the programs in the lattertwo- 
thirds of Volume VI, called "A Com- 
plete Business System, ACBS rev:80," 
was reprinted in the SRI Inventory 
Control article in the March-April issue 
of Creative Computing (pages 116- 
120). One of the paragraphs bears 
repeating: 



Payroll 

Yearly changes or updates to the tax 
algorithms in the payroll section are 
accomplished by typing in the number 
of the line or lines; one at a time, 



followed with the amended line data. 
Federal taxes are for the year 1977 and 
State taxes have been set to that used 
by the state of Maryland for 1977. After 
the changes have been made, save 
them by typing SAVE "PAY PROG. This 
will delete the old disk copy and 
replace it with the amended program. 
Do not try to run this except in the 
normal manner by typing RUN" ACBS 
otherwise the ACBS programs may be 
damaged or destroyed. 



The end of Volume VI contains a 
section on Yearly Payroll Tax Up- 
dating. The text says: 

The following sheet is a listing of the 
employee tax algorithms. To change 
the State or Federal tax withholdings 



simply type LOAD"PAY PROG. Then 
type in the line number you wish to 
change followed by the entire line as 
shown on the following page, sub- 
stituting the numbers you are changing 

too, in place of the numbers that 
appear on the line. If you need to delete 
a line, simply type the line number and 
then press the Return key. If you need 
to enter a new line in addition to what is 
already there, such as in the State tax 
section, simply type in a line number 
between the two lines where you wish 
to place the new line and then type in 
the new line information. When finish- 
ed, press the Return key. When all of 
the updating you are going to do is 
done, type SAVE"PAY PROG. You now 
have saved an updated copy of the 
payroll program. ■ 



TYPE A '0' IF r YOU WANT TO RUN THE 941 QUARTERLY TOTALS* 
OR TYPE A 'l'IF YOU WANT TO RUN PAYCHECKS •? 1 



DID ALL THE EMPLOYEES WOR K A ST ANDARD PAY PERIOD (Y .OR .. H1ZJL 



WH EN CH ECKS ARE IN PLACE> READY FOR PRINTING r _ TYPE . IN THE ST ARTING CHECK ♦? 479 



No. 



479 



l»AY TO THE 
ORDER OF: 



Scientific Research Instruments Co., Inc. 

PAYROLL ACCOUNT 
1712 Farmington Court, Crofton, Md. 21114 



15-3 



J.M. DOYLE 



PAY EXACTLY 



$374, 



DOLLARS 



AND 



44 









511 


Id. 21114 


DATE 






JUL* 


23 f 1977 






PAY 


CENTS 


$ 


i 
1 

374. |44 



Scientific Research Instruments Co.. Inc. 

PAYROLL ACCOUNT 



MAIN OFPICI 

THE RIGGS NATIONAL BANK 

WASHINGTON, O.C. 



r 

No. 

A ~J C3 


THIS IS A 


STATEMENT OF YOUR EARNINGS ANO DEDUCTIONS 
PLEASE DETACH AND RETAIN 


N 


■J7t 


DEDUCTIONS 


MBIOO JUL. Z3f IV // 
KNOINO 


A3721 


522.40 




7.50 






80 




^ BMP. NO. 





















r 


$7,169.94 




0.00 


80.22 


30.56 


29.68 


$374.44 


OVIRTIMC 

on 

COMMISSION 


ONOSS SALARY 


ADVANCES 


OTHKH 

DEDUCTIONS 


PIO. W.M. 
TAX 


STATK W.M. 
TAX 


r.i.c.A. 


NET PAY 












Scientific 


Research 1 


nstrumem; 


Co., Inc. 




2 



Selecting item 2 on the menu prints paychecks, with a user-selected starting check number. (The address 
is SRI's previous location.) 



FILE STRUCTURES 

[The first five file structures, given in 
detail in the March-April Creative 
Computing, were for files named 
MISC, A/P, A/R, EINV, and MINV.J 

File #6 - PAY 

# of employees, # of hours in each pay 
period, State Unemployment %, 
employee #, social security #, Active 
Emp., Name, St. Add, City, State, Zip 
code, Rate of pay $, # Dependents, $ 
Deductions (Ins. etc.), Misc deductions 
$, total $ Gross pay (year to date), total 
$ FICA withheld year to date, total $ 
Federal Tax withheld year to date, total 
$ State Tax held year to date, total $ 
Gross pay this period to date (or since 
the last P&L), total $ Taxes paid for 
employee this period (i.e.: U.I., State 
taxes, FICA, etc.) Wages this quarter, 
FICA this quarter, Fed. taxes this 
quarter. 



130 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



uMHiManH 




shcpl programs 



Stu Denenberg 



Referring to "Systematic Savings" on 
page 132 of the Nov/Dec 77 Creative 
Computing, the fancy mathematics 
formula masks what is happening. 

Why not just do the calculation as a 
person would do with a hand 
calculator? We could begin with the 
simpler problem of calculating com- 
pound interest and then slightly modify 
that procedure to do systematic in- 
vestments. For example, the Basic 
program for compound interest is: 



Systematic Savings Revisited 

Note especially that Line 30 is nor P= 
P* (I + R); instead it stresses what we 
actually do when we calculate interest 
— namely multiply the principal by the 
interest rate and then add that back 
onto the principal to give the new 
principal. 

Now the program to do systematic 
savings is exactly the same as the one 
for compound interest but instead of 
letting our 100 bucks lay around all 
lonely while it's compounding, we keep 
feeding in lumps of $100 at the end of 
each year so now the program looks 
like: 



C is the constant amount we save 
each year. Line 60 is the only reai 
difference between the two programs 
and it shows how we add in the 
constant savings to our principal each 
year. 

Dr. Stuart Denenberg 
Dept. of Computer Science 

SUNY 
Plattsburgh, NY 12901 



5 PRINT "AT END OF YEAH"* "BALANCE" 


5 PRINT "AT END OF YEAR AMOUNT INVESTED 


TOTAL ACCUMULATED" 


10 READ P#R#N 


10 READ N»C»R 




20 FOR !•! TO N 


20 P«C 




30 P«P>P*R 


30 FOR I- 1 TO N 




40 PRINT I#»P 


40 P«P*P*R 




50 NEXT I 


50 PRINT TAB<5>iIITAB<25>!I*CITAB<45>*P 




60 ST0P 


60 P»P*C 




70 DATA 100* *U 10 


70 NEXT I 




60 END 


80 STOP 

90 DATA 10* 100*. 1 

100 END 




■Of 






AT BID OF YEAR BALANCE 






1 110 


RUN 




a 121 


AT END OF YEAR AMOUNT INVESTED TOTAL 


ACCUMULATED 


3 133*1 


1 100 


no 


4 146*41 


2 200 


231 


5 161*051 


3 300 


364*1 


6 177*156 


4 400 


510*51 


7 194*872 


& 500 


67W561 


8 214*359 


6 600 


848*717 


9 235*795 


7 700 


1043*59 


10 259.374 


8 800 


1257*95 




9 900 


1493*74 




10 1000 


1753*12 









n 



If $1000 is deposited in a savings account paying 8%. 
interest compounded n times a year, then this will 
accumulate to 

$1000(1 + .08/n) 
at the end of one year assuming that no deposits or 
withdrawals are made. 

n 8% Compounded Accumulation at end of one year. 

(Rounded to nearest cent) 



1 


Yearly 


$1000(1+.08/1) 1 = 


$1080.00 


2 


Semiannuc 


Uly$1000(1 + .08/2) 2 = 


$1081.60 


4 


Quarterly 


$1000(1+.08/4) 4 = 


$1082.43 


12 


Monthly 


$1000(1+.08/12) 12 = 


$1083.00 


365 


Daily 


$1000(1+.08/365) 365 = 


$1083.28 


8760 


Hourly 


$1000(1 +.08/8760) 8760 = 


$1083.29 


525,600 


Every 
minute 


$ 1000(1+. 08/525600) 52560 ° = 


$1083.29 


31, 536,000 Every 

second 


$1000(1 + .08/31 536000) 31536000 = 


$1083.29 




Hardly worth quibbling over 
hours, minutes, and 
seconds. 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



131 





Dan Rawitsch 





This program simulates a trip over the 
Oregon Trail from Independence, 
Missouri to Oregon City, Oregon in 
1847. Your family of five will cover the 
2040-mile Oregon Trail in 5-6 months 
— if you make it alive. 

INTRODUCTION 

"The Santa Fe Trail being first 
established, a signboard was later 
set up to show where the Oregon 
Trail branched off. It bore the 
simple legend 'Road To Oregon.' 
. . . Surely so unostentatious a sign 
never before nor since an- 
nounced so long a journey." 
- H.M. Chittenden 
The American Fur Trade of 
the Far West 

During the thirty-year period from 1840 
to 1 870, thousands of pioneers traveled 
over the 2000-mile Oregon Trail tc 
settle on the West Coast. The history of 
the trail may be seen by some as a 
strong example of heroic American 
themes such as "conquering the fron- 
tier" and "the pioneer spirit." To others, 
the great western migration carries the 
political overtones of the colonists and 
their descendents forcing out British 
imperialism and clearing away the 
native American Indians in an effort to 
dominate middle North America them- 
selves. At the very least, the journey 
over the trail represents the human 
stories of many individuals who, 
oblivious to historical trends, tried to 
survive in life as best they knew how. 



RATIONALE FOR COMPUTER 
USAGE 

This computer simulation, developed 
initially in 1971 and refined in 1975, is 
an attempt to give students a better 
feeling of what the journey west was 
like for the people who attempted it. 
Like all simulations, OREGON does 
not attempt to replicate exactly a trip 
on a wagon train in the 1840's. But it 
does attempt to present students with 
some of the resources, decisions, and 
events that faced the pioneers of that 
day. Although students can find out 
about the Oregon Trail by reading 
books, visiting museums, watching 
movies, and similar activities, the 
simulation allows them to learn from 
actively participating in the simulated 
experiences of people from another 
era. 



Background On The OREGON Program 

In 1971, Don Rawitsch and Bill Heinemann were 
participating together in a practice teaching 
program as students at Carleton College, 
Northfield, Minnesota. Don was teaching a class 
on the history of the American West and provided 
the preliminary information which Bill, a math 
teacher, used to construct the OREGON program. 
The program was first implemented on the 
Minneapolis Schools timesharing system. On the 
completion of the practice teaching program, the 
program was removed from the Minneapolis sys- 
tem and remained only as a curled up listing until 
Don joined the MECC staff in 1974 and loaded it 
onto the MECC system. Don then proceeded to do 
further research on the Oregon Trail and modi- 
fied the program for historical accuracy to pro- 
duce the present version. The program has been 
implemented on Hewlett-Packard, UNIVAC, and 
Control Data systems. 



132 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





HISTORICAL BACKUP INFOR- 










MATION 










Although historical information 


50X 








about the trip to Oregon is not 










extremely plentiful, primary and 










secondary sources were used 










whenever possible to make the 


40X 








simulation authentic. 










• Mileage and route of the Trail 


CO 








Morgan, insert-back cover, "Map 










of T.H. Jefferson - 1849" 


c 








Hancock, xiv, xv, information 


B 








based on a map of 1846 


E 








Meeker, Ox Team Days, pp. 252-53 


o 20X 








Meeker, Ox Team Days, p. 61 -says 


z 








travelers averaged 15-25 miles per 


CO 








day, though they didn't travel every 


8 iw 

CL 








day. In the simulation, players 










make about 175-200 miles every 










two-week period. 

Ghent, p. 73 - says ox-drawn 









200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 


2000 




wagons made 2 miles per hour, or 




Mileage 






20 miles on good days and 5-10 










miles on bad days. 




Occurrence of "Riders Ahead" as a function of mileage 






• Costs of resources 










Meeker, Ox Team Days, p. 13, says 










in 1850's sugar cost 18G/lb., salt 










cost $3.00/barrel, calico cost 










15C/yd. 










Ghent, p. 99, says a team of oxen 










cost about $200 (for eight); 


MR 








references a guidebook of the time 










which recommends the following 










to be included for each adult: 










150lbs.offlour 25lbs. of bacon 


701 








25 lbs. of sugar 1 5 lbs. of coffee 


co 

c 

(0 








In the simulation, the player 


c 

■J 




/ 




spends $200-$300 on an oxen 


601 




f 




team. Based on the Meeker infor- 


E 








mation, if the average commodity 










cost about 20<P/lb. and the average 


'55 501 








family of five eats as much as four 


o 








adults, a good food stock would 


>» 

♦^ 








cost about $175. This is a 


5 4 °x 








reasonable amount to start with in 


CO 

n 

o 








the simulation. 


c 








• Frequency of misfortunes oc- 


301 








curring 










Table 1 shows a frequency 










analysis of events mentioned in the 


201 






200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 


2000 




diaries of three people that 




Mileage 






traveled the entire length of the 










trail. The probabilities of events 




Occurrence of "Rugged Mountains" as a function of mileage 






occurring in the simulation are 










based on this analysis. 










• Miscellaneous 










Dates and days of the week shown 










are correct for 1847. 




BIBLIOGRAPHY 






The average trip in the simulation 




Ghent, William J., The Road to Oregon, Longmans, Green & Co., 






takes about 12 two-week turns. 




New York, 1929 






There were six forts on the trail. In 




Hancock, Samuel, Narrative of Samuel Hancock, George H. Harrap & Co., 




the simulation a player gets the 




Ltd., London, 1927. 






option to stop at a fort every other 




Meeker, Ezra, Ox Team Days on the Oregon Trail, pub. by E. Meeker, 
New York, 1907. 






turn. 




Morgan, Dale L., Overland in 1846, Talisman Press, Georgetown, 






Probability curves for being attacked 




California, 1963. 






by riders and for being in the moun- 










tains are representative of the 




Extensive additional material; sources, and background are 






geographic features of the land. 




contained in the MECC OREGON User Manual by Don Rawitsch. 






(Riders attack more frequently on the 




Minnesota Educational Computer Consortium, 2520 Broadway Drive, 
Lauderdale, MN 55113. 






plains.) 










MAY/JUNE 1 978 




133 





INFORMATION FROM DIARIES OF PEOPLE TRAVELING THE OREGON TRAIL 
(Source: Morgan, David L, Overland in 1846, pp. 123-130,150-158,163-188) 



Reference Start Date 



Total 
End Date Weeks 



Diary of 
William E. 
Taylor 



Diary of 

Nicholas 

Carriger 

Diary of 

Virgil 

Pringle 



4/20/1846 9/13/1846 



4/27/1846 9/26/1846 



No. of 

Occurrences Frequency of Occurrences 



21 



32 



22 



30 



4/15/1846 11/30/1846 33 



38 



TOTALS: avg. 25 



avg. 33 



Table 1 



bad weather 


10 


illness 


4 


rugged trail 


4 


no water 


3 


animals lost 


1 


injury 





wagon breakdown 


2 


bad river 


1 


met friendly 




thieves 


2 


Indians 


5 






bad weather 


2 


illness 


10 


rugged trail 


6 


injury 


3 


animals lost 


6 


thieves 


1 


wagon breakdown 


2 






bad weather 


7 


no water 


5 


illness 


5 


injury 


2 


rugged trail 


7 


bad river 


3 


animals lost 


3 


thieves 


2 


wagon breakdown 


4 






bad weather 


20% 


illness 


20% 


rugged trail 


16% 


no water 


8% 


animals lost 


10% 


injury 


5% 


wagon breakdown 


8% 


bad river 


4% 


met friendly 




thieves 


4% 


Indians 


5% 







1 if 



Total Up Resources 




Stop at 
Fort 



Continue 



Attacked By 
Riders 



11 w 



I 



One of These Misfortunes Occurs: 



broken wagon wheel 

broken arm 

child gets lost 

heavy rains 

fire in wagon 

snakebite 

wild animals attack 

hail storm 



ox injured 

ox wanders off 

bad water 

bandits attack 

fog 

wagon swamped in river 

cold weather 



T 




Illness * 



r 



Mountains 



One of These Misfortunes Occurs: 

slowed down 
wagon damaged 
get lost 



, 



Blizzard 

^ c 




J 



Background on MECC 

The Minnesota Educational Computing Con- 
sortium (MECC) was created in 1972 out of con- 
cern by the governor and legislature that educa- 
tional computing needed a central source of 
coordination for planning, and a mechanism to 
insure that all educational institutions in the state 
would have equal opportunity of access to 
computing services for both instructional and 
administrative programs. The Consortium's 
membership includes the University of Minnesota 
(5 campuses), The Minnesota State University 
System (7 campuses), the Minnesota Community 
College System (18 campuses), the Minnesota 
Department of Education (representing the state's 
436 independent school districts), and the 
Minnesota Department of Administration. 
Minnesota is the only state in the country having a 
central organization for coordinating educational 
computing activities across all levels of education. 

The MECC Instructional Services Division offers a 
variety of services to consortium members. A 
technical staff operates the largest of Minnesota's 
computers dedicated to instructional computing, 
a Control Data CYBER 73 time-sharing system. 
The MECC Timeshare System is currently con- 
figured for 375 user ports and serves about 1100 
interactive terminals located in schools and 
colleges across the state. A large multiplexing 
communications network provides the route by 
which MECC users access the Timeshare System, 
whether they are a few miles from the 
Minneapolis-St. Paul computer center or hun- 
dreds of miles away near the Canadian border. 
The MECC User Services staff of instructional 
coordinators helps user learn to make better use of 
the computer by visiting school and college sites, 
conducting workshops, providing over-the-phone 
consulting service, publishing news letters, and 
producing written documentation for programs in 
the MECC Timeshare System's central library. 



OREGON. Detailed. Model 



134 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Sample Run 



THIS PROGRAM SIMULATES A TRIP OVER THE OREGON TRAIL FROM 
INDEPENDENCE, MISSOURI TO OREGON CITY, OREGON IN 1847. 
YOUR FAMILY OF FIVE WILL COVER THE 2040 MILE OREGON TRAIL 
IN 5-6 MONTHS — IF YOU MAKE IT ALIVE. 

YOU HAD SAVED 1900 TO SPEND FOR THE TRIP, AND YOU'VE JUST 

PAID $200 FOR A UAGON. 
YOU UILL NEED TO SPEND THE REST OF YOUR MONEY ON THE 

F0LL0UIN6 ITEMS 



HOU MUCH DO YOU UANT TO SPEND ON YOUR OXEN TEAM ? 250 

HOU MUCH DO YOU UANT TO SPEND ON FOOD ? 150 

HOU MUCH DO YOU UANT TO SPEND ON AMMUNITION ? 50 

HOU MUCH DO YOU UANT TO SPEND ON CLOTHING ? 150 

HOU MUCH DO YOU UANT TO SPEND ON MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLIES ? 50 

AFTER ALL YOUR PURCHASES, YOU NOU HAVE 50 DOLLARS LEFT 



OXEN - YOU CAN SPEND $200-1300 ON YOUR TEAM 

THE MORE YOU SPEND, THE FASTER YOU'LL GO 
BECAUSE YOU'LL HAVE BETTER ANIMALS 

FOOD - THE MORE YOU HAVE, THE LESS CHANCE THERE 
IS OF 6ETTING SICK 

AMMUNITION - $1 BUYS A BELT OF 50 BULLETS 

YOU UILL NEED BULLETS FOR ATTACKS BY ANIMALS 
AND BANDITS, AND FOR HUNTIN6 FOOD 

CLOTHING - THIS IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT FOR THE COLD 
UEATHER YOU UILL ENCOUNTER UHEN CROSSING 
THE MOUNTAINS 

MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLIES - THIS INCLUDES MEDICINE AND 
OTHER THINGS YOU UILL NEED FOR SICKNESS 
AND EMERGENCY REPAIRS 



YOU CAN SPEND ALL YOUR MONEY BEFORE YOU START YOUR TRIP - 
OR YOU CAN SAVE SOME OF YOUR CASH TO SPEND AT FORTS ALONG 
THE UAY UHEN YOU RUN LOU. HOUEVER, ITEMS COST MORE AT 
THE FORTS. YOU CAN ALSO GO HUNTING ALONG THE UAY TO GET 
MORE FOOD. 

UHENEVER YOU HAVE TO USE YOUR TRUSTY RIFLE ALONG THE UAY, 
YOU UILL BE TOLD TO TYPE IN A UORD (ONE THAT SOUNDS LIKE A 
GUN SHOT). THE FASTER YOU TYPE IN THAT UORD AND HIT THE 
"RETURN" KEY, THE BETTER LUCK YOU'LL HAVE UITH YOUR GUN. 

AT EACH TURN, ALL ITEMS ARE SHOUN IN DOLLAR AMOUNTS 

EXCEPT BULLETS 

UHEN ASKED TO ENTER MONEY AMOUNTS, DON'T USE A "$"'. 

GOOD LUCK!" 

HOU GOOD A SHOT ARE YOU UITH YOUR RIFLE? 

(1) ACE MARKSMAN, (2) GOOD SHOT, (3) FAIR TO MIDDLIN' 
(4) NEED MORE PRACTICE, <5) SHAKY KNEES 
ENTER ONE OF THE ABOVE -- THE BETTER YOU CLAIM YOU ARE, THE 
FASTER YOU'LL HAVE TO BE UITH YOUR GUN TO BE SUCCESSFUL. 
? 4 



MISC. SUPP. 
50 



CASH 
50 



MONDAY MARCH 2? 1847 

TOTAL MILEA6E IS 

FOOD BULLETS CL0THIN6 

150 2500 150 

DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) HUNT, OR (2) CONTINUE 
? 2 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) MODERATELY 
OR (3) UELL ? 1 
THERE UAS A FIRE IN YOUR UAGON— FOOD ANO SUPPLIES DAMAGED 

MONDAY APRIL 12 1847 



TOTAL MILEAGE IS 200 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING MISC. SUPP. CASH 

97 2100 150 40 50 

DO YOU UANT TO (1) STOP AT THE NEXT FORT, (2) HUNT, OR (3) CONTINUE 
? 3 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) MODERATELY 
OR (3) UELL T 1 
YOU KILLED A POISONOUS SNAKE AFTER IT BIT YOU 

MONDAY APRIL 26 1847 



MISC. SUPP. 
35 



CASH 
50 



TOTAL MILEA6E IS 40? 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING 

84 2090 150 

DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) HUNT, OR (2) CONTINUE 
? 2 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) MODERATELY 
OR (3) UELL ? 2 
UAGON GETS SUAMPED FORDING RIVER— LOSE FOOD AND CLOTHES 

MONDAY MAY 10 1847 



TOTAL MILEAGE IS 580 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING MISC. SUPP. CASH 

36 2090 130 35 50 

DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) STOP AT THE NEXT FORT, (2) HUNT, OR (3) CONTINUE 
? 2 

TYPE UHAM 
? UHAM 



MAY JUNE 1978 



135 




RI6HT BETUEEN THE EYES— YOU GOT A BIG ONE!!!! 

FULL BELLIES TONIGHT! 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) MODERATELY 

OR (3) UELL ? 3 

UAGON GETS SUAHPED FORDING RIVER— LOSE FOOD AND CLOTHES 

MONDAY HAY 24 1847 



HISC. SUPP, 
35 



CASH 
50 



TOTAL NILEAGE IS 719 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING 

36 2078 110 

DO YOU UANT TO (1) HUNT, OR (2) CONTINUE 
? 1 

TYPE POU 
? POU 



RIGHT BETUEEN THE EYES— YOU GOT A BIG ONE!!!! 

FULL BELLIES TONIGHT! 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) NODERATELY 

OR (3) UELL * 2 

RIDERS AHEAD. THEY LOOK HOSTILE 

TACTICS 

(1) RUN (2) ATTACK (3) CONTINUE (4) CIRCLE UAGONS 

? 2 

TYPE BLAH 

9 BLAH 

NICE SHOOTING — YOU DROVE THEN OFF 

RIDERS UERE HOST I LE - -CHECK FOR LOSSES 

HELPFUL INDIANS SHOU YOU UHERE TO FIND HORE FOOD 

HONDAY JUNE 7 1847 

TOTAL HILEAGE IS 883 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING HISC. SUPP. CASH 

86 1984 110 35 50 

DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) STOP AT THE NEXT FORT, (2) HUNT, OR (3) CONTINUE 
? 3 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) NODERATELY 
OR <3) UELL ? 1 

UAGON GETS SUAHPED FORDING RIVER— LOSE FOOD AND CLOTHES 
RUGGED NOUNTAINS 
THE GOING GETS SLOU 
BLIZZARD IN NOUNTAIN PASS—TIME AND SUPPLIES LOST 

MONDAY JUNE 21 1847 



HISC. SUPP. 
25 



CASH 
50 



TOTAL HILEAGE IS 950 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING 

18 1684 90 

DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) HUNT, OR (2) CONTINUE 
? 1 

TYPE BLAH 
? BLAH 



RI6HT BETUEEN THE EYES— YOU GOT A BIG ONE!!!! 

FULL BELLIES TONIGHT! 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) NODERATELY 

OR (3) UELL ? 2 

RIDERS AHEAD. THEY LOOK HOSTILE 

TACTICS 

(1) RUN (2) ATTACK (3) CONTINUE (4) CIRCLE UAGONS 

? 2 

TYPE BLAH 

? BLAH 



NICE SHOOTING— YOU DROVE THEN OFF 
RIDERS UERE HOSTILE— CHECK FOR LOSSES 
HAIL STORH— SUPPLIES DAHAGED 
RUGGED NOUNTAINS 
THE GOING GETS SLOU 

HONDAY JULY 5 1847 



TOTAL HILEA6E IS 1004 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING HISC. SUPP. CASH 

53 1392 90 19 50 

DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) STOP AT THE NEXT FORT, (2) HUNT, OR <3> CONTINUE 
? 3 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT <1> POORLY (2) NODERATELY 
OR (3) UELL ? 2 
UILD ANIHALS ATTACK! 
TYPE POU 
? POU 

NICE SHOOTIN' PARDNER— THEY DIDN'T GET HUCH 
HONDAY JULY 19 1847 




TOTAL HILEAGE IS 1217 
FOOD BULLETS 

35 1392 



DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) HUNT, OR <2) CONTINUE 
? 2 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) NODERATELY 
OR (3) UELL ? 2 

HONDAY AUGUST 2 1847 

TOTAL NILEAGE IS 1429 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING HISC. SUPP. CASH 

17 1392 90' 19 50 

DO YOU UANT TO (1) STOP AT THE NEXT FORT, (2) HUNT, OR (3) CONTINUE 
? 2 

TYPE BANG 
? BANG 

RIGHT BETUEEN THE EYES— YOU GOT A BIG ONE!!!! 
FULL BELLIES TONIGHT! 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) NODERATELY 
OR (3) UELL ? 2 

HONDAY AUGUST 16 1847 



TOTAL HILEAGE IS 1594 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING 

55 1380 90 

DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) HUNT, OR (2) CONTINUE 



HISC. SUPP 
19 



CASH 
50 



? 2 




DO YOU UANT TO EAT (1) POORLY (2) NODERATELY 

OR (3) UELL ? 2 

RIDERS AHEAD. THEY LOOK HOSTILE 

TACTICS 

(1) RUN (2) ATTACK (3) CONTINUE (4) CIRCLE UAGONS 

? 2 

TYPE UHAH 

? UHAH 



NICE SHOOTIHG— YOU DROVE THEH OFF 
RIDERS UERE HOSTILE— CHECK FOR LOSSES 
UILD ANIHALS ATTACK! 
TYPE BLAH 
? BLAH 

NICE SHOOTIN' PARDNER— THEY DIDH'T GET HUCH 

RUGGED HOUNTAINS 

THE GOING GETS SLOU 

BLIZZARD IN HOUNTAIN PASS— TINE AND SUPPLIES LOST 



HONDAY AUGUST 31 1847 

YOU'D BETTER DO SOHE HUNTING OR BUY FOOD AND SOON!!!! 
TOTAL NILEAGE IS 1685 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING HISC. SUPP. CASH 

11 999 89 9 50 

DO YOU UANT TO (1) STOP AT THE NEXT FORT, (2) HUNT, OR (3) CONTINUE 
? 2 

TYPE POU 
? POU 

RIGHT BETUEEN THE EYES— YOU GOT A BIG ONE!!!! 
FULL BELLIES TONIGHT! 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT <1) POORLY (2) NODERATELY 
OR <3) UELL ? 2 

HONDAY SEPTEMBER 13 1847 



HISC. SUPP. 
9 



CASH 
50 



TOTAL NILEAGE IS 1847 

FOOD BULLETS CLOTHING 

48 986 89 

DO YOU UANT TO ( 1 ) HUNT, OR (2) CONTINUE 
? 2 

DO YOU UANT TO EAT <1) POORLY (2) NODERATELY 
OR <3) UELL ? 1 
COLD UEATHER — BRRRRRRR'— YOU HAVE ENOUGH CLOTHING TO KEEP YOU UARH 

YOU FINALLY ARRIVED AT OREGON CITY 
AFTER 2040 LONG NILES— HOORAY! !!! ! 
A REAL PIONEER! 



SATURDAY SEPTENBER 25 1847 



FOOD 
35 



BULLETS 
986 



CLOTHIHG 
89 



HISC. SUPP. CASH 
9 50 



PRESIDENT JANES K. POLK SENDS YOU HIS 
HEARTIEST CONGRATULATIONS 

AND UISHES YOU A PROSPEROUS LIFE AHEAD 



AT YOUR NEU HOHE 



CLOTHING 
90 



HISC. SUPP. CASH 
19 50 



RUN CONPLETE. 



136 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





Program Listing 



10 REM PROGRAM NAME - 0REGBN VERSION 1 01/01/78 

20 REM ORIGINAL PROGRAMMING BY BILL HEINEMANN - 1071 

30 REM SUPP0RT RESEARCH AND MATERIALS BY DON RAVITSCH* 

40 REM MINNES0TA EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING CONSORTIUM STAFF 

SO REM CDC CYBER 70/73-26 BASIC 3*1 

• REM DOCUMENTATION BOOKLET *0REQJN * AVAILABLE FROM 

61 REM MECC SUPPORT SERVICES 

68 REM 2520 BROADWAY DRIVE 

63 REM ST. PAUL* MM 55113 

6 REM 

150 REM «F0R THE MEANING OF THE VARIABLES USED* LIST LINES 6470-6790* 

155 REM 

160 PRINT -DO YOU NEED INSTRUCTIONS CYES/NO)"* 

170 DIM CS(5> 

180 REM RANDOMIZE REMOVED 

190 INPUT CS 

200 IF C$""W" THEN 690 

210 PRINT 

220 PRINT 

230 REM •••INSTRUCTIONS*** 

240 PRINT "THIS PROGRAM SIMULATES A TRIP OVER THE OREGON TRAIL FROM" 

250 PRINT "INDEPENDENCE* MISSOURI TO OREGON CITY, OREGON IN 1847." 

260 PRINT "YOUR FAMILY OF FIVE BILL COVER THE 2040 NILE OREGON TRAIL" 

270 PRINT "IN 5-6 MONTHS — IF YOU MAKE IT ALIVE*" 

280 PRINT 

290 PRINT "YOU HAD SAVED 8900 TO SPEND FOR THE TRIP* AND YOU'VE JUST" 

300 PRINT " PAID 8200 FOR A WAGON . - 

310 PRINT "YOU WILL NEED TO SPEND THE REST OF YOUR MONEY ON THE" 

320 PRINT " FOLLOWING XTEMSt" 

330 PRINT 

340 PRINT " OXEN - YOU CAN SPEND 8200-8300 ON YOUR TEAM" 

350 PRINT " THE MORE YOU SPEND* THE FASTER YOU*LL 00" 

360 PRINT " BECAUSE YOU'LL HAVE BETTER ANIMALS" 

370 PRINT 

360 PRINT " FOOD - THE MORE YOU HAVE* THE LESS CHANCE THERE" 

390 PRINT " XS OF OETTXNG SICK" 

400 PRINT 

410 PRINT " AMMUNITION - 81 BUYS A BELT OF 50 BULLETS" 

420 PRINT " YOU WILL NEED BULLETS FOR ATTACKS BY ANIMALS" 

430 PRINT " AND BANDITS* AND FOR HUNTING FOOD" 

440 PRINT 

450 PRINT " CLOTHING - THIS IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT FOR THE COLD" 

460 PRINT " WEATHER YOU WILL ENCOUNTER WHEN CROSSING" 

470 PRINT " THE MOUNTAINS" 

460 PRINT 

490 PRINT " MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLIES - THIS INCLUDES MEDICINE AND" 

500 PRINT " OTHER THINGS YOU WILL NEED FOR SICKNESS" 

510 PRINT " AND EMERGENCY REPAIRS" 

520 PRINT 

530 PRINT 

540 PRINT "YOU CAN SPEND ALL YOUR MONEY BEFORE YOU START YOW-R TRIP -" 

5 50 PRINT "OR YOU CAN SAVE SOME OF YOUR CASH TO SPEND AT FORTS ALONG" 
560 PRINT "THE WAY WHEN Y9U RUN LOW. H0WEVER* ITEMS COST MORE AT" 
570 PRINT "THE FORTS. YOU CAN ALSO GO HUNTING ALONG THE WAY TO GET" 
500 PRINT "MORE FOOD." 

590 PRINT "WHENEVER YOU HAVE TO USE YOUR TRUSTY RIFLE ALONG THE WAY*" 

600 PRINT "YOU WILL BE TOLD TO TYPE IN A WORD (ONE THAT SOUNDS LIKE A" 

610 PRINT "GUN SHOT). THE FASTER YOU TYPE IN THAT WORD AND HIT THE" 

620 PRINT """RETURN"" KEY* THE BETTER LUCK YOU'LL HAVE WITH YOUR GUN." 

630 PRINT 

640 PRINT "AT EACH TURN* ALL ITEMS ARE SHOWN IN DOLLAR AMOUNTS" 

650 PRINT "EXCEPT BULLETS" 

660 PRINT "WHEN ASKED TO ENTER MONEY AMOUNTS* DON'T USE A —8""." 

670 PRINT 

680 PRINT "GOOD LUCK1U" 

690 PRINT 

700 PRINT 

710 PRINT "HOW GOOD A SHOT ARE YOU WITH YOUR RIFLE?" 

720 PRINT " (I) ACE MARKSMAN* <2> MOD SHOT* (3) FAIR TO MIDDLIN'" 

730 PRINT " <4> NEED MORE PRACTICE* < 5) SHAKY KNEES" 

740 PRINT "ENTER ONE OF THE ABOVE -- THE BETTER YOU CLAIM YOU ARE* THE' 

750 PRINT "FASTER YOU'LL HAVE TO BF WITH YOUR GUN TO BE SUCCESSFUL." 

760 INPUT D9 

770 IF D9>5 THEN 790 

760 G0T0 010 

790 D9-0 

00 REM *** INITIAL PURCHASES*** 

610 X1--1 

820 K0-S4-F1-F2-H-M9-D3-0 

6 30 PRINT 
040 PRINT 

8 50 PRINT "HOW MUCH DO YOU WANT TO SPEND ON YOUR OXEN TEAM"; 
60 INPUT A 

870 IF A »• 200 THEN 900 
880 PRINT "NOT ENOUGH" 
090 GOTO 650 
900 IF A <- 300 THIN 930 

9 10 PRINT "TOO MUCH" 
920 QOTO 050 

9 30 PRINT "HOW MUCH DO YOU WANT TO SPEND ON FOOD"* 
940 INPUT F 



9 50 

960 

970 

980 

990 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 

1080 

1090 

1100 

1110 

1120 

1 130 

1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

1190 

1200 

1210 

1220 

1230 

1240 

1250 

1260 

1270 

1260 

1290 

1300 

1310 

1320 

1330 

1340 

1350 

1360 

1370 

1300 

1390 

1400 

1410 

1420 

1430 

1440 

1450 

1460 

1470 

1480 

1490 

1500 

1510 

1520 

1530 

1540 

1550 

1560 

1570 

1560 

1590 

1600 

1610 

1620 

1630 

1640 

1650 

1660 

1670 

1680 

1690 

1700 

1710 

1720 

1730 

1740 

1750 

1760 

1770 

1780 

1790 

1000 

1010 

1820 

1830 

1640 

1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 

1890 

1900 

1910 

1920 

1930 

1940 

1950 

1960 

1970 

1980 

1990 

2000 

2010 

2020 

2030 

2040 

2050 

2060 

2070 

2080 

2090 

2100 

2110 

2120 

2130 



SPEND 



CLOTHING"*" 



IF F >• THEN 980 

PRINT "IMPOSSIBLE" 

GOTO 930 

PRINT "HOW MUCH DO 

INPUT B 

IF B *>• THEN 1030 

PRINT "IMPOSSIBLE" 

GOTO 980 

PRINT "HOW MUCH DO YOU WANT 

INPUT C 

IF C »■ THEN 1080 

PRINT "IMPOSSIBLE" 

GOTO 1030 

PRINT "HOW MUCH DO YOU WANT TO SPEMD ON MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLIES"; 

INPUT Ml 

IF MI »• THEN 1130 

PRINT "IMPOSSIBLE" 

GOTO 1080 

T-700-A-F-B-C-M1 

IF T >• THEN 1170 

PRINT "YOU OVERSPENT— YOU ONLY HAD 8700 TO SPEND. BUY AGAIN" 

GOTO 630 

B-50*B 

PRINT "AFTER ALL YOUR PURCHASES* YOU NOV HAVE -JTJ" DOLLARS LEFT" 

PRINT 

PRINT "MONDAY MARCH 29 1847" 

PRINT 

GOTO 1750 

IF M >• 2040 THEN 5430 

REM ••• SETTING DATE*** 

D3-D3*l 

PRINT 

PRINT "MONDAY "J 

IF D3>10 THEN 1300 

ON D3 GOTO 1310*1330*1350*1370*1390*1410*1430*1450*1470*1490 

ON D3-10 OOTO 1510*1530*1550*1570*1590*1610*1630*1650*1670*1690 

PRINT "APRIL 12 "J 

G6T0 1720 

PRINT "APRIL 06 "I 

G0T0 1720 

PRINT "MAY 10 "J 

G0T0 1720 

PRINT "MAY 04 m t 

OOTO 1720 

PRINT "JUNE 7 "1 

GOTO 1720 

PRINT "JUNE 21 "1 

GOTO 1720 

PRINT "JULY 5 "J 

GOTO 1720 

PRINT "JULY 19 "* 

G0T0 1720 

PRINT "AUGUST 2 "J 

G0T0 1720 

PRINT "AUGUST 16 "1 

G0T0 1720 

PRINT "AUGUST 31 "I 

GOTO 1720 

PRINT "SEPTEMBER 13 "J 

G0T0 1720 

PRINT "SEPTEMBER 27 "J 

GOTO 1720 

PRINT "OCTOBER 11 "J 

G0T0 1720 

PRINT "OCTOBER 25 "1 

G0T0 1720 

PRINT "NOVEMBER 8 "i 

GOTO 1720 

PRINT "NOVEMBER 22 »l 

GOTO 1720 

PRINT "DECEMBER 6 "J 

OOTO 1720 

PRINT "DECEMBER 20 "J 

GOTO 1720 

PRINT "YOU HAVE BEEN ON 




THE TRAIL T00 LONG — " 

FAMILY DIES IN THE FIRST BLIZZARD OF WINTER" 



TURN*** 



PRINT "YOUR 

GOTO 5170 

PRINT "1047" 

PRINT 

REM •••BEGINNING EACH 

IF F »- THEN 1770 

F»0 

IF B >• THEN 1790 

B-0 

IF C >- THEN 1810 

C»0 

IF Ml »- THEN 1830 

MI-0 

IF F »• 13 THEN 1050 

PRINT "YOU'D BETTER DO 

F-INTCF) " 

B-INT(B) 

C«INT<C> 

Hl-INT(MI) 

T»INT<T) 

M-INT(M) 

M2-M 

IF S4-1 THEN 1950 

IF K8-1 THEN 1950 

B0T0 199 

T-T-20 

IF T<0 THEN 5080 

PRINT "DOCTOR'S BILL IS 

LET K8-S4-0 

IF M9>! THEN 2020 

PRINT "TOTAL MILEAGE 1S"JM 

GOTfl 2040 

PRINT "TOTAL MILEAGE IS 950" 

M9-0 

PRINT "FOOD"* "BULLETS"* "CLOTHING"* "Ml SC 

PRINT F*B*C*H1*T 

IF Xl—I THEN 2170 

X1-X1»(-1) 

PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO < 1 > STOP AT THE NEXT 

PRINT "OR (3> CONTINUE" 

INPUT X 

IF X>2 THEN 2150 

IF X<1 THEN 2150 

LET X-INT(X) 



SOME HUNTING OR BUY FOOD AND SOON I 111" 



820' 




SUPP. 



'CASH- 



FORT* (2) HUNT* "I 



MAY JUNE 1978 



137 




2140 

2150 

2160 

2170 

2180 

2190 

2200 

2210 

2220 

2230 

2240 

2250 

2260 

2270 

2280 

2290 

2300 

2310 

2320 

2330 

2340 

2350 

2360 

2370 

2375 

2380 

2390 

2400 

2410 

2420 

2430 

2440 

2450 

2460 

2470 

2460 

2490 

2500 

2510 

2520 

2530 

2540 

2550 

2560 

2570 

2580 

2590 

2600 

2610 

2620 

2630 

2640 

2650 

2660 

2670 

2680 

2690 

2700 

2710 

2720 

2730 

2740 

2750 

2760 

2770 

2780 

2790 

2800 

2810 

2820 

28 30 

2640 

2850 

2860 

2670 

2880 

2890 

2900 

2910 

2920 

2930 

2940 

2950 

2960 

2970 

2980 

2990 

3000 

3010 

3020 

3030 

3040 

3050 

3060 

3070 

3080 

3090 

3100 

3110 

3120 

3130 

3140 

3150 

3160 

3170 

3180 

3190 

3200 

3210 

3220 

3230 

3240 

3250 

3260 

3270 

3280 

3290 

3300 

3310 



G0T0 2270 

LET X*3 

O8T0 2270 

PRINT "DO YfU WANT T8 C 1 > HUNT, OR C2> CONTINUE" 

INPUT X 

IF X-l THEN 2210 

LET X-2 

LET X«X*1 

IF X-3 THEN 2260 

IF B>39 THEN 2260 

PRINT **T0UGH Y0U NEED MORE BULLETS T0 00 HUNTING** 

G0T0 2170 
X1»X1*<-1> 

0N X O0T0 2290,2540*2720 
REN •••ST0PPING AT FORT*** 

PRINT "ENTER WHAT Y0U VI SH T0 SPEND 0N THE F0LL0VING** 
PRINT -F00D-J 
G0SUB 2330 
G0T0 2410 
INPUT P 

IF P«0 THEN 2400 
T-T-P 

IF T »• THEN 2400 

PRINT -Y0U D0N*T HAVE THAT MUCH— KEEP Y0UR SPENDING DOWN- 
PRINT "YOU MISS Y0UR CHANCE T0 SPEND 0N THAT ITEM** 
T-T*P 
P«0 
RETURN 
F»F* 2/ 3*P 

PRINT "AMMUNITION"! 
G0SUB 2330 

LET B*INTCB*2/3*P*50> 
PRINT -CLOTHING"! 
00 SUB 2330 
C»C*2/3*P 

PRINT "MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLIES**! 
00 SUB 2330 
M1-H1*2/3*P 
M»H-45 
G0T0 2720 
REM •••HUNTING*** 
IF B»39 THEN 2570 

PRINT "TOUGH YOU NEED M0RE BULLETS TO 00 HUNTING** 

G0T0 2080 

W W 01 

OOSUB 6140 

IF Bl <- 1 THEN 2660 

IF 100*RND(-1X13*B1 THEN 2710 

F"F*48-2*B1 

PRINT "NICE SH0T--RIGHT ON TARGET— GOOD EATXN * TONIGHT!!" 

B-B-10-3*B1 

G0TO 2720 

REM ••BELLS IN LINE 2660** 

PRINT "RIGHT BETWEEN THE EYES™ YOU OOT A BIG ONE!!!!" 

PRINT "FULL BELLIES TONIBKTI" 

F*F*52*RNDC-1>»6 

B*B-1O-F0ID<-I>*4 

OOT0 2720 

PRINT "Y0U MISSED--- AND YOUR DINNER OOT AWAY " 

IF F >• 13 THEN 2750 

G0T0 5060 

REM •••EATING*** 

PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO EAT <1> POORLY (2) M0DERATELY" 

PRINT "0R <3> WELL"! 

INPUT E 

IF E>3 THEN 2750 

If M THEN 27S0 

LET E-INT(E) 

LET F«F-8-5*E 

IF F >■ THEN 2860 

F»F*8*5*E 

PRINT "Y0U CAN'T EAT THAT WELL" 

O0T0 2750 

LET H»H*200*<A-220>/S*10*RND<-1> 

L1-C1-0 

REM •••RIDERS ATTACK*** 

IF RND(-l)*10>C(M/100-4)»«2*72)/<<M/100-4)»«2*12)-l THEN 3550 

PRINT "RIDERS AHEAD* THEY »| 

S5-0 

IF RNDC-1X.8 THEN 2950 




PRINT 

S5-1 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 



•DON'T "J 



2970 
2970 

3330 
3110 



"LO0K HOSTILE" 

"TACTICS" 

"(1> RUN (2) ATTACK 
IF RNDC-1)>.2 THEN 3000 
S5-I-S5 
INPUT Tl 
IF Tl* 1 THEN 
IF Tl»4 THEN 
T1«INT<TI) 
IF S5-1 THEN 
IF T1>1 THEN 
M"M*20 
M1-M1-1S 
B-B-I50 
A* A- 40 
G0T0 3470 
IF Tl>2 THEN 
G0SUB 6140 
B-B-Bl»40-80 
IF B1>1 THEN 
PRINT "NICE 
G0T0 3470 

IF Bl «■ 4 THEN 3220 
PRINT "L0USY SH0T---Y0U 
K8-1 

PRINT "Y0U HAVE T0 SEE 0L* 
G0T0 3470 

PRINT "K1NDA SL0V WITH Y0UR 
OOT0 3470 
IF Tl>3 THEN 3290 
IF RND(-1)>.8 THEN 3450 
LET B-B-150 
Ml-Ml-15 
OOT0 3470 
G0SUB 6140 
B-B-Bl»30-80 
N-N-25 



<3> CONTINUE C4> CIRCLE WAGONS" 



3240 



3170 
SH00 TING— -YOU 




DROVE THEM OFF* 



G0T KNIFED" 



DOC BL AN CHARD* 



COLT .45* 



3320 
3330 
3340 
3350 
3360 
3370 
3380 
3390 
3400 
3410 
3420 
3430 
3440 
3450 
3460 
3470 
3480 
3490 
3500 
3510 
3520 
3530 
3540 
3550 
3560 
3570 
3580 
3590 
3600 
3610 
3620 
3630 
3640 
3650 
3660 
3670 
3660 
3690 
3700 
3710 
3720 
3730 
3740 
3750 
3760 
3770 
3780 
3790 
3600 
3810 
3820 

38 30 
3840 
3850 
3860 
3870 
3880 
3890 
3910 
3920 
3930 
3940 
3950 
3960 

39 70 

3960 

1990 

tOOO 

4010 

4020 

4030 

4040 

4050 

4060 

4070 

4080 

4090 

4100 

4110 

4120 

4130 

4140 

4150 

4160 

4170 

4180 

4190 

4200 

4210 

4220 

4230 

4240 

4250 

4260 

4270 

4280 

4290 

4300 

4310 

4320 

4330 

4340 

4350 

4360 

4370 

4380 

4390 

4400 

4410 

4420 

4430 

4440 

4450 

4460 

4470 

4480 

4490 

4500 

4510 




BUT CHECK FOR POSSIBLE L0SSES" 



LUCK YOUR 

HAD TO STOP 



DAUGHTER BROKE HER 
AND USE SUPPLIES Tl 



ARM" 
MAKE 



A SLING" 



G0T0 3140 

IF Tl»l THEN 3370 

M*M*15 

A* A- 10 

G0T0 3470 

IF Tl>2 THEN 3410 

H-M-5 

B-B-100 

G0TG 3470 

IF Tl>3 THEN 3430 

O0T0 3470 

M-M-20 

GOTO 3470 

PRINT "THEY DID N0T ATTACK" 

G0T0 3550 

IF S5-0 THEN 3500 

PRINT "RIDERS WERE FRIENDLY, 

G0T0 3550 

PRINT "RIDERS WERE Hi STILE— CHECK FOR L0SSES" 

IF B »• THEN 3550 

PRINT "Y0U RAN 0UT OF BULLETS AND O0T MASSACRED BY THE RIDERS" 

G0T0 5170 

REM •••SELECTION OF EVENTS*** 

LET Dl-0 

REST0RE 

R1*100*RND<-1> 

LET D1"D1*1 

IF DI-16 THEN 4670 

READ D 

IF R!»D THEN 3580 

DATA 6, 1 1, 13, 15, I 7, 22, 32* 35, 37, 42, 44, 54, 64, 69, 95 

IF D1M0 THEN 3650 

ON Dl G0T0 3660,3700,3740,3790,3820,3850,3880,3960,4130,4190 

0N Dl-10 G0T0 4220,4290,4340,4560,4610,4670 

PRINT "WAG0N BREAKS DOWN--L0SE TINE AND SUPPLIES FIXING IT" 

LET W«M-15-5*HNDC-1> 

LET Ml-MI-8 

G0T0 4710 

PRINT "OX INJURES LEO SLOWS Y0U DOWN REST OF TRIP" 

LET M-M-25 

LET A- A- 20 

G0T0 4710 

PRINT "BAD 

PRINT "Y0U 

H*M-5-4*RND<-l> 

NI*Ml-2-3*RND(-D 

GOTO 4710 

PRINT "OX WANDERS OFF™ SPEND TIME L00KING FOR IT" 

M-M-17 

G0T0 4710 

PRINT "YOUR SON GETS LOST™ SPEND HALF THE DAY LOOKING FOR HIM" 

M-M-10 

G0T0 4710 

PRINT "UNSAFE WATER— LOSE TIME LO0KING FOR CLEAN SPRING" 

LET M-M-10*RND(-l>-2 

GOTO 4710 

IF M»950 THEN 4490 

PRINT "HEAVY RAINS---TIME AND SUPPLIES LOST" 

F-F- 10 

B-B-500 

MI-M1-I5 

N*M-10*RND(-l)-5 

G0TO 4710 

PRINT "BANDITS ATTACK" 

G0SUB 6140 

B*B-20*BI 

IF B »• THEN 4030 

PRINT "YOU RAN OUT OF 

T-T/3 

GOTO 4040 

IF Bl •■ I THEN 4100 

PRINT "YOU GOT SHOT IN 

K8"l 

PRINT "BETTER HAVE A DOC LOOK AT YOUR WOUND" 

Ml-Ml-5 

A* A- 20 

GOTO 4710 

PRINT "QUICKEST DRAW OUTSIDE OF DODGE CITY! 1 1" 

PRINT "YOU OOT 'EH!" 

GOTO 4710 

PRINT "THERE WAS A FIRE IN YOUR WAGON — FOOD AND SUPPLIES DAMAGE! 

F-F- 40 

B-B-400 

LET Hl-Nl-KND<-l>«8-3 

M-M-15 

GOTO 4710 

PRINT "LOSE YOUR WAY IN HEAVY FOG TIME IS LOST" 

H-M-10-S*RND<-1> 

GOTO 4710 

PRINT "YOU KILLED A POISONOUS SNAKE AFTER IT BIT YOU" 

B-B-IO 

Ml-Ml-5 

IF Ml »• 

PRINT "YOU 

GOTO 8170 

0OT0 4710 

PRINT "WAGON GETS SWAMPED FORDING RIVER— LOSE FOOD AND CLOTHES" 

F-F- 30 

oc-eo 

M-M-20-20*RND(-l> 

OOTO 4710 

PRINT "WILD ANIMALS ATTACK!" 

OOSUB 6140 

IF B>39 THEN 4410 

PRINT "YOU WERE TOO LOW ON BULLETS—" 

PRINT "THE WOLVES OVERPOWERED YOU" 

KB* I 

OOTO 5120 

IF Bl>2 THEN 4440 

PRINT "NI CE SHOOTIN* PARTNER THEY DIDN'T GET MUCH" 

OOTO 4450 

PRINT "SLOW ON THE LRAW— THEY OOT AT YOUR FOOD AND CLOTHES" 

B-B-20*B1 

C-C-Bl-4 

F»F-B1»8 

GOTO 4710 

PRINT "COLD 

IF C>22*4*RND(-l> 

PRINT "DON'T "J 




BULLETS— THEY GET LOTS OF CASH' 



THE LEG AND THEY TOOK ONE OF YOUR OXEN" 



THEN 4280 

DIE OF SNAKEBITE 



SINCE YOU HAVE NO MEDICINE" 



WEATHER— -BRRRRRRR1— YOU "I 
THEN 4530 



138 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




4520 Cl-1 

4530 PRINT "HAVE ENOUGH CLOTHING T0 KEEP YOU WARM" 

4540 IF Cl-0 TMDi 4710 

4550 GOTO 6300 

4560 PRINT "HAIL STfRH— SUPPLIES DAMAGED** 

4570 M-M-5-RND<-!>*10 

4560 B-B-200 

4590 Hl-Ml-4-RND<-l>*3 

4600 6fT6 4710 

4610 If E-l THEN 6300 

4620 IF E-3 THEN 4650 

4630 IF RND<-1>>.25 THEN 6300 

4640 OfTfl 4710 

4650 IF RND<-1X.S THEN 6300 

4660 O0TS 4710 

4670 PRINT -HELPFUL INDIANS SHOW YOU WERE T0 FIND NIKE FBOD" 

4680 F*F* 14 

4690 GGT0 4TI0 

4700 REM •••MOUNTAINS*** 

4710 IF H «• 950 THEN 1230 

4720 IF RND<-1>*10»9-CCH/100-15>**2*>72>/CCM/100-1S>*«2*12> THEN 4860 

4730 PRINT "RUGGED MOUNTAINS" 

4740 IF RND<-1>».1 THEN 4780 

4750 PRINT "YOU 08T L6ST— -LiSE VALUABLE TIME TRYING T6 FIND TRAIL1" 

4760 M-M-60 

4770 G8T8 4860 

4780 IF RNDC-1>».11 THEN 4840 

4790 PRINT "WAGON DAMAGED!— L8SE TIME AND SUPPLIES" 

4800 MI-M1-5 

4810 B-B-200 

4820 M-M-20-3O*RND<-!> 

4830 68 T6 4860 

4840 PRINT "THE G8ING GETS SL6V" 

4850 H-M-45-RND<-l>/.02 

4660 IF Fi-1 THEN 4900 

4870 Fl»l 

4880 IF WDCIX.8 THEN 4970 

4690 PRIN7 "YOU MADE 17 SAFELY TKR0UGH S6UTH PASS--N0 SN0V" 

4900 IF H-1700 THEN 4940 

4910 IF F2*I THEN 4940 

4920 F2«l 

4930 IF RND<-1><.7 THEN 4970 

4940 IF H>950 THEN 1230 

4950 M9-1 

4960 G8T6 1230 

4970 PRINT "BLIZZARD IN M6UNTAIN PASS— TIME AND SUPPLIES LOST" 

4980 Ll-l 

4990 F-F-25 

5000 MI-MI-IO 

5010 8*8-300 

5020 H>H-30-40*RND<-!> 

5030 IF C« 10*2*RND<-1> THEN 6300 

5040 8079 4940 

5050 REM •••DYING*** 

5060 PRINT "Y8U RAN 6UT 6F F00D AND STARVED T0 DEATH" 

5070 0070 5170 

5060 LE7 T-0 

5090 PRINT "Y6U CAN'T AFF0RD A D0CT0R" 

5100 O0T0 5120 

5110 PRINT "YOU RAN 0UT 0F MEDICAL SUPPLIES" 

5120 PRINT "YOU DIED 0F "I 

5130 IF K8-1 THEN 5160 

5140 PRINT -PNEUMONIA" 

5150 O0T0 5170 

5160 PRINT -INJURIES- 
SI 70 PRINT 

5160 PRINT "DUE T0 Y0UR UNF0RTUNATE SITUATION, THERE ARE A FEV" 

5190 PRINT "FORMALITIES VE MUST 60 THROUGH" 

5200 PRINT 

5210 PRINT -WOULD YOU LIKE A MINISTER?" 

5220 INPUT CS 

5230 PRINT "WOULD YOU LIKE A FANCY FUNERAL?" 

5240 INPUT CS 

5250 PRINT "WOULD YOU LIKE US TO INFORM YOUR NEXT OF KINT" 

5260 INPUT CS 

5270 IF CS--YES" THEN 5310 

5280 PRINT "BUT YOUR AUNT SADIE IN ST. L6U1S IS REALLY WORRIED ABOUT Y08 

8290 PRINT 

8300 GOTO 5330 

5310 PRINT "THAT WILL BE 64*50 FOR THE TELEGRAPH CHARGE." 

53r0 PRINT 

53 JO PRINT "WE THANK YOU FOR THIS INFORMATION AND VE ARE SORRY YOU" 

5340 PRINT -DIDN'T MAKE IT TO THE GREAT TERRITORY 8F OREGON" 

S3S0 PRINT "BETTER LUCK NEXT TIME" 

5360 PRINT 

5*»70 PRINT 

5380 PRINT TAB< 30>1 "SINCERELY" 

5390 PRINT 

5400 PRINT TABC17>*"THE OREGON CITY CHAMBER OF C6HHERCE" 

5410 STOP 

5420 REM •••FINAL TURN*** 

5430 F9«C2040-H2>/<H-M2> 

5440 F-F* C1-F9)*(8*5*E) 

5450 PRINT 

5460 REM ••BELLS IN LINES 5470, 5480*» 

5470 PRINT "YOU FINALLY ARRIVED AT OREGON CITY" 

5400 PRINT "AFTER 2040 LONG MILES HOORAY ! I 1! ! - 

5490 PRINT "A REAL PIONEER!" 

5500 PRINT 

5510 F9*INT(F9*14> 

5820 D3«D3*I4*F9 

5530 F9»P9*1 

5540 IF F9«8 THEN 5560 

5550 F9-F9-7 

5560 ON F9 GOTO 5570, 5590* 36! 0* 56 30* 5650* 5670* 5690 

5570 PRINT "MONDAY "/ 

5580 GOTO 5700 

5590 PRINT -TUESDAY "/ 

5600 GOTO 5700 

5610 PRINT -WEDNESDAY -J 

5620 GOTO 5700 

5630 PRINT -THURSDAY "J 

5640 GOTO 5700 

5650 PRINT -FRIDAY "I 

5660 GOTO 5700 

5670 PRINT -SATURDAY -J 

5680 GOTO 5700 

5690 PRINT -SUNDAY -J 

5700 IF D3»184 THEN 5740 




5710 

5720 

5730 

5740 

5750 

5760 

5770 

5700 

5790 

5000 

5810 

5820 

5830 

5840 

5850 

5860 

5870 

5880 

5890 

5900 

5910 

5920 

5930 

5940 

5950 

5960 

5970 

5900 

5990 

6000 

6010 

6020 

6030 

6040 

6050 

6060 

6070 

6000 

6090 

6100 

6110 

6120 

6130 

613! 

6132 

6133 

6134 

6135 

6136 

6137 

6140 

6150 

6160 

6170 

6180 

6190 

6200 

6810 

6220 

6230 

6240 

6230 

6255 

6257 

6260 

6270 

6280 

6290 

6300 

6310 

6320 

6330 

6340 

6350 

6360 

6370 

6380 

6390 

6400 

6410 

6420 

6430 

6440 

6450 

6460 

6470 

648 

6490 

6500 

6510 

6520 

6530 

6540 

6550 

6560 

6570 

6580 

6590 

6600 

6610 

6620 

6630 

6640 

6650 

6660 

6670 

6680 

6690 

6700 

6710 

6720 

6730 

6740 

6750 

6760 

6770 

6700 

6790 

6000 



5900 



IgVT 



SUPP. ~# -CASH- 



TABU 1> J -PRESIDENT 
TAB(17>i -HEARTIEST 



JAMES K. POLK SENDS YOU HIS" 
CONGRATULATION S" 



(LINES 6210-6240) 
FOR EXAMPLE* H-P 
THE 'ENTER' STATEMENT. 
HIGHLY SUSCEPT11 



D3-D3-93 
PRINT -JULY 
GOTO 5920 
IF D3M55 THEN 
D3-D3-124 

PRINT -AUGUST -1D3J- 
G0TO 5920 

IF D3MS3 THEN 5820 
D3-D3-155 

PRINT "SEPTEMBER m i D3J " 
GOTO 5920 
IF D3»216 THEN 
D3»D3-18S 
PRINT -OCTOBER 
GOTO 5920 
IF D3>246 THEN 
D3-D3-216 

PRINT "NOVEMBER -*D3J" 1047" 
GOTO 5920 
D3-D3-246 

PRINT "DECEMBER "JD3J" 1047" 
PRINT 

PRINT "FOOD"* "BULLETS"* "CLOTHING"* "MI SC- 
IF B»0 THEN 3960 
LET B-0 

IF C»0 THEN 5900 
LET C-0 

IF M1»0 THEN 6000 
LET MJ-0 
IF T»0 THEN 6020 
LET T«0 

IF F>0 THEN 6040 
LET F-0 

PRINT INT(F)*INT(B)*1NT(C)* INT(M1>* INT(T) 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 

PRINT TAB(U)I"AND WISHES YOU A PROSPEROUS LIFE AHEAD- 
PRINT 

PRINT TAB(22)1"AT YOUR NEW HOME- 
STOP 
REM ***SHOOTING SUB-ROUTINE*** 

THE METHOD OF TIMING THE SHOOTING 
WILL VARY FROM SYSTEM TO SYSTEM. 
USERS VI LL PROBABLY PREFER TO USE 
IF TIMING ON THE USER'S SYSTEM IS 

TO SYSTEM RESPONSE TINE* THE FORMULA IN LINE 6040 CAN 
BE TAILORED TO ACCOMODATE THIS BY EITHER INCREASING 
OR DECREASING THE 'SHOOTING' TIME RECORDED BY THE SYSTEM. 
SS(S> 
SS(1>>"BANG" 
SS(2>*"BLAM" 
SS<3>*-P0W- 
SSC4>*"VHAM" 
S6*INT< RND( - 1 >*4* 1 > 
PRINT -TYPE -1 SS(S6> 
B3 - CLK(0> 
INPUT CS 
Bl * CLK(O) 

B1-((B1-B3>*3600>-(D9-1> 
PRINT 

IF BI»0 THEN 6260 
B1»0 

IF CS-SSCS6) THEN 
Bl*9 
RETURN 

REM •••ILLNESS SUB- ROUTINE*** 
IF 100*RND<-1>«!0+3S*CE-1> THEN 6370 
IF 100*RND(-I><l00-<40/4**CE-l>> THEN 6410 
PRINT "SERIOUS ILLNESS— " 

PRINT -YOU MUST STOP FOR MEDICAL ATTENTION" 
Ml-Ml-10 
S4-1 
GOTO 6440 

PRINT -MILD ILLNESS MEDICINE USED" 

M*M-5 
Ml-Ml-2 
GOTO 6440 

PRINT -BAD ILLNESS— MEDICINE USED" 
N-H-5 
Ml-Ml-5 

IF H1«0 THEN 5110 
IF Ll*l THEN 4940 
GOTO 4710 

REM •••IDENDIFI CATION OF VARIABLES IN THE PROGRAM*** 
A ■ AMOUNT SPENT ON ANIMALS 
B - AMOUNT SPENT ON AMMUNITION 

Bl - ACTUAL RESPONSE TIME FOR INPUTTING "BANG" 
B3 • CLOCK TIME AT START OF INPUTTING "BANG" 
C - AMOUNT SPENT ON CLOTHING 

CI • FLAG FOR INSUFFICIENT CLOTHING IN COLD WEATHER 
CS • YES/NO RESPONSE TO QUESTIONS 
Dl ■ COUNTER IN GENERATING EVENTS 
TURN NUMBER FOR SETTING DATE 
CURRENT DATE 

CHOICE OF SHOOTING EXPERTISE 
CHOICE OF EATING 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
DIM 



6280 




REM 

REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
END 



D3 
D4 
D9 
E ■ 



LEVEL 



F « AMOUNT SPENT ON FOOD 

Fl ■ FLAG FOR CLEARING SOUTH PASS 

F2 - FLAG FOR CLEARING BLUE MOUNTAINS 

F9 • FRACTION OF 2 WEEKS TRAVELED ON FINAL TURN 

K8 - FLAG FOR INJURY 

LI • FLAG FOR BLIZZARD 

H ■ TOTAL MILEAGE WHOLE TRIP 

Ml • AMOUNT SPENT ON MISCELLANEOUS SUPPLIES 

H2 • TOTAL MILEAGE UP THROUGH PREVIOUS TURN 

M9 • FLAG FOR CLEARING SOUTH PASS IN SETTING MILEAGE 

P - AMOUNT SPENT ON ITEMS AT FORT 

Rl - RANDOM NUMBER IN CHOOSING EVENTS 

54 • FLAG FOR ILLNESS 

55 ■ ""HOSTILITY OF RIDERS"" FACTOR 

56 - SHOOTING WORD SELECTOR 

SS - VARIATIONS OF SHOOTING WORD 

T • CASH LEFT OVER AFTER INITIAL PURCHASES 

Tl • CHOICE OF TACTICS WHEN ATTACKED 

X • CHOICE OF ACTION FOR EACH TURN 

XI • FLAG FOR FORT OPTION 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



139 



Another new game from Creative Computing 




ART AUCTION 




C. William Engel 



Scenario 

In this simulation, you will be given an opportunity to 
buy and sell up to five paintings. The objective is to make a 
large profit by buying the paintings for as little as possible 
and selling them for as much as possible. 

In order to buy a painting, you must bid against a secret 
bid made by another buyer. When a painting is offered for 
sale, three numbers will be given that represent the mean 
and range of bids for this particular painting. For example, 
"200 300 400" indicates that the mean bid price for the 
painting is 300, and about 70% of the time the price will be 
between 200 and 400. (Note that higher priced paintings 
tend to have a larger range of prices.) 

After you buy your paintings, you will be given an 
opportunity to sell them. You will receive from one to five 
offers, but you do not know in advance how many offers 
will be made. The offers will be, on the average, 50% higher 
than the bids made during the buying phase. If you do not 
accept an offer, and it is the last one, then the offer will be 
automatically processed. Sometimes it will be wise to 
accept an offer that is less than the purchase price rather 
than gamble on a higher offer that does not materialize. 

When all of the paintings that you have bought have 
been sold, you will be given your total profit for all of the 
transactions. 



[This is one of ten games in "Stimulating Simulations," 
subtitled "Ten unique programs in BASIC for the 
computer hobbyist," published at $5.00 by Engel Enter- 
prises, P.O. Box 16612, Tampa, FL 33687, and reviewed in 
this issue.] 



MODIFICATIONS 
Minor 

1. Number of paintings — lines 10, 20, 100, 200 

2. Starting prices — line 30 

3. Price spread — lines 40, 50 

4. Built-in profit — lines 230, 250 

5. Error in price range — line 580 

6. Number of offers — line 220 
Major 

1. Have one or more of the paintings a forgery that is 
worth nothing. 

2. Have one or more of the paintings that have a low 
purchase price be very valuable. 

3. Have more opponents bid against you. 





Sample 


Run 


BUY PAINTING 1 






PRICES: 546 553 


560 


BUY PAINTING 5 


YOUR BID? 560 




PRICES: 274 346 417 


OPPONENT BID 565. 




YOUR BID? 350 


YOU WERE OUT BID. 




OPPONENT BID 311. 
YOU BOUGHT IT. 


BUY PAINTING 2 






PRICES: 336 449 


562 


SELL PAINTING 4 


YOUR BIO? 400 




YOU BOUGHT IT FOR 600. 


OPPONENT BID 440. 




AVERAGE OFFER IS 564. 


YOU WERE OUT BID. 




OFFER 1 IS 649. 
ACCEPT? Y 


BUY PAINTING 3 






PRICES: 213 288 


363 


SELL PAINTING 5 


YOUR BID? 300 




YOU BOUGHT IT FOR 350. 


OPPONENT BID 324 




AVERAGE OFFER IS 396. 


YOU WERE OUT BID. 




OFFER 1 IS 365. 
ACCEPT? N 


BUY PAINTING 4 






PRICES: 403 514 


625 


YOUR PROFIT IS 64. 


YOUR BID? 600 




PLAY AGAIN? 


OPPONENT BID 497. 






YOU BOUGHT IT. 






140 




CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Variables 




P(5) 

S<5) 

F(5) 

CB 

YB 

I.J.K 
P 
N 


Q 



Prices 

Price range 

Set flag 1f painting 1s bought 

Opponent's bid 

Your bid 

Indices 

Profit 

Number 

Dividend 

Quotient 




Flowchart 



Program Listing 



10 



140 



160 



180 



240 



270 



310 



© 



SET 

PRICES 

AND RANGES 



INPUT 
BID 




BUY 
PAINTING 



500 



PRINT 
OFFER 




-#— y 



5 

10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 

95 

100 

no 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 

195 
200 
210 
220 
230 

240 
250 

260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 



REM SET PRICES AND RANGES 

DIMP(5),S(5),F(5) 

FOR 1-1 TO 5 



P(I)-100+INT(900*RND(U) 

S(I)-INT(P(I)*RND(1)) 

IF P(I)<500 THEN S(I)«INT(P(I)*.7*RND(1)) 



F(D-0 
NEXT I 

REM BUY PAINTINGS 

FOR 1-1 TO 5 

GO SUB 500 

PRINT: PRINT "BUY PAINTING"; I:PRINT:PRINT 

PRINT "PRICES:"; INT(P(I)-.5*S(I)); P(I); INT(P(IK5*S(I)) 

PRINT: PRINT: INPUT "YOUR BID"; YB 

PRINT "OPPONENTS BID M ; CB; "." 

IF YB>CB THEN PRINT "YOU BOUGHT IT.": F(I)-YB: GO TO 180 

PRINT "YOU WERE OUT BID." 

NEXT I 

REM SELL PAINTINGS 

FOR I»1 TO 5 

IF F(I)«0 THEN 310 

FOR K-l TO INT(5*RND(1)) 

GO SUB 500: CB«CB*INT(10G*RND(1)) 

PRINT "SELL PAINTINGS"; I 

PRINT "YOU BOUGHT IT FOR"; F(I): PRINT "AVERAGE OFFER IS"; 

P(I)+50 

PRINT "OFFER"; K; "IS"; CB; "." 

INPUT "ACCEPT"; Y$ 

IF Y$-"Y" THEN 300 

NEXT K 

P-P+CB-F(I) 

NEXT I 

PRINT: PRINT "YOUR PROFIT IS"; P; "." 

INPUT "PLAY AGAIN"; YS 

IF Y$-"Y" THEN RUN 

END 



495 


REM NORMAL DISTRIBUTION SUBROUTINE 




500 


D-0 


510 
520 
530 


N-INT(65536*RND(1)) 


rUK J* I TO 10 

Q»INT(N/2) 


NORMAL 




540 


D-D*2*(N/2-Q) 


DISTRIBUTION 




550 


N-Q 


SUBROUTINE 




560 
570 


NEXT J 






CB-P(I)*S(I)*(D-8)/8 






580 


C6«CB+20*RND(1) 


590 


CB-INT(CB) 


600 


RETURN 



MAY/JUNE 1978 



141 




BLACK 



Jeff Kenton 



[In the Nov-Dec 1977 issue of Creative, we announced a 
contest to write the best BASIC version of the game "Black 
Box. " The following is the winning entry, submitted by Jeff 
Kenton, who gets the $25 prize. Special thanks to Jeff and 
to everyone else who submitted a program] 



yt %\ 30 ^ ie 1? % ?5 



1 






I 

1 



i* 












A 
5 
6 



i__r 







24 

12 

21 
20 
19 



lo II 12. ** ** *5 *<• 



Language: MITS 8K BASIC 

Description: Black Box is a computerized version of the 
game that appeared in the August 1977 issue of Games 
and Puzzles. The Black Box is an 8-by-8 square in which 
several atoms are hidden. The object of the game is to 
discover the positions of the atoms by projecting rays at 
them from the sides of the box and noticing how these rays 
are deflected, reflected, or absorbed. Rays enter the box 
across one of the four edges and travel horizontally or 
vertically. The entry points are numbered from 1 to 32, 
counterclockwise, starting at the top of the left edge. 

To play the game, you first specify how many atoms to 
place in the Black Box. Then you type in the point at which 
you send the ray into the box, and you are told whetherthe 
ray was absorbed or where it emerged. Type a zero to end 
the game and print the board. The path of the ray is 
governed by the following rules: 

(1) Rays that strike an atom directly are absorbed. 

(2) Rays that come within one square of an atom in a 
diagonal direction (so that they would pass next to the 
atom if they continued) are deflected by 90 degrees. 

(3) Rays aimed between two atoms one square apart are 
reflected. 

(4) Rays that enter on either side of an atom on the edge 
of the box are reflected. 

(5) Rays otherwise travel in straight lines. 

The game is pretty interesting with four or five atoms, 
but can get out of hand with too many more. Occasionally, 
an atom can be masked by others. This doesn't occur 
often, but sometimes the position is truly ambiguous 
(more often, there is only one place the atom can be). For 
competitive play, score one point for reflections and 
absorptions, two for rays which emerge from the box, and 
five points for each atom guessed incorrectly. 

Line 10 defines a random function in the range 1 to 8. 
Lines 100 to 140 set up a new board. Notice the empty cells 
surrounding the accessible board — these eliminate the 
need to check special conditions in most other parts of the 
program. Lines 200 to 280 accept a new ray and set up 
initial position (x,y) and velocity (u,v). Lines 300 to 460 



handle motion of the ray, discover if it has been absorbed 
or deflected, and change its position or velocity. Lines 500 
to 610 determine whether the ray is outside the box. If not, 
control returns to line 300, otherwise the result is printed, 
and a new ray is requested. Lines 700 to 730 print the 
board. 

This game can also run on your PET or TRS-80 with 
Level II BASIC. Try using your machine's special graphics 
for the display! Or have the computer keep track of the 
score. ■ 



Program Listing 



10 DEF FNR<Z>-INT<8*RND< 1>*1> 

100 PRINT •'NO. OF ATOMS"! I INPUT N 



Jeff Kenton, One Bacon St., Wellesley, MA 02181 



no 


FOR J-0 TO 9t FOR 1-0 TO 9t BU,J>- 


Ot NEXT I* J 


ISO 


FOR 1-1 TO N 




130 


X-FNR<l>t Y-FNRCDS IF B(X,Y)<>0 THEN 130 


140 


B(X»Y)-ll NEXT I 




200 


PRINT "RAY"*! INPUT Rt I F R< 1 THEN 


700 


210 


•N (R-1//8-M GOTO 250# 260* 270> 280 




220 


PRINT "ERROR" i GOTO 200 




250 


X-Ot Y«Rt U-lt V-Oi GOTO 300 




260 


X-R-81 Y-9t U-Ot V--1! GOTO 300 




270 


X-91 Y-85-RI U--lt V-Ot GOTO 300 




280 


X-33-RI Y-Ol U-Ot V-l 




300 


Xl-X+Ut Y1«Y*V 




310 


IF U»0 THEN X2-X1-1I X3-Xl*lt Y2-YH Y3-YH GOTO 330 


320 


Y2-Y1-1I Y3-Y1-UI X2-XH X3-X1 




330 


ON 6*B<Xl«Yl> + B<X2»y2) + 2*B<X3»Y3>-»l 


GOTO 400* 410* 420* 410 


340 


PRINT "ABSORBED"! GOTO 200 




400 


X-XU Y-Yl! GOTO 500 




410 


£•11 GOTO 450 




420 


I— 1 




450 


IF U»0 THEN U-Zl V-Ot GOTO 500 




460 


U-Ot V-Z 




500 


ON <X+15>/8 GOTO 5 50 • 520# 560 




510 


STOP 




520 


ON CY*15>/8 GOTO 570*300*580 




530 


STOP 




550 


Z-Y! GOTO 600 




560 


Z-25-YS GOTO 600 




570 


Z-33-XI GOTO 600 




580 


Z»8*X 




600 


IF Z-R THEN PRINT "REFLECTED"! GOTO 


200 


610 


PRINT "T0"*Zt GOTO 200 




700 


PRINT* FOR J-l TO 8i FOR I- I TO 8 




710 


IF B(I#J)-0 THEN PRINT " • "1 1 GOTO 


730 


720 


PRINT " *"i 




730 


NEXT It PRINT! NEXT Jt PRINT! GOTO 


100 


OK 







142 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




NO* OF ATOMS? A 



28 



Sample Run 



15 



10 



RAY? 
TO 3 
RAY? 
TO 8 
RAY? 
TO 31 
RAY? 6 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 13 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 29 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 12 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 5 
TO 30 
RAY? 23 
TO 25 
RAY? 



• •••••♦• 

• ••••*•• 

• ••£•••• 

• •#••••* 

NO* OF ATOMS? 5 

RAY? 18 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 26 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 2 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 10 
TO 31 
RAY? 13 
TO 7 
RAY? 25 
TO 24 
RAY? 21 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 3 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 16 
ABSORBED 

TO 7 
RAY? 25 
TO 24 
RAY? 21 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 3 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 16 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 15 
TO 8 
RAY? 20 



ABSORBED 
RAY? 28 
TO 5 
RAY? 30 
TO 11 
RAY? 1 
TO 27 
RAY? 4 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 

• •••••♦• 

• •••••♦• 
* • 

• ••••£•• 

NO* OF ATOMS? 5 

RAY? 2 
TO 29 
RAY? 26 
REFLECTED 
RAY? 15 
TO 27 
RAY? 5 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 10 
REFLECTED 
RAY? 31 
TO 18 
RAY? 19 
REFLECTED 
RAY? 20 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 21 
TO 14 
RAY? 13 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 12 
REFLECTED 
RAY? 11 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 32 
ABSORBED 
RAY? 



The All New! 



Personal & Small 
Business Computer 



EXHITORS: 

Coll Or Writ* For 
Space Details I 



Expo 




ATTENDEES: 

Sond For Your (leg- 
ist ration Kit Today! 



II 



South" 



May 19-21,1978, Exposition Park 
Orlando, Florida 

^Crowds * Sales * Exposure* 

Felsburg Associates, lnc.(30l) 262-0305 
P.O.Box 735. Bowie. Md.. 20715 



$19.95 $19.95 

FEED YOUR 

"C I computer 

2 GAMBLING GAMES 

7 FAMILY GAMES 

1 ARITHMETIC PRACTICE 

FOR CHILDREN 
1 ASCII CODES FOR PETS 

GRAPHICS (DISPLAY) 
1 RANDOM ART BY PET 
1 ADULT CONVERSATION 

PET LIKES EM 

and so will you! 
Send check or money order 

R.A. GATES 

P.O. BOX 756 

KENTFIELD, CA 

$19.95 94904 $19.95 

CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NO* OF ATOMS? 

BREAK IN 100 
OK 



MAY/JUNE 1 978 



143 





Index to Advertisers 



Reader 




Service No. Advertiser Page No. 


103 


Apple Computer Co. 


2 


132 


Byte Shop of San Jose 


61 




Chemical Dynamics Corp 


81 


162 


Component Sales 


25 


119 


Computalker Consultants 


9 


152 


Computer Components 


67 


133 


Computer Corner 


95 


135 


Computer Enterprises 


30 


116 


Computerfest 78 


77 


113 


Computerworld 


69 


136 


Computer Hardware Stores, Inc. 


61 


137 


Computer Mart of California 


80 


126 


Computer Mart of New York 


61 


154 


Computers Etc. 


95 


138 


Computers Plus, Inc. 


61 


139 


Corson Computer Corp. 


81 


124 


Creative Computing 75, 


112, 113 


102 


Cromemco 


1 


121 


Cybermate 


80 




Data General 


27 


123 


Electrolabs 


19 


115 


Electronic Systems 


71 


114 


E & L Instruments 


cm 


105 


Heath Co. 


14 


109 


Hobby World 


7 


112 


Jade Co. 


55 


110 


McGraw Hill Book Company 


32a, 33 


159 


Micro Diversions 


63 


127 


Micro Logistics 


116 


122 


Micro-Puzzles 


120 


108 


Midwest Scientific Instruments 


11 


106 


Miniterm Associates 


41 


142 


Netronics R&D Ltd. 


17 


161 


Newtech Computer Systems 


81 


117 


OK Machine and Tool Company 


4 


118 


Osborne & Associates 


87 


143 


Personal Computer Corp. 


61 


156 


Personal Computing Fair 78 


118 




Polymorphic Systems 


CIV 


107 


Processor Technology 


48,49 




Radio Shack 


21 


157 


R. A. Gates 


143 




Small Business Expo 


143 


164 


Soroc Technology 


35 


101 


Southwest Technical Products Co. 


CM 


128 


Sybex 


60 


120 


Tarbell Electronics 


78 


111 


Technical Design Labs 


50, 51 


145 


Telcom 


116 


146 


The Electronics Place 


61 


140 


Virginia Home Computer Center 


61 


147 


Wameco, Inc. 


78,79 


148 


Xybex 


79 



Information BUB 



At the right price to you, the reader (namely a 13$ 
stamp), Creative Computing is providing a new 
service to help you get all the computer product and 
service information for which you used to have to 
spend laborious time writing to each company, 
finding misplaced stamps, and looking up ad- 
dresses. No more! You need only circle the numbers 
on the reader service card to the right that corre 
spond to the companies from which you'd like more 
information, find one stamp, drop it in the mail, and 
wait for your postman. Creative Computing does the 
rest. 

We hope this new service helps us too. Increasing 
numbers of subscribers are writing Creative Com- 
puting asking us for information on new products 
and services they read about each issue. It's 
impossible for us to stock manufacturer literature, 
especially in the microcomputer field where state- 
of-the-art development is so rapid. Instead, we're 
making it easy for you to get material directly from 
the sources involved. 

Creative Computing is pleased to bring you this 
speedy, economical way to get information and 
hopes you feel it is a worthwhile addition t o w 
everybody's favorite magazine. |^^ 

Coming in July 

• Special Section on Interfacing to the Outside World. 

Now that you've learned how to program your computer, 
you may be considering using it for something other than 
games, CAI, or whatever. The problem is: how do you 
connect it to devices (and where do you get them?) that 
will control external equipment, or read in information 
from the outside world? We tell you how. 

• Profile of PET. Here's a well-balanced review of 
Commodore's computer, written by a college professor 
with no ax to grind, with just the right mix of praise and 
criticism. No hard knocks, no fluff, just telling it like it is, 
with comments on the BASIC, graphics, cursor control, 
cassette recorder, keyboard, transfer rate, and all the 
other features you'll want an unbiased opinion on. 

• Business Computing: Word Processing. Whether you 
only want to automate the writing of standard letters, or 
wish to get into extensive text control, a word-processing 
program or system may be just what you're looking for. 
The third part of this new series on business computing 
looks at what's available from several sources: separate 
packages, complete hardware-and-software systems 
from both manufacturers and computer stores, plus an 
independent overview offering a bird's eye view of the 
whole field. 

• Games, Games, Games. As usual, a couple of new 
games you'll want to put into your computer right away. 
Complete listings, runs and descriptions, of course. 

• 3D Computer Output. ASPEX is a program that makes 
three-dimensional drawings of certain types of surfaces. It 
allows you to draw the surface from any angle around and 
above the surface, or to look at only selected portions in 
close-up views. And when it draws the surface, it removes 
any parts of it that are hidden by other parts of the surface. 

• Proving Theorems with EUCLID. Written for high- 
school geometry courses, the EUCLID program permits 
students to construct proofs in Extended BASIC. This is 
not a print-from-DATA-lines program; the proof 
statements are synthesized from given assumptions by the 
program, and are stored on initially empty random-access 
files. Think it can't be done? Then see the July-August 
issue of Creative Computing. 



144 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



a 
a 
re 



8 

c 

© 

a 

E 
o 
u 



00 



X 

o 

r> 

o» 

c 

s 

o 
© 

o 

>s 

d 

c 
o 

© 

3 

a 



* s 

© a ^ 

I ! i 

(A 



© 

E 
o 

sz 

D 
o 



o 
o 
c 
o 
CA 

D 



Id 

CO 

Q. < 



3 
O 

>s 

o 
•o 

E 
© 

>s 
(A 

© 

3 

a 

E 
o 
u 

a> 

E 
o 

c 



co 

c 
o 

(A 



o — 

S © 

c o 

c -* 

i s 

CL ^ 



(0 



© I 

>» -o a> 

CA X ^* 

© CO >» 

* E " 

(0 z. >. 

.c co 5* 

c « P. 

2 5 c 

3 a 5 

O -C Q. 

DDD 

*- cm co 



c 

3 

a 

E 
o 
o 

© 

> 
s 

(0 

© 
O 

o 

>» 

Q. 
O 

o 

(A 

z 

T3 
CO 

a> 



I 



© 

o 

E 

□ 



0) 

© 



D 
co 



O 4) 



© D 



© 
a 



CD 



re 

E 

o 

I 



O 






C\i 



© - 
o o 

_ o 



CD c 5 

co co 

DD 

CO C© 



en o> 
cm in 

66 

C\J UO 



eg m 



o 

CM 

© x» 

c 6 

3 * 

DD 



© 

c 
o 



c x 
o ■ 



©■ 



CO 0) 

o « £ 

«a ^ .s 

4> 2: o 
o 7 3 

aiiu 



c 
© 

E 

c 

© m 

si 

o o 



15 

DC 

a 



DD 5 



© 
O 

a 

E 
© 

3 a> 

o £ 

J 3 

CO © 

© ™ 

I a 

C CO 



LU 



11 

© fi a 

y t « 

2 « © 
a. o cr 

DDD 

D O TJ 



© 
o 

c c 

© o 

iX co 

-^ tT 
o» o 

c a 

1 1 

CD H- 



© 

c 
o 



moo 
cm co o 

6 uS o' 

CM CM CO 

DDD 



«A 
© 

E 

o 
o 

c 

« 

3 
C 
C 

a 

ao s 



© — 



3 

o 



© IT) O 
■D ^- CM 

DDD 

«- CM CO 



CO 

3 
O) 

3 

< 

a 

X 

LU 

00 

a> 

c 

3 

cu 



a. 

CO 

o_^ 

OX 



o 



JS co 

U Z 



Q. 
N 



M 

•r -o .*= * 
»- < O co 



c 
o 

re 
E 
o 

«A 



3 
O 

>. 

o 



1! 

E 

3 
C 

.C 

u 
re 
© 

© 

o 

u 

© 

(A 

re 
© 



omoifiQ 

CO CO <7> CD O 

»- *- «- ^- C\j 


m o m o m 

O »- »- CM CM 
CM C\J CM CM CM 


o m o m o 
co co ^ ^ m 

CM CM CM CM CM 


CD ^ O) ^ CT> 
r~^ CO CO CD CD 


^ CD ^T CD 'tt 

OOt-t-CM 
CM CM CM CM CM 


CD ^J CD ^t CD 
CM CO CO ^r TT 
CM CM CM CM CM 


00 CO CO CO CO 
h^ CO CO CD CD 


CO CO CO CO CO 
CM CM CM CM CM 


00 CO 00 CO CO 
CM CO CO ^J- n 
CM CM CM CM CM 


r*. cm r^ ogrv. 
r*- co co CD cd 


CM r^ CM t^ CM 
OO'-'-M 
CM CM CM CM CM 


f-- cm r^ cm r- 

CM CO CO Tf ^ 
CM CM CM CM CM 


<o *- iO »— <p 

f*- CO CO CD CD 


»- cp *- co^- 

OO »- y- CM 
CM CM CM CM CM 


(O'-tD'-lO 
CM CO CO ^ Tt 
CM CM CM CM CM 


uo o ao o in 

O r- t- CM CM 


om o mo 
co co ^- ^ m 


m o m o m 


^r CD ^ CD ^T 

OOf---N 


CD ^ CD ^T CD 
CM CO CO ^J- ^T 


•<T CD ^r oo •*»• 
m m co co r**- 


CO CO CO CO CO 

OOf-W 


CO CO CO CO CO 
CM CO CO ^J- •^ > 


CO 00 CO CO CO 


cm r- cm r- cm 

OO t- »- CM 


r«- cm r»- cm r^ 
cm co co ^- ^r 


cm r^ cm r>- cm 

^ifilOlDS 


OO'-'-cg 


to t- m »- m 
cm co co ^ "^ 


•- CO »- CO *- 
m m co co r^ 



0) 




■ 


"O 


k. 


k. 


(A 


© 




L 


t. 


u 


J 


3 


r 




3 
O 


re 




o 








u 




> 


© 

> 


x- 




> 


.c 


3 

■o 


c 


6S 


u 

re 




(A 


*^ 


o 






♦* 






c 


w 


™- 


re 


© 




I 
*- 


o 


a 


u. 


£. 


■D 




3 


(A 


re 

*^- 
o 




+* 






U 


F 


3 

o 


(A 
0) 


3 
O 

> 




-I 




X 


o 






c 


3 


© 


re 


Si 


3 




03 


C 


X3 


c 


(1) 


O 




E 


© 


E 

3 
C 


o 


r 


X 




3 
Q 


« 


re 
E 


O 


re 

c 
o 




^2 

C 


U 


© 


k. 


0) 






o 

> 


X 

o 


o 

c 


u 


re 

E 


'■ 


o 


n 


** 


M 


IA 
(A 


o 


b 


re 


E 


■o 


c 
re 


0) 


c 


-o 


E 
o 


<A 

c 


L. 

o 

a 

(A 


3 


■D 
re 


3 


c 
re 

a. 


c 


"D 


© 


O 


"O 


a 


F 


■ — 


© 


k_ 


>■ 


c 


© 


re 


cr. 
o 


(A 

© 

© 


o 

u 

re 

r 


« 

> 


re 
© 

E 

re 


© 

E 
o 


<A 

re 


f- 




♦< 


IA 


c 


(A 


o 




OTI 



O 

o 

3 
- O 

o* 



9. 



2. O Si. 

a 

© 

3 

oi 2 *© 



53 

5©, 





tn 


"0 


1 


Q) 


0) 


m 


3 


o 

CD 



^^^^r ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^p- ^^^^ ^^7 ^^^p^ ^^^v 



Go Bugs 

Between the Covers. 



Between the covers of the 
Bug book® Library, you'll find the 
most comprehensive and au- 
thoritative tutorials and reference 
works in electronics today. 
Written for both hobbyist and pro- 
fessional, 23 detailed, illustrated 
volumes carry you through the 
training ground of basic elec- 
tronics, starting at the most 
elementary level all the way to 
sophisticated techniques with 
linear circuitry and the 8080A 



Microprocessor. Learn funda- 
mental circuit designing by 
implementing computer controls 
of instrumentation. These texts, 
manuals and reference series 
have already become indis- 
pensable to over 200,000 buyers 

Uncover the world of elec- 
tronics. Send for our free Bug- 
works® catalog with all of the 
Bugbooks described — the first 
and last words in electronics 
today. 



lF~~~l 

|L_!_J 

] icxjcetxx* 







TheDewgn 
Operational 



I 

VI KMV 

ol • *» 

I MM 

MM* 



a HMOMM 



m4 

*C« ItMWNi 



bugbooovj 
II 




the 

BUGBOOCm 
II 



wsimomtumm mttDnaua 



• D M Pmm mwa with 

»• OWKT«t CWCWTS 




D Please send me more information and 
specific descriptions of each book in 
your library. 

Name 




□ G 

n 



Address 



E&L INSTRUMENTS, INC. 

61 First Street, Derby. Conn 06418 
(203) 735-8774 Telex No. 96 3536 




Zip 



Phone 





CIRCLE 114 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




r 



-r 



The Computer for the Professional 



The 8813 was built with you, the professional, in mind. 

It quickly and easily processes cost estimates, payrolls, 
accounts, inventory, patient/ client records and much 
more. You can write reports, briefs, and proposals on 

the 8813's typewriter keyboard, see them on the video 
screen, and instantly correct, revise, or print them. 

Using the 8813, one person can process what would 

normally require many secretaries, several bookkeepers, 

and a great deal of time. And data storage takes a small 

fraction of the space used by previous methods. 



You don't need to learn complicated computer lan- 
guages. The 8813 understands commands in English. If 
you want to write your own programs, the 8813 includes a 
simple computer language, BASIC, that you can master in 
a few days. The 8813 slashes the professional's overhead. 
It's»a powerful time and money-saving ally. Prices for 
complete systems including printer start at less than $8,000. 

See the 8813 at your local dealer or contact PolyMorphic 
Systems, 460 Ward Drive, Santa Barbara, California, 931 1 1 , 
(805) 967-0468, for the name of the dealer nearest you. 



PolyMorphic 
Systems